Communication Systems by V Chandra Sekar

Communication Systems

byV Chandra Sekar

Paperback | June 15, 2012

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Communication Systems is a textbook designed for a one-semester course on the subject providing an overview of various communication medium, which has its foundation in the principles of analog and digital communication.Starting from the basic principles of analog and digital communication, the book in subsequent chapters talks about various media such as the transmission lines, waveguides, microwave, optical, and satellite communication followed by discussion on data communication and its equipments. The lastchapter is devoted to the understanding of spread spectrum modulation, a recent technique in which information is transmitted through multiple frequencies ensuring greater security.Providing a balance between theory and the applications, the book features review questions, case-studies, appendices on AT commands for modem and standard tables, numerical solved problems, numerical exercises, and MATLAB codes.

About The Author

V Chandra Sekar is currently working as the Professor and Head of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering in SASTRA University at Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu. He has over 35 years of combined industry and academic experience. While undertaking various projects of R and D in many organizations of repute, like the TIFR, B...
Analog Communication
Analog Communication

by V. Chandra Sekar


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Title:Communication SystemsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:856 pages, 9.84 × 5.91 × 0.03 inPublished:June 15, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0198078056

ISBN - 13:9780198078050

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction1.1 What is Communication?1.2 Modulation and its Types1.2.1 Need for Modulation1.2.2 Frequency Translation1.2.3 Types of Modulation1.3 Transmitter1.4 Receiver1.5 Digital Communication System1.6 Multiplexing of Signals1.6.1 Frequency Division Multiplexing1.6.2 Time Division Multiplexing2. Signals: An Introduction2.1 Basic Concepts2.2 Classification of Signals2.2.1 Continuous and Discrete Time Signals2.2.2 Periodic and Non-periodic Signals2.2.3 Causal and Non-causal Signals2.2.4 Even and Odd Signals2.2.5 Deterministic and Random Signals2.2.6 Real and Complex Signals2.2.7 Energy-Type and Power-Type Signals2.3 Typical Signals and Their Properties2.3.1 Sinusoidal Signal2.3.2 Complex Exponential Signal2.3.3 Unit-Step Signal2.3.4 Rectangular Pulse2.3.5 Triangular Signal2.3.6 The Sinc Signal2.3.7 Sign or Signum Signal2.3.8 Impulse or Delta Signal2.3.9 Singular Function2.3.10 Shifting, Inversion, Scaling, and Convolution of Signal2.4 Classification of Systems2.4.1 Discrete Time and Continuous Time Systems2.4.2 Linear and Non-linear Systems2.4.3 Time Invariant and Time Varying Systems2.4.4 Causal and Non-causal Systems2.4.5 Instantaneous and Dynamic Systems2.4.6 Stable and Unstable Systems2.5 Delta Function and Convolution2.5.1 Delta Function2.5.2 Convolution2.6 Fourier Series and Transform2.6.1 Fourier Series2.6.2 Fourier Transform2.7 Laplace Transform2.8 The z-Transform2.9 Signal Energy and Energy Spectral Density2.10 Energy Spectral Density2.11 Essential Bandwidth of a Signal2.12 Energy of Modulated Signal2.13 Signal Power and Power Spectral Density2.13.1 Power Spectral Density (PSD)3. Amplitude Modulation3.1 Baseband Communication3.2 Theory of AM3.3 Frequency Spectrum of Sinusoidal AM3.4 Amplitude Modulation Index3.5 Average Power for Sinusoidal AM3.6 Modulation by Several Sine Waves3.7 Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC)3.8 Single Sideband (SSB) Systems3.8.1 Single Sideband with Carrier3.8.2 Single Sideband with Suppressed Carrier3.8.3 Single Sideband with Reduced Carrier3.9 Independent Sideband Amplitude Modulation3.10 Comparison of SSB and AM3.11 Single Sideband: Advantages and Disadvantages3.12 Single Sideband Generation3.13 Vestigial Sideband (VSB) Transmission and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)3.13.1 Vestigial Sideband Transmission3.13.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)3.14 AM Modulators3.14.1 Square Law Modulation (Power Law Modulation)3.14.2 Switching Modulator3.14.3 Transistor Modulators3.14.4 Balanced Modulators3.15 SSB Generation3.15.1 The Filter Method3.15.2 The Phase Shift Method3.15.3 The Third Method3.16 Independent Sideband Transmitter3.17 AM Demodulators3.17.1 Rectifier Detector3.17.2 Envelope Detector3.17.3 Detector Distortion3.17.4 Diagonal Peak Clipping3.17.5 Negative Peak Clipping3.18 SSB Reception3.18.1 Coherent Detection3.18.2 SSB Reception with Pilot Carrier3.19 Demodulation of VSB Signals3.20 Detection of ISB Signals3.21 Transmitters3.21.1 AM Transmitters3.21.2 SSB Transmitters3.22 Trapezoidal Patterns3.23 Receivers3.23.1 AM Receivers3.23.2 SSB Receiver with Pilot Carrier3.23.3 Communication Receivers3.23.4 Receiver Parameters3.24 Automatic Gain and Volume Control Circuits3.24.1 Automatic Gain Control (AGC)3.24.2 Automatic Volume Control (AVC)3.24.3 Squelch Circuit3.25 Comparison and Applications of Various AM Systems3.26 Frequency Translation3.27 Costas Loop3.27.1 Carrier Recovery3.27.2 Digital Implementation3.27.3 Traditional Design Method3.27.4 Detailed Description3.27.5 Costas versus Conventional Loop3.27.6 Design Considerations for Costas Loop3.27.7 Analysis of a Costas Loop for a Typical Received Signal4. Angle Modulation4.1 Introduction4.2 Instantaneous Frequency4.3 FM and PM Signals4.3.1 Spectrum of an FM Signal4.3.2 Concept of Angle Modulation4.4 Modulation Index4.4.1 Deviation Sensitivity4.4.2 Frequency Deviation4.4.3 Percentage Modulation4.5 Bandwidth Requirements for Angle Modulated Waves4.6 Sinusoidal FM: Narrowband and Wideband4.6.1 Narrowband FM4.6.2 Wideband FM4.7 Spectral Characteristic of a Sinusoidal Modulated FM Signal4.7.1 Spectrum of Constant Bandwidth FM4.8 Average Power in Sinusoidal FM4.9 Deviation Ratio for Non-sinusoidal Frequency Modulation4.10 Phase Modulation4.10.1 Sinusoidal Phase Modulation4.10.2 Digital Phase Modulation4.11 Comparison of FM and PM4.12 FM Generation4.12.1 Direct Method4.12.2 Indirect Method4.13 Phase Modulators4.13.1 Varactor Diode Direct PM Modulators4.13.2 PM Modulator: Direct Method with Transistor4.14 FM Detectors4.14.1 Bandpass Limiter4.14.2 Practical Frequency Demodulators4.14.3 Slope Detector4.14.4 Balanced Slope Detector4.14.5 Foster-Seeley Discriminator4.14.6 Ratio Detector4.14.7 FM Demodulator Using a PLL4.14.8 Practical PLL Circuit4.14.9 Quadrature Detectors4.14.10 Zero Crossing Detector4.14.11 Bias Distortion in FM Demodulation Using Zero Crossing Detectors4.14.12 Amplitude Limiters4.15 FM Transmitters and Receivers4.15.1 Direct FM Transmitters4.15.2 Indirect FM Transmitters4.15.3 FM Stereo Broadcasting4.15.4 FM in TV Broadcasting4.15.5 FM Receivers4.15.6 Single-Chip FM Radio Circuit4.15.7 Capture Effect4.16 Phase Locked Loop (PLL)4.16.1 PLL Basics4.16.2 PLL Operation4.16.3 Lock and Capture Ranges4.16.4 Phase Comparator4.16.5 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators (VCOs)4.16.6 Loop Filter4.16.7 Applications of PLL4.17 PLL Frequency Synthesizer: A Case Study4.18 Comparison of Angle Modulation with Amplitude Modulation5. Pulse Modulation5.1 Introduction5.2 Sampling Theorem5.2.1 Occurrence of Aliasing Error5.3 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)5.3.1 Channel Bandwidth for PAM5.3.2 Natural Sampling5.3.3 Flat Top Sampling5.3.4 Pulse Amplitude Modulation and Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)5.3.5 Signal Recovery5.4 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)5.4.1 Uses of PWM5.4.2 Why the PWM Frequency is Important5.5 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)5.6 Generation of PAM5.7 Generation of PWM5.8 Generation of PPM5.9 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)5.9.1 PCM Basics5.10 PCM Transmitter and Receiver5.10.1 Quantization5.11 Delta Modulation5.11.1 Principle5.11.2 Adaptive DM5.11.3 Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM)5.11.4 Quantization of Signals5.11.5 Quantization Error5.12 Noise Consideration in PCM System5.13 FDM and TDM5.14 Frequency Division Multiplexing Transmitter5.14.1 Frequency Division Multiplexing Receiver5.15 Analog Carrier System5.16 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)5.17 Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing Transmitter5.18 Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing Receiver5.19 TDM Digital Carrier System6. Noise6.1 Introduction6.2 External Noise6.2.1 Atmospheric Noise6.2.2 Extraterrestrial Noise6.2.3 Industrial Noise (Man-made Noise)6.3 Internal Noise6.3.1 Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise)6.3.2 Noise Voltage6.3.3 Equivalent Sources for Thermal Noise6.3.4 Noise Voltage for Resistors Connected in Series6.3.5 Resistors in Parallel6.3.6 Thermal Noise Power in a Reactance Circuit6.3.7 Spectral Densities6.3.8 Power Spectral Response6.3.9 Noise Equivalent Bandwidth6.3.10 Shot Noise6.3.11 Partition Noise6.3.12 Flicker Noise6.3.13 Burst Noise6.3.14 Transit Time Noise6.3.15 Avalanche Noise6.3.16 Transistor Noise6.4 Signal-to-Noise Ratio6.4.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio of a Cascaded System6.5 Noise Figure6.5.1 Input Noise of Amplifier in Terms of F6.5.2 Noise Factor of Amplifiers in Cascade6.6 Noise Temperature6.7 Measurement of Noise Factor and Noise Temperature6.8 Noise in a Bandpass System6.9 Noise in AM Systems6.9.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio for SSB6.9.2 Single Sideband Companding6.10 Effect of Noise on Angle Modulation6.11 Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis Circuits6.12 Threshold Effect in Angle Modulation6.13 Narrowband Noise6.13.1 Representation of Narrowband Noise in Terms of In-Phase and Quadrature Components6.13.2 Representation of Narrowband Noise in Terms of Envelope and Phase Components6.13.3 Sine Wave plus Narrowband Noise7. Introduction to Digital Communication7.1 Introduction7.2 Digital Amplitude Modulation7.3 I/Q Modulation7.3.1 The Concept of I and Q Channels7.3.2 Application of I/Q Modulation7.3.3 Need for Using I and Q7.4 Some Important Terms7.4.1 Information Capacity, Bits, and Bit Rate7.4.2 M-ary Encoding7.4.3 Baud and Minimum Bandwidth7.5 Frequency Shift Keying7.5.1 FSK Baud and Bandwidth7.6 Phase Shift Keying7.6.1 Binary Phase Shift Keying7.6.2 M-ary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK)7.6.3 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)7.6.4 PSK Modulation7.6.5 Modulation Index of a QPSK signal7.6.6 Offset QPSK7.7 Minimum Shift Keying7.8 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)7.8.1 Types of QAM7.9 Bandwidth Efficiency7.9.1 Comparison of Modulation Methods7.9.2 Effects of Going through the Origin7.10 Digital Modulation Types7.10.1 I/Q Offset Modulation7.10.2 Differential Modulation7.10.3 Constant-Amplitude Modulation7.11 Spectral Efficiency versus Power Consumption7.12 Time and Frequency Domain View of Digitally Modulated Signal7.12.1 Power and Frequency View7.13 Digital Transmitters and Receivers7.13.1 Digital Receiver8. Information Theory8.1 Introduction8.2 Measure of Information8.3 Joint and Conditional Entropy8.3.1 Joint Entropy8.3.2 Conditional Entropy8.3.3 Entropy Rate8.3.4 Mutual Information8.4 Differential Entropy8.4.1 Information Rate8.4.2 Source Coding to Increase Average Information per Bit8.8 Shannon-Fano Coding8.9 The Huffman Source Coding Algorithm8.9.1 Huffman Coding Algorithm8.11 Capacity of Gaussian Channel8.11.1 Bandwidth S/N Trade-off9. Introduction to Probability, Random Variable, and Random Processes9.1 Introduction to Probability9.1.1 The Classical Approach9.1.2 The Relative Frequency Approach9.1.3 The Axiomatic Approach9.2 Elementary Set Theory9.3 The Axiomatic Approach9.3.1 Implications of the Axioms of Probability9.4 Conditional Probability9.4.1 Total Probability Theorem: Discrete Version9.4.2 Bayes' Theorem9.4.3 Independence9.5 Random Variable9.5.1 Discrete Random Variable9.5.2 Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)9.5.3 Types of Random Variables9.5.4 Functions of a Random Variable9.5.5 Statistical Averages9.5.6 Multiple Random Variables9.5.7 Multiple Functions of Multiple Random Variables9.5.8 Sums of Random Variables9.5.9 Jointly Gaussian Random Variables9.6 Gaussian Process9.6.1 Central Limit Theorem9.6.2 Properties of Gaussian Process10. Transmission Lines:IntroductionTypes of transmission linesPrimary and secondary constantsCharacteristic impedancePropagation constantPhase and group velocityLossless lineReflection coefficientVoltage standing wave ratioTransmission line as circuit elementsTransmission line input impedanceSlotted line measurement at Radio FrequenciesTelephone lines and cablesMicro-strip and Strip-line transmission line11. WaveguidesIntroductionRectangular waveguideCircular WaveguideRidged waveguideFlexible Waveguide12. IntroductionAntenna TypesAntenna CharacteristicsTerminologies and DefinitionsAntenna LoadingAntenna ArraysAntenna Array -typesSpecial Purpose AntennasVHF and UHF AntennasAntennas - lens types13. Microwave systemsIntroductionAdvantagesTypesFrequency Modulated Microwave radio systemTransmitterReceiverFM Microwave Radio repeaters DiversityFrequency diversitySpace DiversityPolarization diversityHybrid diversityQuad diversitySwitching arrangementHot standbyDiversityReliabilityFM Microwave Radio stationsTerminal stationRepeater stationPropagation pathsFadingSystem gainFree space path lossFade marginReceiver thresholdSignal to noise versus carrier to noise ratioNoise factor and Noise figureTypical Microwave radio link14. Optical Fiber communicationsIntroductionHistoryOptical Fibers over metallic cableAdvantages of Optical Fiber systemsDisadvantages of Optical Fiber systemsElectromagnetic spectrumSystem Block diagramFiber typesFiber constructionThe Physics of LightVelocity of propagationRefractionRefractive indexCritical anglePropagation of Light through an optical fiber cableOptical Fiber modes and classificationOptical Fiber comparisonAcceptance angle and acceptance coneNumerical apertureLosses in Fiber optic cablesLight sourcesOptical powerOptical sourcesLight detectorsLasersTypical Optical communication system15. Satellite CommunicationsIntroductionHistoryKepler's lawsOrbitsGeostationary satellitesDrifts in Geostationary satellitesPower systemsAltitude controlAntenna Look AnglesSatellite Station keepingLimits of visibilityFrequency Plans and polarizationSatellite Antenna radiation patternsSatellite System link modelsSatellite system parametersSatellite system link equationsLink BudgetSatellite radio navigation16. Data CommunicationIntroductionHistoryArchitecture, Protocols and StandardsStandards organization for Data communicationData Communication circuitsData Communication circuit arrangementData Communication codesError controlSynchronizationLine control unitInterfacesData communication NetworksLayered Network ArchitectureOpen system interconnectionAlternate Protocol suiteData Transmission ModesAsynchronous protocolsSynchronous protocols17. Data Communication equipmentIntroductionDigital service unit and channel service unitModemsIntroductionLow speed ModemsMedium and high speed modemsBell System compatible voice-band ModemsVoice-band Modem block diagramVoice-band Modem classificationAsynchronous voice-band ModemsSynchronous voice-band ModemsModem SynchronizationITU-T Voice-band Modem specifications56K ModemsThe AT command set for modem controlCable ModemsProbability of error and bit error18. Television and Introduction to RadarHistoryBasics TV system and scanning principlesScanningComposite Video SignalChannel BandwidthVestigial Sideband (VSB) transmission in video signalsComplete channel bandwidthReception of VSB signalTV camera tubesPicture tubeTelevision transmitter and receiverEffect of noisePeak power available from transmitterUse of AGC circuits in the receiverSound signal transmissionPreference of FM over AM in sound transmissionMerits of frequency modulationAntenna SystemTransmission LineColour TelevisionIntroduction to Radar19. Spread Spectrum ModulationIntroductionThe concept of frequency hoppingSpread spectrum techniquesTypes of spread spectrumError rate performance of the decoderProcess gain and performancePseudo-Noise (PN) SequencesKasami SequencesBarker codeHadamard-Walsh codeFrequency hoppingSynchronization of spread signal systemsJammingTime hopping (TH) spread spectrum systemsHybrid spread spectrumCommercial applicationMulti-path channelsDirect sequence Vs Frequency hoppingMATLAB ProgramsOther Appendices