Competitive Anxiety in Sport (Paper) by Rainer MartensCompetitive Anxiety in Sport (Paper) by Rainer Martens

Competitive Anxiety in Sport (Paper)

byRainer Martens, Robin Vealey, Damon Burton

Paperback | January 26, 1995

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Competitive Anxiety in Sport is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). This book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for each scale, including detailed information on reliability and validity.

Competitive Anxiety in Sport outlines directions for future research using SCAT. In addition, the book features the full original report on the development of the CSAI-2 and instructions for using it.

Competitive Anxiety in Sport concludes with a theory of competitive anxiety based on an interaction between uncertainty about the outcome and the importance assigned to that outcome. The reader is invited to test the theory and challenged to replace it with a better one.

The actual scales for both SCAT and the CSAI-2 are contained in the text, and readers are encouraged to photocopy these scales for research purposes without further written permission. With these ready-to-use tools, sport psychology researchers, teachers, and students have everything they need to test the authors' theory and arrive at their own conclusions about the causes of competitive anxiety and how to address them.

This extension of and replacement for Martens's original competitive anxiety monograph published in 1977 also features the following:
-The test construction procedures with complete results of the reliability and validity of each scale

-Extensive reviews of 88 studies using SCAT and 16 using the CSAI-2

-New, more comprehensive norms for SCAT and the CSAI-2

-A new theory of competitive anxiety that synthesizes the findings and offers direction for future investigation
Competitive Anxiety in Sport is an essential reference for any research sport psychologist who is investigating competitive anxiety. Clinical sport psychologists will also find this book helpful in understanding the causes of competitive anxiety.

Rainer Martens, PhD, is the developer of the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT), the first instrument to assess sport-specific anxiety. A sport psychologist for more than 20 years and a professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Illinois, Dr. Martens is widely recognized for his research on competitive anxiety. ...
Title:Competitive Anxiety in Sport (Paper)Format:PaperbackProduct dimensions:288 pages, 9 × 6 × 0.69 inShipping dimensions:9 × 6 × 0.69 inPublished:January 26, 1995Publisher:Human Kinetics, Inc.Language:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0873229355

ISBN - 13:9780873229357


Table of Contents

Part I. Development and Validation of the Sport Competition Anxiety Test
Chapter 1. Anxiety in Sport

-Competitive Anxiety Terminology

-Competitive Anxiety Model

-Glossary of Competitive Anxiety Terms

Chapter 2. Competitive Trait Anxiety

-The Interactional Paradigm

-General Anxiety Versus Situation-Specific Anxiety

-A Trait-State Theory of Anxiety

-The Competitive Process

-Applying the Competitive Process Model to Competitive Anxiety Summary
Chapter 3. Development of SCAT

-Planning the Inventory

-Item Selection


-Internal Consistency


Chapter 4. Construct Validation of SCAT

-Construct Validation Model

-Original Construct Validation Research

Chapter 5. Using SCAT and SCAT Norms

-Administration of SCAT

-Scoring SCAT

-SCAT Norms
Part II. Sport Competition Anxiety Test: Literature Review, Current Status, and Future Directions
Chapter 6. Research Using SCAT: Review and Analysis

-Additional Psychometric Research

-An Expanded Model of Competitive Anxiety

-Relationship Between Competitive A-Trait and Other Intrapersonal Factors

-Perception of Threat: A Result of Competitive A-Trait and Situational Factors

-Influence of Perception of Threat on State Responses

-Competitive A-Trait and Motor Performance

-Influence of Competitive A-Trait and Performance on Performance Outcomes

-Influence of Performance Outcomes on Competitive A-Trait Intervention

-Coaches' Ability to Predict Competitive A-Trait and A-State in Athletes

Chapter 7. SCAT: Conclusions, Problems, and Future Directions

-Conclusions Drawn From Research Using SCAT

-Problems in SCAT Research

-Future Directions for SCAT Research

Part III. Development and Validation of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2
Rainer Martens, Damon Burton, Robin S. Vealey, Linda A. Bump, and Daniel E. Smith
Chapter 8. A Multidimensional Theory of Competitive State Anxiety

-Cognitive and Somatic A-State Defined

-Significance of the Cognitive-Somatic Distinction

-Independence of Cognitive and Somatic A-State

Chapter 9. Development of the CSAI-2

-Development and Analysis of Form A

-Form B

-Form C

-Form D


-Concurrent Validity

-Independence of the CSAI-2 Subscales

-Social Desirability and the Development of Form E

Chapter 10. Construct Validation of the CSAI-2

-Study 1: Variables Influencing Competitive A-State

-Study 2: Changes in Competitive A-State as the Time to Compete Nears

-Study 3: The Relationship Between Performance and the CSAI-2 Subscales

-Study 4: The Relationship Between CSAI-2 Subscales and a More Sensitive
-Intraindividual Performance Measure

Chapter 11. Using the CSAI-2 and CSAI-2 Norms

-Administration of the CSAI-2

-The Inventory

-Scoring the CSAI-2

-CSAI-2 Norms
Part IV. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2: Literature Review, Current Status, and Future Directions
Chapter 12. Research Using the CSAI-2: Review and Analysis

-Relationships Between CSAI-2 Components and Other Intrapersonal Factors

-Interrelationships Between CSAI-2 Components

-Temporal Changes in CSAI-2 Components

-Antecedents of CSAI-2 Components

-Relationship Between CSAI-2 Components and Motor Performance Effect of Intervention on the CSAI-2 Components

Chapter 13. CSAI-2: Conclusions, Problems, and Future Directions

-Conclusions Drawn From Research Using the CSAI-2

-Problems in CSAI-2 Research

-Future Directions for CSAI-2 Research

Part V. Concluding With a Theory
Chapter 14. A Theory of Competitive Anxiety

-Basic Propositions

-Causes of Competitive A-State

-Reciprocal Influence of Uncertainty and Importance

-Consensual Validation

-Reduction of Uncertainty

-Reduction of Importance

-Questions Regarding Competitive A-Trait

-Stress Management and the Theory of Competitive Anxiety

Appendix A. Published Empirical Studies Using SCAT
Appendix B. Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations Using SCAT
Appendix C. Published Empirical Studies Using the CSAI-2 References

Author Index
Subject Index

Editorial Reviews

I am not aware of any other such extensive treatment of competitive anxiety from a scientific viewpoint. This alone is sufficient reason to read this book. . . . I would use it not only in my practice, but particularly in the training of graduate students. AAASP Newsletter This volume constitutes a notable contribution to the scientific literature on anxiety in sport. It is at once a comprehensive test manual for several of the more widely used measures of sport-specific state and trait anxiety, a valuable reference work that reviews several decades of research on sport-related anxiety, and a strong theoretical statement. Sport psychology researchers and consultants will find this book invaluable. Ron E. Smith, PhDProfessor of Psychology, University of Washington