CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers: Interfaces for Ultra-Low Voltage Energy Harvesting by Dominic MaurathCMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers: Interfaces for Ultra-Low Voltage Energy Harvesting by Dominic Maurath

CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers: Interfaces for Ultra-Low Voltage Energy…

byDominic Maurath, Yiannos Manoli

Hardcover | September 26, 2014

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Chip-integrated power management solutions are a must for ultra-low power systems. This enables not only the optimization of innovative sensor applications. It is also essential for integration and miniaturization of energy harvesting supply strategies of portable and autonomous monitoring systems.

The book particularly addresses interfaces for energy harvesting, which are the key element to connect micro transducers to energy storage elements. Main features of the book are:

- A comprehensive technology and application review, basics on transducer mechanics, fundamental circuit and control design, prototyping and testing, up to sensor system supply and applications.

- Novel interfacing concepts - including active rectifiers, MPPT methods for efficient tracking of DC as well as AC sources, and a fully-integrated charge pump for efficient maximum AC power tracking at sub-100µW ultra-low power levels. The chips achieve one of widest presented operational voltage range in standard CMOS technology: 0.44V to over 4.1V.

- Two special chapters on analog circuit design - it studies benefits and obstacles on implemented chip prototypes with three goals: ultra- low power, wide supply voltage range, and integration with standard technologies. Alternative design approaches are pursued using bulk-input transistor stages in forward-bias operation for amplifiers, modulators, and references.

- Comprehensive Appendix - with additional fundamental analysis, design and scaling guidelines, circuit implementation tables and dimensions, schematics, source code listings, bill of material, etc.

The discussed prototypes and given design guidelines are tested with real vibration transducer devices. The intended readership is graduate students in advanced courses, academics and lecturers, R&D engineers.
Dominic Maurath received the Dipl.-Ing. (FH) degree in sensor systems technology from the University of Applied Science, Karlsruhe, Germany, in 2004. Thereafter, he was with the Energy Harvesting Systems Group of HSG-IMIT, which he left in 2007 to join The DFG Research Training Program for Micro Energy Harvesting at the University of F...
Title:CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers: Interfaces for Ultra-Low Voltage Energy…Format:HardcoverDimensions:300 pagesPublished:September 26, 2014Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401792712

ISBN - 13:9789401792714

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Table of Contents

Foreword; Prof. Eduard Alrcon (UPC BarcelonaTech).


Part I Application Background and Energy Harvester Interfacing.

1 Introduction.
1.1 Motivation - Benefit of a Smart Environment. 1.2 Vision - Usage of Ambient Energy. 1.3 Innovation - Efficient Energy-Aware Operation. 1.4 Contribution of this book. 1.5 Organization of this book. References.

2 Basic Transducer Interfacing Concepts.
2.1 Harvesting and Power Processing Chain. 2.2 Interfacing of Vibrational Driven Transducers. 2.3 Dynamic Sliding Load Window MPPT. 2.4 Power Processing Modules. 2.5 Summary on Transducer Interface Requirements. References.

Part II Circuits and Functional Blocks.

3 Low-Voltage CMOS Design Fundamentals.
3.1 Basics on Low-Voltage MOSFET Operation. 3.2 Power-Switch Transistor Design. References.

4 0.5-V Low-Power Analog Circuits.
4.1 Low-Voltage Amplifiers. 4.2 Multi-Stage Amplifier without Tail Current Sources. 4.3 0.5V Line Regulation. 4.4 Biasing and Voltage Reference. 4.5 Comparators. 4.6 Timing Control. References.

Part III Prototype Development and Circuit Integration.

5 Low-Voltage Rectification of High-resistive Sources.
5.1 Review on Low-Voltage Rectification. 5.2 Test and Measurement Setup. 5.3 Active Rectification of High-Impedance Sources. 5.4 Active Voltage Doubler Rectifier. References.

6 Input Load Adapting Charge Pump Interface. 6.1 Charge Pump Review. 6.2 Generic Implementation Concept and Operation. 6.3 MPPT Charge Pump Parameter Optimization. 6.4 Integrated Circuit Implementation of the Prototype. 6.5 ILACP Chip Characterization. References.

7 Load Matching Detector.
7.1 Motivation and Review. 7.2 Test Setup and Characterization. 7.3 Method of Detection. 7.4 Circuit Implementation. 7.5 Simulation Results and Usage. References.

8 Switched-Inductor Capacitive Interface.
8.1 Review and Requirements. 8.2 Basic Interface Concept. 8.3 Performance Preview using SPICE Simulation. 8.4 PCB Implementation, Experiments and Results. 8.5 Conclusion and Outlook. References.

9 Conclusion and Future Aspects.
9.1 Summary of Achievements. 9.2 Open Problems. 9.3 Suggestions for Future Work. References.

A Application Load Profile.

B Electromagnetic Transducer - Model and Properties.
B.1 Lumped Transducer Models. B.2 Parameter Equations and Relations. B.3 Load Effects at Averaged Harvesting.

C MPP Tracking - Power Transfer Timing.

D MOS Devices and XH035 Process.
D.1 Performance Limitation. D.1.1 Noise and Mismatch. D.1.2 Frequency and Bandwidth Limitation. D.2 XH035 Process Parameters. D.3 Power-Switch Design Tables. References.

E Circuit Blocks Implementation Tables.
E.1 Amplifier. E.2 Bias and References. E.3 Comparators. E.4 Timing. E.5 Digital Cell Drive Losses.

F AC-DC Rectification.

G Load Matching Detector.
G.1 Proposed Load Matching Detection.

H Switched Inductor Capacitive Interface.
H.1 Maximum Tracking Speed. H.2 Converter Parameter Study. H.3 PCB Implementation Details.

I Source Code Listings and Models.
I.1 VerilogA Listing. I.2 PSPICE - SICI Simulation. I.3 dsPIC Programming.