Comparative Politics: Integrating Theories, Methods, and Cases

Paperback | July 22, 2015

byJ. Tyler Dickovick, Jonathan Eastwood

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Why do countries have different institutions and forms of government? Why do some social revolutions succeed and endure while others fail? Why are some societies subjected to terrorism and not others? An engaging and accessible introduction to the subject, Comparative Politics: IntegratingTheories, Methods, and Cases, Second Edition, gives students the methodological tools they need to answer the "big questions" in the field. The authors introduce methods early in the text and integrate them throughout in order to help students develop a systematic way of thinking about comparativepolitics.

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Why do countries have different institutions and forms of government? Why do some social revolutions succeed and endure while others fail? Why are some societies subjected to terrorism and not others? An engaging and accessible introduction to the subject, Comparative Politics: IntegratingTheories, Methods, and Cases, Second Edition, g...

J. Tyler Dickovick is the Grigsby Term Associate Professor of Politics at Washington and Lee University. He is the author of Decentralization and Recentralization in the Developing World: Comparative Studies from Africa and Latin America (2011) and coeditor of Decentralization in Africa: The Paradox of State Strength (2014). His curre...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:672 pages, 9.21 × 7.4 × 1.18 inPublished:July 22, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0190270993

ISBN - 13:9780190270995

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Table of Contents

InsightsPrefaceMaps of the WorldPART I: COMPARATIVE POLITICAL ANALYSIS1. The Comparative Approach: An IntroductionAsking Why: Research Questions in Comparative PoliticsMajor Questions in Comparative PoliticsEmpirical Arguments versus Normative ArgumentsSolving Intellectual Puzzles: A Contemporary AnalogyConceptsFeatures of Good ConceptsConceptualizationOperationalizing: From Concepts to MeasuresEmpirical EvidenceFacts and EvidenceCases and Case StudiesThe Comparative MethodVariables and ComparisonThe Most-Similar-Systems DesignThe Most-Different-Systems DesignComparative CheckingWithin-Case ComparisonIs the Study of Politics a Science? The Limits of the Comparative Method2. Theories, Hypotheses, and EvidenceIntroduction to Theories, Hypotheses, and EvidenceTheoriesHypothesesHow Theories Emerge and Are UsedTypes of EvidenceHypothesis TestingCorrelationCausationCritiques: Using Theory and EvidenceEmpirical Critiques: Confirming Cases and Deviant CasesTheoretical Critiques: Improving Theories and HypothesesThe Challenge of Measurement: Errors, Biases, and ValidityThinking Comparatively: Qualities of Good Analysis and ArgumentationStep 1: Asking Good Questions: Why?Step 2: Hypotheses Testing: Generating Good Hypotheses and Testing Them FairlyStep 3: Balancing Argumentation: Evidence, Originality, and MeaningfulnessPART II: THE STATE, DEVELOPMENT, DEMOCRACY, AND AUTHORITARIANISM3. The StateConceptsThe Modern StateState CapacityFailed StatesThe State-Society RelationshipTypesCharacteristics of Modern States- Bureaucracy- Impersonality- SovereigntyTraditional Functions of Modern States- Defense- Policing- Taxation- Order, Administration, and "Legibility"Causes and Effects: Why Did States Emerge and Expand?- Political/Conflict Theories- Economic Theories- Cultural Theories- Diffusion TheoriesThinking Comparatively: Great Britain, the United Kingdom, or Neither? State and Nation in England and Scotland4. Political EconomyConceptsInequalityEmployment and InflationTypesMarkets and States in Modern Economies- Markets and Economic Performance- States and Economic PerformanceEconomic Functions of Modern States- States and Economic Management- Investments in Human Capital: Education and Health- Infrastructure and Other Public Goods- Welfare State FunctionsCauses and Effects: Why Do Welfare States Emerge?Cultural ChangesIndustrial CapitalismMobilization and Political ActionInternational Learning EffectsThinking Comparatively: Welfare States in the Nordic Countries: What Can We Learn and How?5. DevelopmentConceptsTypesPovertySocial Outcomes and Human DevelopmentGender Relations and Racial and Ethnic IdentitiesSatisfaction and HappinessCultural DevelopmentSustainabilityCauses and Effects: Why Does Development Happen (or Not)?Institutions: The Markets-States Debate, RevisitedInstitutions: Beyond the Markets-States DebateCulture and DevelopmentSystems and Structures: International and DomesticThinking Comparatively: Explaining the Development of North and South Korea6. Democracy and DemocratizationConceptsDemocracy and Democratic Regimes- Procedural (Minimal) Definitions of Democracy- Substantive Definitions of DemocracyRegime Change and DemocratizationTypesTypes of Democracy- Representative Democracy- Direct DemocracyTypes of Democratization- Democratic Transitions- Democratic ConsolidationCauses and Effects: What Causes Democratization?ModernizationCulture and DemocracyThe International SystemDomestic InstitutionsAgents and Actors: The Role of Individuals and GroupsCombining Arguments and Theories: Multiple CausesThinking Comparatively: Is American Democracy a Model?7. Authoritarian Regimes and Democratic BreakdownConceptsAuthoritarianism and Authoritarian RegimesTransitions to Authoritarian RegimesTypesTypes of AuthoritarianismTotalitarian RegimesTheocraciesPersonalistic DictatorshipsBureaucratic-Authoritarian RegimesHybrid and Semi-authoritarian RegimesTypes of Transition (or Nontransition) to Authoritarianism- Authoritarian Persistence- Democratic Breakdown- Transition to Hybrid or Semi-authoritarian RegimeCauses and Effects: What Causes Authoritarian Regimes to Emerge and Persist?Historical Institutionalist TheoriesPoverty and InequalityState Weakness and FailurePolitical Culture Theories of Authoritarian ResistanceBarriers to Collective ActionSpecial Causal Circumstances Surrounding Hybrid and Semi-authoritarian RegimesThinking Comparatively: Why Did Zimbabwe Become and Remain Authoritarian?PART III: INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENT8. Constitutions and Constitutional DesignConceptsConstitutionsConstitutional DesignTypesFlexible and Rigid ConstitutionsSeparation of Powers: Judicial Review and Parliamentary SovereigntyFederalism and Unitarism- Federalism- UnitarismAuthoritarian and Democratic ConstitutionsCauses and Effects: What Are the Effects of Federal Constitutions?Are Federal Constitutions Good for Social Stability?Are Federal Constitutions Good for Democratic Rights?Are Federal Constitutions Good for the Economy?Judicial Review and DemocracyThinking Comparatively: What Explains the Similarities Between the Brazilian and South African Constitutions?9. Legislatures and Legislative ElectionsConceptsWhat Legislatures AreWhat Legislatures DoTypesUnicameral and Bicameral LegislaturesElectoral Systems- District Systems- Proportional Representation (PR)- Mixed or HybridExecutive--Legislative RelationsCauses and Effects: What Explains Patterns of Representation?Patterns of RepresentationElectoral Systems and RepresentationLegislative Decision Making and RepresentationExecutive-Legislative Relations and RepresentationThinking Comparatively: Representation in New Zealand and Beyond10. ExecutivesConceptsTypesExecutive Structures: Presidential and ParliamentaryFormal PowersPartisan PowersCoalitionsInformal PowersCauses and Effects: What Explains Executive Stability?Stable and Unstable Regimes: Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and DemocracyStable and Unstable Executives: Styles of Presidential RuleStable and Unstable Executives: Patterns of Parliamentary RuleThinking Comparatively: Beyond the American and British Models11. Political Parties, Party Systems, and Interest GroupsConceptsPolitical PartiesParty SystemsInterest GroupsTypesPolitical Parties: Elite, Mass, and Catch-All PartiesParty Systems: Dominant-Party, Two-Party, and Multiparty SystemsInterest Groups: Pluralism and CorporatismCauses and Effects: Why Do Party Systems Emerge, and What Effects Do They Have?Party Systems and Representation- What Factors Shape Party Systems?- How Do Party Systems Shape Political Outcomes?Interest Groups and RepresentationThinking Comparatively: Party Systems in Sub-Saharan AfricaPART IV: POLITICS, SOCIETY, AND CULTURE12. Revolutions and ContentionConceptsWhat Is "Contention"?Revolutionary and Non-revolutionary ContentionTypesSocial MovementsRevolutionsInsurgencies and Civil WarsTerrorism"Everyday Resistance"Thinking about Contention: SummaryCauses and Effects: Why Do Revolutions Happen?Relative DeprivationResource Mobilization and Political OpportunitiesRational ChoiceCulture or "Framing" ExplanationsThinking Comparatively: The "Arab Spring" of 201113. Nationalism and National IdentityConceptsIdentityNationalism and the NationTypesPrimordialist ApproachesPerennialist ApproachesModernist ApproachesTypes of NationalismCauses and Effects: What Causes Ethno-national Conflict?- Primordial Bonds- Cultural Boundaries- Material Interests- Rational Calculation- Social PsychologyThinking Comparatively: Ending Ethnic and National Violence14. Race, Ethnicity, and GenderConceptsRace and EthnicityGenderSexual OrientationTypesDisentangling Race and EthnicityDiscrimination Based on Race and EthnicityGender DiscriminationEmpowerment of Women and Minority GroupsCauses and Effects: What Factors Influence the Political Representation of Women and Minority Groups?Social Movement MobilizationPolitical Parties Based on Gender or EthnicityInstitutions for Promoting Women's and Minority Group RepresentationThinking Comparatively: Indicators of Gender Empowerment15. Ideology and ReligionConceptsModernity and ModernizationIdeologyReligionSecularization, Religion, and Modern PoliticsReligious ConflictTypesModern Ideologies- Liberalism- Fascism- SocialismModern Forms of Religion in Politics- Lay and Religious States- DenominationalismCauses and Effects: Why Do Religion and Ideology Remain Prevalent in Modern Politics?Why (and How) Does Modernization Alter Religion's Role in Politics?- Modernization Theory and Secularization- The "Religious Economies" Approach- Institutional TheoriesWhy Didn't Ideology (and History) End?Thinking Comparatively: Two Lefts in Latin America?PART V: THE COMPARATIVE-INTERNATIONAL NEXUS16. Comparative Politics and International RelationsConceptsIssuesGlobalization and TradeInternational Institutions and IntegrationImmigrationEnvironment and SustainabilityTransnational NetworksNuclear Threats and TerrorismCauses and Effects: What Are the Main Causes in International Relations?RealismLiberalismConstructivismMarxismThinking Comparatively: The EU and Levels of AnalysisPART VI: COUNTRY PROFILES AND CASESBRAZILProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary BrazilHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesDoes the Global Economy Help or Hurt Developing Nations like Brazil? (Ch. 5)Democratic Consolidation in Brazil (Ch. 6)Electoral Rules and Party (In)Discipline in Brazil's Legislature (Ch. 9)Brazil's Landless Movement (Ch. 12)Gender and Political Representation in Brazil: Where Has Progress Come From? (Ch. 14)CHINAProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary ChinaHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesHow Did China Become an Economic Power? (Ch. 5)Is China Destined for Democracy? (Ch. 6)Who Governs China? (Ch. 10)The Chinese Party System (Ch. 11)The Chinese Revolution (Ch. 12)FRANCEProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary FranceHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesThe State in France (Ch. 3)Authoritarian Persistence in Nineteenth-Century France (Ch. 7)Electing the French President: What Do Runoffs Do? (Ch. 10)The French Revolution (Ch. 12)Religion and Secularism in France (Ch. 14)Globalization and Culture in France (Ch. 15)GERMANYProfileKey Features of Contemporary GermanyIntroductionHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesThe German State: Unification and Welfare (Ch. 4)Democracy and Authoritarianism in Germany (Ch. 7)Institutional Design: Germany's Bundestag and Bundesrat (Ch. 9)Consensus-Based Politics in Germany (Ch. 11)Ethnic Boundaries of the German Nation? (Ch. 13)INDIAProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary IndiaHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesWhat Explains India's Recent Growth? (Ch. 5)Democracy's Success in India: What Can We Learn from a Deviant Case? (Ch. 6)Federalism and Differences in Development in India (Ch. 8)Ethnicity and Political Parties in India (Ch. 14)India in the Twenty-first Century: Domestic Politics, Identity, and Security (Ch. 16)IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN)ProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary IranHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesDemocratic Features of Authoritarian Systems? The Case of Iran (Ch. 7)Constitutional Design: Theocracy in Iran (Ch. 8)Iran's Islamic Revolution and "Green Revolution"? (Ch. 11)Gender in Post-Revolutionary Iranian Politics (Ch. 14)Religion and Politics in Iran (Ch. 15)Iran and the Politics of Nuclear Proliferation (Ch. 15)JAPANProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary JapanHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesState-Led Development in Japan (Ch. 4)The Hybrid Electoral System of the Japanese Diet (Ch. 9)How Did Japan's Dominant Party Win for So Long? (Ch. 11)Importing National Identity in Japan? (Ch. 13)Gender Empowerment in Japan? (Ch. 14)Resource Management in Japan (Ch. 16)MEXICOProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary MexicoHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesThe Mexican State and Rule of Law (Ch. 4)Mexico's "Perfect Dictatorship" and Its End (Ch. 7)The PRI and Corporatism in Mexico (Ch. 11)Industrialization, Modernity, and National Identity in Mexico (Ch. 13)Why Aren't There Major Ethnic Parties in Mexico? (Ch. 14)NIGERIAProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary NigeriaHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesWhat Is a Weak State, and Can It Be Changed? The Case of Nigeria (Ch. 3)Why Are Natural Resources Sometimes a Curse? The Nigerian Case (Ch. 5)Federalism and the States in Nigeria: Holding Together or Tearing Apart? (Ch. 8)The Presidency in Nigeria: Powers and Limitations (Ch. 10)The Nigerian Civil War or Biafran War: Nationalism and Ethno-National Conflict in a Post-Colonial Society (Ch. 13)Religious Difference and Conflict in Nigeria: Disentangling Ethnicity and Religion? (Ch. 15)RUSSIAProfileIntroductionKey Features of Contemporary RussiaHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesOligarchy, Democracy, and Authoritarianism in Russia (Ch. 7)Executives in Russia: Formal and Informal Powers (Ch. 10)Personalism and the Party System in Russia (Ch. 11)The Russian Revolution (Ch. 12)Communist Ideology in Practice--Russia and the Soviet Union (Ch. 15)UNITED KINGDOMProfileIntroductionKey Features of the Contemporary United KingdomHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesThe State in the United Kingdom (Ch. 3)Political Economy of Britain (Ch. 4)No Constitution or Supreme Court? Constitutionality in the United Kingdom (Ch. 8)The Mother of Parliaments: The United Kingdom's Westminster Model (Ch. 9)National Identity in the United Kingdom (Ch. 13)Liberal Ideology in the United Kingdom (Ch. 15)UNITED STATESProfileIntroductionKey Features of the Contemporary United StatesHistorical DevelopmentRegime and Political InstitutionsPolitical CulturePolitical EconomyCase StudiesDid Free Markets Help the United States Get Rich? Will They in the Future? (Ch. 4)Is American Democracy in Trouble? (Ch. 6)Is Judicial Activism in the United States a Problem? (Ch. 8)The United States Congress: Dysfunctional or Functioning by Design? (Ch. 9)"The Most Powerful Person in the World"? Checks on American Presidents (Ch. 10)The United States and the World: A Love-Hate Relationship? (Ch. 16)NotesGlossaryReferences and Further ReadingCreditsIndex

Editorial Reviews

"More so than any other textbook on the market, Comparative Politics, Second Edition, provides an excellent combination of theoretical and conceptual materials with in-depth case studies that will empower students to think critically and engage in materials well beyond the surface." --Joseph Foy, University of Wisconsin-Parkside