Classroom Assessment: Principles And Practice For Effective Standards-based Instruction

Paperback | March 24, 2006

byJames H. McMillan

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The 4th edition of McMillan, Classroom Assessment , has the essentials teachers should know when they are in the field. -Saramma T. Mathew, Troy University Classroom Assessment provides prospective and current teachers with a concise, non-technical, and practical guide to conducting a full range of high-quality classroom assessments. The text emphasizes assessment in the context of the realities of teaching and teacher decision-making in an era of standards-based education. Assessment methodsare integrated with instruction and presented according to when teachers evaluate students (before, during, and after an instructional unit), the learning targets that are measured, and standards emphasized in state-widetesting. There is considerable emphasis on the nature of learning targets and how different assessments are most appropriate for different targets. For each assessment technique, suggestions for effective practice are presented with examples, case studies, and teacher interviews. New to ThisEdition Shows through Teacher s Corner segments how actual teachers apply principles in their classrooms so that students can readily transfer lessons to actions Provides expanded coverage of formative assessment and the concept of alignment of classroom assessments with large-scale assessments and standards to meet current classroom needs Gives more comprehensive coverage of large-scale testing for accountability and the role of state standards in influencing classroom assessment Emphasizes thedifference between assessment of learning and assessment for learning to illustrate how assessment affects lessons and daily activity Includes new and extensive treatment of the role of student motivation and the effect of feedback and praise on motivation Has an Instructor s Manual/Test Bank and Companion Website with additional resources available online by contacting your local representative Package this text with [Insert MyLabSchool Logo] a powerful set of online tools that bring the classroom to life! Visit for more information!

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The 4th edition of McMillan, Classroom Assessment , has the essentials teachers should know when they are in the field. -Saramma T. Mathew, Troy University Classroom Assessment provides prospective and current teachers with a concise, non-technical, and practical guide to conducting a full range of high-quality classroom assessments. T...

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“The 4th edition of McMillan, Classroom Assessment, has the essentials teachers should know when they are in the field.” —Saramma T. Mathew, Troy University Classroom Assessment provides prospective and current teachers with a concise, non-technical, and practical guide to conducting a full range of high-quality classroom asses...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:464 pages, 9.18 × 6.96 × 0.94 inPublished:March 24, 2006Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0205485847

ISBN - 13:9780205485840

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Each chapter concludes with “Summary,” “Self- Instructional Review Exercises,” “Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises,” and “Suggestions for Action-Research.”


1. The Role of Assessment in Teaching.


Integrating Instruction and Assessment.

The Realities of Teaching.

Instructional Decision-Making and Assessment.

What Is Classroom Assessment?





Research on Learning, Motivation, Instruction, and Curriculum: Implications for Assessment.

Recent Trends in Classroom Assessment.


Teachers' Classroom Assessment and Grading Practices Decision-Making.

Assessment Standards for Teachers.

2. Establishing Learning Targets.


What Are Learning Targets?

Educational Goals.


Standards-Based Education.



Learning Targets.

Types of Learning Targets.

Knowledge and Simple Understanding Learning Targets.

Deep Understanding and Reasoning Learning Targets.

Skill Learning Targets.

 Product Learning Targets.

Affective Learning Targets.

Sources of Learning Targets.

Bloom's Taxonomy of Objectives

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Objectives. 

Professional Preparation.


Existing Lists of Objectives.

National Standards.

Criteria for Selecting Learning Targets.

3. Establishing High Quality Classroom Assessments.


What Is High Quality Classroom Assessment?

Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets.

Appropriateness of Assessment Methods.

Types of Assessment Methods.

Matching Targets with Methods.


What Is a Valid Assessment?

How Is Validity Determined?


What is a Reliable Score?

Assessment Error.

How is Reliability Determined?

Sources of Reliability.

Evidence Based on Stability. 

Evidence Based on  Equivalent Forms. 

Evidence Based on Internal Consistency.

Evidence Based on Decision Consistency.

Factors Influencing Reliablity Estimates.


Student Knowledge of Learning Tasks and Assessments. Opportunity to Learn. Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills. Avoiding Stereotypes. Avoiding Bias in Assessment Tasks and Procedures. Accommodating Special Needs.

Positive Consequences.

Positive Consequences on Students. Positive Consequences on Teachers.

Practicality and Efficiency.

Teacher Familiarity with the Method.

Time Required.

Complexity of Administration.

Ease of Scoring.

Ease of Interpretation.



4. Assessment Prior to Instruction.

Before School Begins: Learning About Your Students.

School Records.

Norm-Referenced Standardized Test Scores.

After the First Week: Now What Do You Know about Your Students?

Informal Observation.

Structured Exercises.


Teacher Expectations.

High Quality Pre-Instructional Assessment.

Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets.

Appropriateness of Assessment Methods.




Positive Consequences.

Practicality and Efficiency.


5. Assessing Student Progress during Instruction.


Formative and Summative Assessment.

Informal Observation.

Assessing Nonverbal Behavior. 

Facial Expressions.  Body Language.  Gestures.

Assessing Voice-Related Cues.

Sources of Error in Informal Observation.

Using Oral Questions to Assess Student Progress.

Purposes of Questions.

Characteristics of Effective

Questioning to Assess Student Progress.


Using Homework, In-Class Assignments, and Quizzes.


In-Class Assignments


Providing Feedback and Praise.

Characteristics of Effective Feedback.

Characteristics of Effective Praise.


Student Self-Assessment.


6. Completion, Short Answer, and Selected-Response Items: Assessing Knowledge and Simple Understanding.


Preparing for Summative Assessment.

Representative Sampling.

Length and Number of Assessments.

Use of Assessments Provided by Textbook and Test Publishers.

Preparing Students for Summative Assessments.

Scheduling the Summative Assessment.

When Summative Assessments Should Be Constructed.

Types of Knowledge and Simple Understanding Targets.

Knowledge Representation. Declarative Knowledge and Understanding. Procedural Knowledge and Understanding.

Assessing Knowledge.

Completion and Short-Answer Items.

Matching Items.

True-False and Other Binary-Choice Items.

Multiple-Choice Items.

Assessing Simple Understanding: Comprehension and Application.

Assessing Comprehension.

Assessing Application.

Putting Tests Together.

Preparing Test Directions.

Arranging Items.

Physical Layout of the Test.


7. Selected-Response, Short-Answer, and Essay Items: Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning


What is Deep Understanding?


What Are Reasoning Skills?

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain

Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy

Ennis’s Taxonomy of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities

Quellmatz and Hoskyn’s Framework for Reasoning Strategies


Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning

Short-Answer and Selected-Response Items

Essay Items

8. Performance Assessment: Assessing Deep Understanding, Reasoning, and Skill.

What Is Performance-Based Assessment?

Strengths and Limitations of Performance Assessments


Learning Targets for Performance Assessments

Deep Understanding




Constructing Performance Tasks.

Restricted- and Extended-Type Performance Tasks.

Performance Task Descriptions and Contexts.

Performance Task Question or Prompt.

Criteria and Rubrics.

Performance Criteria.

Rating Scales.



9. Portfolios: Assessing Understanding, Reasoning, Skills, and Products.


What Are Portfolios?



Planning for Portfolio Assessment.


Identify Physical Structure.

Determine Sources of Content.

Determine Student Self-Reflective Guidelines and Scoring Criteria.

Implementing Portfolio Assessment.

Review with Students.

Supplying Portfolio Content.

Student Self-Evaluations.

Teacher Evaluation.

Student-Teacher Conferences.


10. Assessing Affective Traits and Dispositions.


Are Affective Targets Important?

What Are Affective Traits and Learning Targets?

Attitude Targets.

Value Targets.

Motivation Targets.

Academic Self-Concept Targets.

Social Relationship Targets.

Classroom Environment Targets.

Affective Domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

Methods of Assessing Affective Targets.

Teacher Observation.

Student Self-Report. Peer Ratings.

Which Method or Combination of Methods Should I Use?

Assuring Anonymity.


11. Assessing Students With Special Needs in Inclusive Settings.


Legal Mandates.

Assessing Students for Identification.

Steps Prior to Identification.


Limited —English-Proficient Students.

Assessment Problems Encountered by Students with Special Needs.

Comprehension Difficulties.

Auditory Difficulties.

Visual Difficulties.

Time Constraint Difficulties.



Variability of Behavior.

Assessment Accommodations.

Adaptations in Test Directions and Construction.

Adaptations in Test Administration.

Adaptations in Testing Site.

Grading Accommodations.

Reporting Accommodations.

12. Grading and Reporting Student Performance.


Teachers' Judgments in Grading.

Functions of Marking and Grading

Providing Feedback

Incorporating Factors Other Than Performance

Basis of Comparison



Approaches to Marking and Grading

Letter Grades

Percentage Correct




Written Descriptions

Determining Report Card Grades.

Select What to Include in the Final Grade.

Select Weights for Each Assessment.

Combining Different Scores and Grades.

Suggestions for Fair Grading.


Reporting Student Progress to Parents.

Report Cards.

Written Information.

Parent-Teacher Conferences.

Student-Led Conferences.


13. Administering and Interpreting Standardized Tests.


Fundamental Descriptive Statistics.

Frequency Distributions.

Measures of Central Tendency.

Measures of Variability.

Measures of Relationship.

Standard Scores.

Grade Equivalents.

Types of Derived Standardized Test Scores.

Standard Scores.

Grade Equivalent Scores.


Interpretating Standardized Tests.

Standard Error Measurement. 

Interpretating of Norm-Referenced Standardized Tests.

Criterion-Referenced Interpretations.

Understanding Standardized Test Score Reports.

Interpreting Test Reports for Parents.

Preparing Students for Taking Standardized Tests.


Administering Standardized Tests.



Appendix A: National Content Standards Projects.

Appendix B: The Scope of Teachers' Professional Role and Responsibilities for Student Assessment.

Appendix C: Software Packages for Grading and Item Banking.

Appendix D: Glossary.