Cleanrooms: Facilities And Practices by Michael KozickiCleanrooms: Facilities And Practices by Michael Kozicki

Cleanrooms: Facilities And Practices

byMichael Kozicki

Paperback | April 11, 2012

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In writing this book, our goal was to produce a much needed teaching and reference text with a fresh approach to c1eanroom technology. The most obvious technological reason for bringing this book into being is that c1ean­ rooms have become vital to the manufacture and development of high­ technology products in both the commercial and military sectors, and there­ fore people have to develop an understanding of them. Examples of c1ean­ room applications include the manufacture of integrated circuits and other electronic components, preciSion mechanical assemblies, computer disks and drives, compact disks, optical components, medical implants and prostheses, pharmaceuticals and biochemicals, and so on. The book is written for anyone who is currently involved, or intends to become involved, with c1eanrooms. We intend it to be used by a wide range of professional groups including process engineers, production engineers, plant mechanical and electrical engineers, research engineers and scientists, managers, and so on. In addition, we believe it will be beneficial to those who design, build, service, and supply c1eanrooms, and may be used as a training aid for students who intend to pursue a career involving controlled environments and others such as c1eanroom operators and maintenance staff. We have attempted to steer clear of complex theory, which may be pursued in many other specialist texts, and keep the book as understandable and applicable as possible.
Title:Cleanrooms: Facilities And PracticesFormat:PaperbackDimensions:374 pages, 22.9 × 15.2 × 1.73 inPublished:April 11, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401179522

ISBN - 13:9789401179522

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Cleanroom Technology.- The Need for Cleanrooms.- The Contaminated World.- Manufacturing Yield and Product Reliability.- An Overview of Semiconductor Technology.- History.- Integration.- Yield and Reliability in Semiconductor Processing.- Other Cleanroom Applications.- The Impact of Cleanroom Technology.- 2. Microcontamination.- Types of Contamination.- Organic and Inorganic Substances.- Airborne Particulates.- Gases and Vapors.- Contamination in Liquids.- Sources of Contamination.- External Natural Sources.- External Industrial Sources.- Personnel.- Equipment and Facilities.- Production Materials and Processes.- Improper Work Practices.- Effects of Contamination.- Circuit Yield and Reliability.- Mechanical Breakdown.- Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Problems.- Relating Product Health to Work Force Health.- Summary.- 3. Controlled Environment Concepts.- Performance Considerations.- Cleanroom Parameters.- Ideal vs. the Real World.- Performance Standards.- Particulate Standards.- Gas and Vapor Standards.- Parameter Measurement.- Microscopic Techniques.- Light-scattering Techniques.- Other Detection Methods.- Contamination Identification.- Monitoring.- Other Parameters.- Summary.- 4. Creating Clean Areas.- Construction Materials and Techniques.- Basic Material Properties.- Wall Materials.- Floors.- Ceiling Systems.- Building Techniques.- Air Filtration.- Basic Air Filtration Theory.- Gas and Vapor Removal.- Other Contamination Reduction Techniques.- Practical Filtration Problems.- Airflow.- Turbulent Flow.- Laminar or Unidirectional Flow.- Pressurization.- Equipment and Material Decontamination.- Bringing Items into the Cleanroom.- Cleaning Techniques.- New Cleaning Technologies.- Summary.- 5. Cleanroom Layout.- Mixed Flow Rooms.- Air Delivery.- Air Return.- Local Unidirectional Flow.- Fan Units.- Workstations.- Spot VLF.- Modular Cleanrooms.- Self-Contained Systems.- Retrofit Systems.- Tunnel Cleanrooms.- Tunnel Layout.- Service Chase Configurations.- Air Supply and Zoning.- Total Vertical Laminar Flow.- Horizontal Laminar Flow.- Process Equipment.- Equipment Integration.- Services.- Designing for Cleanroom Class.- Determining Class Requirements.- Lower-, Middle-, and Upper-class Rooms.- Cleanroom Models.- Summary.- 6. Preconditioning, Control, and Static.- Air Handling Systems.- System Configurations.- Prefiltration.- Heating and Cooling.- Humidity Control.- Fans and Air Control.- Control Systems.- Controlled Parameters.- Types of Control.- Static.- Effects of Static Charge.- Sources and Detection of Charge.- Reduction by Ionizers.- Reduction by Other Means.- Summary.- 7. Site and Structural Considerations.- Vibration.- Effects of Vibration.- External Sources.- Internal Sources.- Site Selection.- Structure.- Foundations.- Reducing Vibration.- Floor Isolation.- Plant Layout.- Internal Vibration Engineering.- Plant Isolation.- Sensitive Equipment.- Vibration Practices.- Summary.- 8. Cleanrooms, Codes, and Legislation.- Principal Codes.- Building Codes.- Fire Codes.- Other Code Requirements.- Fire Protection.- Fire Systems.- Recirculation of Contaminants.- Smoke Removal.- Legislation.- Summary.- 9. Ultrapure Water.- The Need for Ultrapure Water.- Constituents of Raw Water.- Sources of Water.- Inorganic Materials.- Organic Materials.- Micro-organisms.- Purification Techniques.- Water Purification.- Deionization.- Reverse Osmosis.- Filtration.- Measurement Techniques.- RO/DI System Configurations.- Typical System Configuration.- Point of Use.- System Materials.- Operational Considerations.- Recirculation.- Changeouers.- Biocidal Treatments.- Operational Problems-Examples.- Summary.- 10. Production Materials.- Gases.- Bulk Gas Storage and Distribution.- Cylinder Gas Use.- Monitoring and Cleaning Processes Gases.- Safety Aspects of Process Gas Systems.- Hazardous Gas Detection.- Wet Chemicals.- Bulk Chemical Storage and Distribution.- Bottled Chemical Use.- Monitoring and Cleaning Process Chemicals.- Spill Control.- Handling Other Materials.- Microcontamination Control for Solid Surfaces.- Safety Aspects of Other Materials.- Summary.- 11. Personnel and Contamination.- Apparel.- Garment Materials.- Suit Styles.- Gloves and Skin Coatings.- Facemasks.- Particle Dispersion and Apparel.- Laundering Practices.- Garment Static Control.- Advanced Suit Concepts.- Use of Apparel.- Changing Room Layout.- Garment Storage and Monitoring.- Changing Procedures.- Shoe Cleaning and Air Showers.- Work Practices.- Personnel Motivation and Training.- General Microcontamination Practices.- Cleaning the Cleanroom and Cleanroom Wipers.- Worker Stress and Related Problems.- Summary.- 12. Safety Issues.- Properties of Hazardous Production Materials.- Hazard Properties.- Basic Toxicology.- Effects of Common HPMs.- Cleanroom Safety Practices.- The Safety Team.- Formulating Regulations.- Safety Training.- Exposure Monitoring.- General Safety Practices.- Equipment Layout for Safety.- Maintenance Safety.- Emergency Response.- Safety Equipment.- Protective Clothing.- Personal Protection Systems.- Handling Hazardous Production Materials.- Safety Controls.- Gas Safety Revisited.- Wet Chemical Safety Revisited.- Disposal.- Summary.- 13. The Future of Controlled Environments.- Advanced Cleanroom Concepts.- Enclosed Transfer Systems.- Robotics and Automation.- In-situ Processing.- Epilog-The Cleanroom as a System.- Appendix 1 Federal Standard 209D.- Appendix 2 Simplified Cleanroom Certification Procedure.- Appendix 3 Program and Sample Output.