The 'theory of the firm' is a significant part of modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is also highly relevant to business administration in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the 'competence' and 'governance' perspectives on thefirm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a strategic theory of the firm. Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist,what determines their boundaries and internal organization), but would also be helpful for informing strategy issues, such as understanding strategic flexibility, strategic options, and the sources of competitive advantage.This volume brings together leading thinkers on competence, governance, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research. By pooling and mobilizing intellectual resources of both competence and governance perspectives, the contributions show that an innovative joint venturebetween these two main perspectives potentially leads to a new avenue of future research on strategic issues such as corporate growth, interfirm cooperation, and corporate entrepreneurship.