Coal Utilisation: Technology, Economics and Policy by L. GraingerCoal Utilisation: Technology, Economics and Policy by L. Grainger

Coal Utilisation: Technology, Economics and Policy

byL. Grainger, J. Gibson

Paperback | April 20, 2014

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The authors who have collaborated in writing this book have also worked together for more than a decade in promoting Coal Utilisation R&D. They bear a substantial responsibility for the way the policy of the National Coal Board in this field has developed since 1966 and, more directly, for the programme of work at the Coal Research Establishment, Stoke Orchard, near Cheltenham. After a period of relative neglect, R&D on Coal Utilisation has flourished in recent years, both in extent and the importance ascribed to it. A large amount of technical data has been obtained from the pioneering experimental work and this will form the foundation on which vast new industries can be based. The timing and organisation of the application of technical information into these new coal conversion industries represents, in the authors' view, the most important question in the whole field of energy, which is now widely recognised as a vital aspect of social and economic development. The scale of the new coal utilisation enterprises will be greater, and their success more critical, than that of any other development in the field of energy, including that of nuclear power or the renewable resources. This book is, therefore, not directed specifically at technical experts in the field of coal utilisation, and in particular it is not intended to enlighten those who specialise in particular sections of this technology.
Title:Coal Utilisation: Technology, Economics and PolicyFormat:PaperbackPublished:April 20, 2014Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401173540

ISBN - 13:9789401173544

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Table of Contents

Section I Introduction to Coal and its Utilisation.- 1 What Is Coal?.- General Introduction.- History of Coal Usage.- Geological Origin.- Analysis and Testing of Coals.- Classification Systems.- Petrology and Macerals.- The Chemical Structure of Coal.- The Fine Physical Structure of Coal.- Chemical Reactions.- 2 Why is Coal Important?.- The Vital Importance of Energy.- The Role of Fossil Fuels.- The Inflexibility of Non-fossil Energy Sources.- Conclusions.- 3 How Much Coal?.- Estimates of Coal Resources.- World Energy Conference 1977.- World Energy Conference 1980.- WAES and WOCOL.- International Energy Agency (IEA).- Ford Foundation.- Estimates for the USA.- Conclusions.- 4 How Is Coal Won?.- Underground Mining.- Surface Mining.- Coal Preparation.- Transport and Storage.- Future Prospects.- 5 How can Coal be Used?.- Combustion.- Carbonisation.- Gasification.- Liquefaction.- Chemicals.- Conclusion.- Section II Technology of Coal Utilisation.- 6 Combustion.- Some Basic Considerations.- Pulverised Fuel Systems.- Fixed Bed Combustion Devices.- Fluidised Combustion.- Flue Gas Treatment Technology.- Coal-Oil Mixtures (COM).- Combustion of Low Grade Coal.- Advanced Combustion Systems.- Conclusions.- Appendix 1: Fluid Bed Combustion R & D Projects.- 7 The Carbonisation of Coal.- Scientific Basis.- Some Features of Coke Oven Design.- Coke Quality.- Coke Improvement: Blend Formulation.- Other Carbonisation Processes.- Formed Coke.- Modern Developments in Slot Oven Practice.- By-products.- Activated Carbons.- Environmental Aspects.- General Conclusions on Carbonisation.- 8 Gasification.- Gasifiers.- The Treatment of Gases Prior to Use.- Status of Gasification Development Programmes.- Gasification Systems.- Some Common Development Areas.- Conclusions.- 9 Liquefaction of Coal.- General Considerations and Background.- Historical Background.- Some Major Projects and Programmes.- Research and Supporting Technology.- Environmental Aspects.- Conclusions.- 10 Chemicals from Coal.- Historical Review.- Gasification/Synthesis.- Hydrogenation.- Supercritical Gas Extraction.- Pyrolysis and Hydropyrolysis.- Acetylene.- Carbon Products.- Conclusions.- 11 In-Situ Processes: Underground Coal Gasification.- Historical Background.- General Principles.- National Programmes.- Environmental Impact.- Utilisation of Gas.- Instrumentation and Control.- Other Possible In-situ Methods.- Conclusions.- Section III Economics of Coal Utilisation.- 12 General Considerations of Coal Utilisation Economics.- Coal Conversion.- Availability and Cost of Coal.- Conclusion on Coal Supply.- 13 Economics of Combustion and Power Generation.- The Economics of Coal Based Electricity Generation.- Industrial Combustion.- Domestic Combustion.- Coal-Oil Mixtures.- General Conclusions.- 14 Economics of Carbonisation.- General Economic Factors.- Conclusions.- 15 Economics of Coal Gasification.- PADB Studies.- Recent US Department of Energy Economic Assessments.- Recent German Estimates.- Other SNG Cost Assessments.- Low and Medium Btu Gas and Synthesis Gas.- Conclusions.- 16 The Economics of Liquefaction.- Sasol.- UK Assessment.- West German Assessments.- US Estimates.- Conclusions.- 17 Economics of Chemicals from Coal.- Synthesis Gas Routes to Chemicals.- Other Routes to Chemicals.- Conclusions.- 18 Economics of Underground Coal Gasification.- A General Framework.- Other Forecasts and Estimates.- Conclusions.- 19 Environmental Impact.- General Environmental Effects of Coal Utilisation.- Utilisation: Combustion.- Synthetic Fuels Manufacture.- Conclusions.- 20 Multi-Component Plants: Coalplexes.- and General Concepts.- Components of Coalplexes and their Relationships.- Economics.- The Establishment of Coalplexes.- Conclusions.- Section IV Coal in Energy Policies.- 21 Distribution of Coal in Relation to Energy Networks.- Distribution of Reserves.- Transport.- Economic Factors.- Reflections and Conclusions.- 22 Relationship of Coal to Nuclear Power and Other Energy Sources.- Energy Demand/Supply Balance.- Conventional Oil and Gas.- Unconventional Oil and Gas.- Limitations of Nuclear Power.- Fusion Energy.- Solar Energy.- Geothermal Energy.- Hydraulic Energy.- Tidal Energy.- Summary of Contribution from "Renewables".- Conservation.- Other Energy Supply and Conversion Proposals.- Conclusions.- 23 Coal Utilisation in Relation to World Energy Strategies.- Existing Predictions and Policies for Coal.- Research and Development.- International Collaboration.- Some Current Initiatives.- The Strategic Importance of Coal and its Economic Impact.- General Conclusions.