Communication Research Methods by Gerianne MerriganCommunication Research Methods by Gerianne Merrigan

Communication Research Methods

byGerianne Merrigan, Carole L. Huston

Paperback | October 28, 2014

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Ideal for research methods courses covering multiple methodologies, this book is the only text that uses a research-as-argument approach to help students become not only more effective researchers but also more insightful consumers of research. The authors treat communication researchcomprehensively, discussing a broad range of traditional and contemporary methods and considering ethics in designing, conducting, and reporting research.This is the only book on the market that expertly balances the interpretive, critical, and discovery paradigms. No other research methods book on the market better reflects actual research practice and provides methodological chocies based not on ideological constraints but rather on the nature ofthe research question.
Gerianne Merrigan is Professor and Chair of Communication Studies at San Francisco University. Carol L. Huston is Professor of Communication Studies and Gender Studies and currently serves as the assessment director for the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Diego.
Title:Communication Research MethodsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:480 pages, 10 × 8 × 0.68 inPublished:October 28, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199338353

ISBN - 13:9780199338351

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Table of Contents

PrefaceForewordPART ONE: The What and Why of Communication Research1. Introduction to Communication ResearchIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineCritical Thinking and Information LiteracyCommunication TheoriesTheory and Research Methods- Everyday Ways of Knowing- Research Methods as Argument- Making Good Academic and Practical ArgumentsAudiences for Communication Research- Professional Networks and Associations- Scholarly Journals- Trade Journals and Popular Press PublicationsTwo Academic Manuscripts: Research Reports and Critical Essays- Research ReportsElements of Research ReportsCharacteristics of Research Reports- Critical EssaysElements of Critical EssayCharacteristics of Critical EssaysSummaryKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities2. Three Paradigms of KnowingIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineMethodological Ways of KnowingThe Dichotomy of Quantitative and Qualitative ResearchThree Epistemological Paradigms- Interpreting Communication- Critiquing Communication- Discovering CommunicationSummaryKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities3. Ethics and Communication ResearchIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineA Brief History of Communication EthicsEthical Choices in Research- Before Doing Research: Motives for Projects and Topics- During Research Projects: Protecting the Rights of Research ParticipantsRight to Freely Choose Research ParticipationRight to PrivacyRight to Be Treated With Honesty- Afterward: Reporting and Evaluating Research EthicallySummaryEthical Issues and Choices Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities4. Making ClaimsIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineThe Process of Making ClaimsDefinition of ClaimTypes of Claims- Interpretive ClaimsGrounded theoryHermeneutic circle- Evaluative and Reformist Claims- Explanatory and Predictive ClaimsResearch questions and hypothesesCausal relationships: Independent and dependent variablesAssociative relationshipsSummaryKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities5. What Counts as Communication Data?IntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineData Collection Sources- Texts- Direct Observations of Communicative Behaviors- Self-Reports of Communicative Behaviors, Beliefs, and Characteristics- Other-Reports of Communicative Behaviors, Beliefs, and CharacteristicsData Collection SettingsData Collection Strategies- Selecting Data Sources- Random Selection Methods- Nonrandom Selection Methods- Selection in Critical StudiesCapturing Observed BehaviorsCapturing Self-Reports and Other-ReportsResearch Design- Design as a Bypassing Term- Cross-Sectional Research Designs- Longitudinal Research DesignsTriangulation and Mixed Methods Research- Multiple Data Sources- Multiple Data Settings- Multiple Data Collection Strategies- Multiple Data Analytic Strategies- Multiple Investigators' ViewpointsSummaryKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities6. Warrants for Research ArgumentsIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineInterpretive Paradigm Warrants- Interpretive Values: Subjectivity and Rich Description- Form of Argument: Demonstrating Multiple Realities- Researcher Credibility as a Standard for Evaluating EvidenceTraining and ExperienceDegree of MembershipFaithfulness- Plausible Interpretations as a Standard for Evaluating EvidenceAdequacy of EvidenceCoherenceNegative Case Analysis- Transferable Findings as a Standard for Evaluating EvidenceConfirmabilityRelevanceCritical Paradigm Warrants- Emancipatory Values: Voice and Liberation- Form of Argument: Demonstrating Ideological Need for Change- Coherence as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence- Researcher Positionality as a Standard for Evaluating Evidence- Change in Awareness and Praxis as a Standard for Evaluating EvidenceDiscovery Paradigm Warrants- Scientific Values: Precision, Power, and Parsimony- Form of Argument: Demonstrating Causality- Validity as a Standard for Evaluating EvidencBias: A Threat to Accurate MeasurementTypes of Measurement ValidityContent validityFace validityCriterion-related validityConstruct validityExternal validity- Reliability as a Standard for Evaluating EvidencNoise: A Threat to Consistent MeasurementTypes of Measurement ReliabilityThree Views of Truth- Interpretive Paradigm- Critical Paradigm- Discovery ParadigmSummaryWarrants for Research Arguments Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questins"Try It!" ActivitiesPART TWO: How to Interpret and Critique Communication7. Ethnography: How to Interpret Participants' RealitiesIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineThe Roots of Interpretive Field Research in Ethnomethodology- Paradigm Affiliations- Levels of Analysis- Emphasis on Context in Analysis?Ethnographic Claims- Interpretive Claims- Evaluative and Reformist ClaimsEthnographic Data- Sources for Data CollectionParticipant ObservationInterviews with Key InformantsArchival DocumentsArtifacts- Strategies for Data CollectionGaining Access to the SettingSelecting Key InformantsTaking Field NotesExiting the Field- Strategies for Data AnalysisTranscribing InterviewsCoding and Reducing Field NotesApplying Descriptive FrameworksWriting Case StudiesEthical Issues for EthnographersEthnographic Warrants- Valuing Subjectivity and Rich Description- Researcher CredibilityDegree of MembershipFaithfulness- Plausible InterpretationsAdequacy and Coherence of EvidenceNegative Case Analysis- Transferable Findings- Coherence and Researcher Positionality for Critical Ethnographic ResearchCoherenceResearcher PositionalityEthnographic Research Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities8. Conversation and Discourse Analysis: How to Explain and Interpret TalkIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineConversation Analytic Claims- Turn Taking- Adjacency Pairs- Preference- Repair- Action SequencesDiscourse Analytic Claims- Interpreting Interactional AccomplishmentsFaceworkRole and Identity Performances- Interpreting Social Practices and EntitiesConversation and Discourse Analytic Data- Collecting Interactive DiscourseRecording TechniquesEthical Issues- Transcribing Interactive DiscourseNotating TranscriptsFormatting Transcripts- Transcription Programs- Collecting Narrative Discourse- Determining the Unit of Analysis- Analytic InductionConversation Analytic Warrants- Transcription Veracity- Detail Level- Sample RepresentativenessDiscourse Analytic Warrants- Researcher Credibility- Plausible Interpretations- Transferable FindingsMore Ethical Issues in CA/DA ResearchConversation Analysis Summary TableDiscourse Analysis Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities for CA"Try It!" Activity for DA9. Rhetorical Criticism: How to Interpret Persuasive Texts and ArtifactsIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineRhetorical Theory and Rhetorical CriticismNeoclassical Analysis and Genre Criticism- Neoclassical CriticismClaims and DataInventionOrganizationStyleDeliveryMemory- WarrantsGenre Criticism- Traditional Aristotelian Genre- Claims and Data- New Approaches to Genre Studies- WarrantsInterpretive Rhetorical Criticism- Metaphoric CriticismClaims and DataWarrants- DramatismClaims and DataActSceneAgentAgencyPurposeWarrantsNarrative Analysis- Claims and Data- WarrantsNew Directions for Rhetorical Criticism- Recondisering Rhetorical Contexts- Audiences and the Nature of the Public SphereEthical Concerns in Rhetorical CriticismRhetorical Criticism Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities10. How to Critique TextsIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineNew Directions: Bridges from Interpreting to Critiquing Texts- Communication as Performative and Ideological- Communication as Social ChangeClaims in Critical and Cultural Studies- Evaluating and Reforming Social StructuresMarxist CriticismGender and Feminist Criticism- Evaluating and Reinventing Discourse ProcessesPostmodern CriticismCultural CriticismSemiotic CriticismData/Evidence in Critical Studies- Actions and Events- Texts- Researchers' Experiences and BeliefsAnalytic Moves in Critical Studies- Deconstruction- Narrative AnalysesWarrants for Critical Studies- Establishing Coherence- Establishing Researcher Positionality- Establishing Impact: Changes in Awareness and PraxisEthical Issues in Critiquing TextsCritical Studies Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" ActivitiesPART THREE: How to Discover Communication11. How to Design Discovery ResearchIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineResearch Design as the Essential FrameworkMeasurement- Conceptual and Operational Definitions- Levels of MeasurementNominal LevelOrdinal LevelInterval LevelRatio LevelBuilding Arguments Through Research Designs- Causal and Associative Arguments- Experimental Research DesignDesign ElementsComparison GroupsRandom Selection and Assignment (sampling issues)PretestingTypes of DesignsPreexperimental DesignsQuasi-Experimental DesignsTrue Experimental DesignsKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities12. Content AnalysisIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineContent Analytic Claims- Explaining and Predicting Message ContentData for Content Analysis- Selecting a Representative Sample of Messages- Encoding Texts- Data Treatment for Content AnalysisUnitizing MessagesCategorizing MessagesA Sample Coding SchemeContent Data AnalysisWarrants for Content Analysis- Intercoder Reliability- Validity of the Coding Scheme- External ValidityCoder TrainingSample RepresentativenessEthical Issues in Content Analytic ResearchContent Analysis Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities13. Survey ResearchIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineSurvey Research Claims- Explaining and Predicting Attitudes and BehaviorsSurvey Research Data- Sources for Data Collection- Settings for Data CollectionLaboratory and Field SettingsBasic and Applied ResearchThree Types of Applied Survey Research- Data Sampling StrategiesRandom Selection MethodsNonrandom or Purposive Selection Methods- Capturing Self-Reports and Other-ReportsTypes of Survey InterviewsFormats for Survey InterviewsTraining Survey InterviewersQuestionnairesGeneral structure of questionnairesFormats for survey questions- Instrumentation and the Measurement of Survey DataOperationalization of VariablesLevels of MeasurementData Collection and Analysis Online: Qualtrix and Survey MonkeyData Analysis Software Offline: Free WareSurvey Research Warrants- Response Rate as an Essential Contributor to Validity- Establishing Valid Measurement- Establishing Reliable MeasurementEthical Issues in Survey ResearchSurvey Research Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities14. How to Conduct Experimental ResearchIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineExperimental Research Claims- Deductive Process- Explaining and Predicting Cause and Effect SequencesExperimental Research Data- Data Sources- Data Settings- Research Designs for Causal Arguments- Data Collection and AnalysisData Collection StrategiesAnalysis of Variable EffectsExperimental Research Warrants- Controlling Rival Hypotheses- Internal Validity ThreatsTime Progression EffectsHistoryMaturationMortalityStatistical regressionTestingInstrumentationReactivity EffectsSelectionTreatment diffusionCompensatory behaviorResearcher attributesDemand characteristicsEvaluation apprehension- External Validity ThreatsSample RepresentativenessSetting AppropriatenessEthics in Experimental ResearchExperimental Research Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities15. Descriptive Statistics and Hypothesis TestingIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineHow to Describe Sample DataVisual Representations of VariablesNominal and Ordinal DataPie chartsBar chartsInterval and Ratio DataHistogramsFrequency PolygonsSome Ethical Issues- Numerical Representations of VariablesMeasures of Central TendencyMeanMedianModeMeasures of ShapeSkewKurtosisMeasures of DispersionRangeVarianceStandard deviation- Using Excel and SPSSExcelSPSS- Some Ethical Issues?How to Estimate Population Differences and Relationships Using Sample Data: The Logic of Hypothesis Testing- Three Types of DistributionsSample DistributionsPopulation DistributionsSampling Distributions- Estimation and Inference- The Logic of Hypothesis TestingCentral Limits TheoremThe Normal CurveAreas under the Normal CurveStandard ErrorConfidence interval and level- Steps to Testing HypothesesFormulating HypothesesThe research hypothesisThe null hypothesisFraming Decisions Based on Likelihood of ErrorCalculating the Test StatisticDeciding to Accept or Reject the Null HypothesisDescriptive Statistics Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" Activities16. Inferential Statistics: Differences and RelationshipsIntroductionLearning OutcomesOutlineTests of Differences- Nonparametric TestsNature of Data and AssumptionsChi-SquareSingle-sample chi-squareMultiple-sample chi-squareSPSS and Excel chi-square stepsInterpreting the results and APA formatting- Parametric TestsNature of Data and Assumptionst-TestIndependent and paired samplesSPSS t-testExcel t-testInterpreting the results and APA formattingAnalysis of VarianceOne-way ANOVASPSS Oneway ANOVA stepsMultiple ComparisonsExcel Oneway ANOVA stepsInterpreting results and APA formattingTwo-way (and greater) ANOVAsTests of Relationships- CorrelationNature of Data and AssumptionsPoint-Biserial CorrelationSPSS and Excel Pearson CorrelationInterpreting results and APA formattingCausal Associations: Regression AnalysisNature of data and assumptionsSPSS and Excel Simple RegressionInterpreting the results and APA formattingTypes of regression analysisTwo Ethical IssuesInferential Statistics Summary TableKey TermsDiscussion Questions"Try It!" ActivitiesGlossaryReferencesIndex

Editorial Reviews

"Two things make this book stand out: the research-as-argument metaphor and the breadth of coverage across the full range of our discipline. In particular[,] this is the only undergrad methods book I'm aware of that has a conversation analysis/discourse chapter. Students find discourseanalysis particularly engaging." --Irwin Mallin, Indiana University (10)