Complete Guide To Prescription And Nonprescription Drugs 2015: Features An A-z List Of Conditions…

Paperback | November 4, 2014

byH. Winter Griffith

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The 2015 edition of the most accessible, comprehensive and affordable guide to prescription and nonprescription drugs.

The classic guide to all major prescription and nonprescription drugs, featuring revised, up to date FDA information and an A-Z list of illnesses for easy reference. Includes coverage of dosage and length of time before drug takes effect; side effects, special precautions; interactions with other food and drugs; standards for use by different age groups, and more

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The 2015 edition of the most accessible, comprehensive and affordable guide to prescription and nonprescription drugs.The classic guide to all major prescription and nonprescription drugs, featuring revised, up to date FDA information and an A-Z list of illnesses for easy reference. Includes coverage of dosage and length of time before...

Dr. H. Winter Griffith spent more than thirty years in private practice, university teaching, and hospital administration. Dr. Griffith wrote many books, including Complete Guide to Symptoms, Illness & Surgery; Complete Guide to Pediatric Symptoms, Illness & Medications; Complete Guide to Sports Injuries; and Complete Guide to Symptoms...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:1120 pages, 9 × 5.99 × 1.94 inPublished:November 4, 2014Publisher:Penguin Publishing GroupLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0399171347

ISBN - 13:9780399171345

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COMPLETE GUIDE TOPRESCRIPTION &NONPRESCRIPTIONDRUGSBy H. WINTER GRIFFITH, M.D.Revised and Updated by Stephen W. Moore, M.D.Technical Consultants:Kevin Boesen, Pharm.D.Cindy Boesen, Pharm.D.Over 6000 Brand NamesOver 1000 Generic NamesA Perigee BookABOUT THE AUTHORH. Winter Griffith, M.D., authored 25 medical books, including the Complete Guide to Symptoms, Illness & Surgery and Complete Guide to Sports Injuries, each published by The Body Press/Perigee Books. Dr. Griffith received his medical degree from Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. After 20 years in private practice, he established and was the first director of a basic medical science program at Florida State University. He then became an associate professor of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine. Until his death in 1993, Dr. Griffith lived in Tucson, Arizona.Stephen Moore, M.D.Family physician, Tucson, ArizonaKevin Boesen, Pharm.D.Clinical Assistant Professor, College of Pharmacy, University of ArizonaClinical Instructor, College of Pharmacy, University of ArizonaJo A. GriffithDrugs and YouWhat is in This BookThe purpose of this book is to give you information about the most widely used drugs (prescription and nonprescription). The information is derived from many authoritative sources and represents the consensus of many experts. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and completeness. However, because drug information is constantly changing, you should always talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions or concerns.The information applies to generic drugs in both the United States and Canada. Generic names do not vary in these countries, but brand names do. Each year, new drug charts are added and existing charts are updated when appropriate. For the most part, drugs that are injected by a medical professional, used mainly in a hospital (or medical clinic) or have rare usage are not included.A drug cannot “cure.” It aids the body’s natural defenses to promote recovery. Likewise, a manufacturer or doctor cannot guarantee a drug will help every person. The complexity of the human body, individual responses in different people and in the same person under different circumstances, past and present health, age and gender impact how well a drug works.All effective drugs produce desirable changes in the body, but can also cause undesirable adverse reactions or side effects. Before you decide whether to take a drug, you or your doctor must decide, “Will the benefits outweigh the risks?”In the United States, it is the responsibility of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure that drugs are safe and effective. For more information, you may contact the FDA at 1-888-INFO-FDA or visit the website: www.fda.gov.Your RoleLearn the generic names and brand names of all your medicines. For example, acetaminophen is the generic name for the brand Tylenol. Write them down to help you remember. If a drug is a combination, learn the names of its generic ingredients.Filling a PrescriptionOnce a prescription is written you may purchase the medication from various sources. Pharmacies are usually located in a drug or grocery store. You may need to consider your options: Does your health insurance limit where prescriptions can be filled? Is the location convenient? Does the pharmacy maintain patient records and are the employees helpful and willing to answer drug related questions?Insurance companies or an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) may specify certain pharmacies. Some insurance companies have chosen a mail-order pharmacy. Normally a prescription is sent to the mail-order pharmacy or phoned in by the physician. Mail order is best used for maintenance (long-term medications). Short-term medications such as antibiotics should be purchased at a local pharmacy.Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is best to stay with that one so an accurate drug history can be maintained. The pharmacist can more easily check for drug interactions that may be potentially harmful to the patient or decrease the efficacy of one or more of the medications.You can phone the pharmacy for a refill. Provide the prescription number, name of medication, and name of the patient.Taking A DrugRead the instructions provided with the drug and follow all directions for taking or using it.Never take medicine in the dark! Recheck the label before each use. You could be taking the wrong drug!Tell your doctor about any unexpected new symptoms you have while taking or using a drug. You may need to change drugs or have a dose adjustment.StorageKeep all medicines out of children’s reach and in childproof containers. Store drugs in a cool, dry place, such as a kitchen cabinet or bedroom. Avoid medicine cabinets in bathrooms. They get too moist and warm at times.Keep medicine in its original container, tightly closed. Don’t remove the label! If directions call for refrigeration, keep the medicine cool, but don’t freeze it.DiscardingDon’t save leftover medicine to use later. Discard it on or before the expiration date shown on the container. Dispose safely to protect children and pets. See page xx.AlertnessMany of the medicines used to treat disorders may alter your alertness. If you drive, work around machinery, or must avoid sedation, discuss the problem with your doctor; usually there are ways (e.g., the time of day you take the medicine) to manage the problem.Alcohol & MedicationsAlcohol and drugs of abuse defeat the purpose of many medications. For example, alcohol causes depression; if you drink and are depressed, antidepressants will not relieve the depression. If you have a problem with drinking or drugs, discuss it with your doctor. There are ways to help.Learn About DrugsStudy the information in this book’s charts regarding your medications. Read each chart completely. Because of space limitations, most information that fits more than one category appears only once. Any time you are prescribed a new medication, read the information on the chart for that drug, then take the time to review the charts on other medications you already take. Read any instruction sheets or printed warnings provided by your doctor or pharmacist.Drug AdvertisingAds can cause confusion. Be sure and get sufficient information about any drug you think may help you. Ask your doctor or pharmacist.Be Safe! Tell Your DoctorSome suggestions for wise drug use apply to all drugs. Always give your doctor, dentist, or healthcare provider complete information about the drugs and supplements you take, including your medical history, your medical plans and your progress while under medication.Medical HistoryTell the important facts of your medical history including illness and previous experience with drugs. Include allergic or adverse reactions you have had to any medicine or other substance in the past. Describe the allergic symptoms you have, such as hay fever, asthma, eye watering and itching, throat irritation and reactions to food. People who have allergies to common substances are more likely to develop drug allergies.List all drugs you take. Don’t forget vitamin and mineral supplements; skin, rectal or vaginal medicines; eyedrops and eardrops; antacids; antihistamines; cold and cough remedies; inhalants and nasal sprays; aspirin, aspirin combinations or other pain relievers; motion sickness remedies; weight-loss aids; salt and sugar substitutes; caffeine; oral contraceptives; sleeping pills; laxatives; “tonics” or herbal preparations.Future Medical PlansDiscuss plans for elective surgery (including dental surgery), pregnancy and breastfeeding. These conditions may require discontinuing or modifying the dosages of medicines you may be taking.QuestionsDon’t hesitate to ask questions about a drug. Your doctor or pharmacist will be able to provide helpful information if they are familiar with you and your medical history.Guide to Drug ChartsThe drug information in this book is organized in condensed, easy-to-read charts. Each drug is described in a two-page format, as shown in the sample chart below and opposite. Charts are arranged alphabetically by drug generic names, such as ACETAMINOPHEN or by drug class name, such as ANTIHISTAMINES.A generic name is the official chemical name for a drug. A brand name is a drug manufacturer’s registered trademark for a generic drug. Brand names listed on the charts include those from the United States and Canada. A generic drug may have one, a few, or many brand names.To find information about a generic drug, look it up in the index. To learn about a brand name, check the index, where each brand name is followed by the name(s) of its generic ingredients and their chart page number(s).The chart design is the same for every drug. When you are familiar with the chart, you can quickly find information you want to know about a drug.On the next few pages, each of the numbered chart sections below is explained. This information will guide you in reading and understanding the charts that begin on page 2.1—Generic or Class NameEach drug chart is titled by generic name or by the name of the drug class, such as DIGITALIS PREPARATIONS.All drugs have a generic name. These generic names are the same worldwide. Sometimes a drug is known by more than one generic name. The chart is titled by the most common one. Less common generic names appear in parentheses. For example, vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. Its chart title is VITAMIN C (Ascorbic Acid). The index will include both names.Your drug container may show a generic name, a brand name or both. If you have only a brand name, use the index to find the drug’s generic name(s) and chart page number(s).If your drug container shows no name, ask your doctor or pharmacist for the name and write it on the container.2—Brand NamesA brand name is usually shorter and easier to remember than the generic name. The brand name is selected by the drug manufacturerThe brand names listed for each generic drug in this book do not include all brands available in the United States and Canada. The more common names are listed. New brands appear on the market, and brands are sometimes removed from the market. No list can reflect every change. In the instances in which the drug chart is titled with a drug class name instead of a generic name, the generic and brand names all appear under the heading GENERIC AND BRAND NAMES. The GENERIC NAMES are in capital letters and the BRAND NAMES are in lower-case letters.Inclusion of a brand name does not imply recommendation or endorsement. Exclusion does not imply that a missing brand name is less effective or less safe than the ones listed. Some drug charts have too many generic and brand names to list on the page. A complete list is on the page indicated on the chart.Lists of brand names don’t differentiate between prescription and nonprescription drugs. The active ingredients are the same.If you buy a nonprescription drug, look for generic names of the active ingredients on the container. Common nonprescription drugs are described in this book under their generic components. Many are also listed in the index by brand name.Most drugs contain inert, or inactive, ingredients that are fillers, dyes or solvents for the active ingredients. Manufacturers choose inert ingredients that preserve the drug without interfering with the action of the active ingredients.Inert substances are listed on labels of nonprescription drugs. They do not appear on prescription drugs. Your pharmacist can tell you all active and inert ingredients in a prescription drug.Occasionally, a tablet, capsule or liquid may contain small amounts of sodium, sugar or potassium. If you are on a diet that severely restricts any of these, ask your pharmacist or doctor to suggest another form.Some liquid medications contain alcohol. Avoid them if you are susceptible to the adverse effects of alcohol consumption.BASIC INFORMATION3—Habit Forming?Yes—means the drug is capable of leading to physical and/or psychological dependence.Physical dependence includes tolerance (requiring larger dosages or repeated use) and withdrawal symptoms (mental and physical) when it is stopped.Psychological dependence involves repeated use of a drug to bring about effects that are pleasurable or satisfying, or it reduces undesirable feelings.4—Prescription Needed?Yes—means a doctor must prescribe the drug for you. “No” means you can buy the drug without prescription. Sometimes low strengths of a drug are available without prescription, while higher strengths require prescription.The information about the drug applies whether it requires prescription or not. If the generic ingredients are the same, nonprescription drugs have the same dangers, warnings, precautions and interactions as prescription drugs. A nonprescription (over-the-counter) drug has dosing and other instructions printed on the container label. Always read them carefully before you take the drug. The information and warnings on containers for nonprescription drugs may not be as complete as the information in this book. Check both sources.5—Available as Generic?Some drugs have patent restrictions that protect the manufacturer or distributor of that drug. These drugs may be purchased only by a specific brand name.Drugs purchased by generic name are usually less expensive than brand names. Once the patent expires, other drug companies can sell that particular drug. They will choose their own brand name.Some states allow pharmacists to fill a prescription by brand name or generic name (if one is available). This allows patients to buy the least expensive form of a drug.A doctor may specify a brand name because he or she trusts a known source more than an unknown manufacturer of generic drugs. You and your doctor should decide together whether you should buy a medicine by generic name or brand name.Generic drugs manufactured in other countries are not subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. All drugs manufactured in the United States are subject to regulation.6—Drug ClassDrugs that possess similar chemical structures or similar therapeutic effects are grouped into classes. Most drugs within a class produce similar benefits, side effects, adverse reactions and interactions with other drugs and substances. For example, all the generic drugs in the narcotic drug class will have similar effects on the body.Some information on the charts applies to all drugs in a class. The index lists the classes (such as narcotics) and lists the drug charts in that class.Names for classes of drugs are not standardized; class names listed in other references may vary from the class names in this book.7— UsesThis section lists the disease or disorder for which a drug is prescribed.Most uses listed are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Some uses are listed if experiments and clinical trials indicate effectiveness and safety. Still, other uses are included that may not be officially sanctioned, but for which doctors may prescribe the drug.The use for which your doctor prescribes the drug may not appear. You and your doctor should discuss the reason for any prescription medicine you take. You alone will probably decide whether to take a nonprescription drug. This section may help you make a wise decision. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATION8—How To TakeDrugs are available in forms of tablets, capsules, chewables, liquids, powders, thin film, specialty tablets, suppositories, injections, transdermal patches (used on the skin), aerosol inhalants and topical forms such as drops, sprays, creams, gels, ointments and lotions. This section gives brief instructions for taking or using each form.The information here supplements the drug label information. If your doctor’s instructions differ from these suggestions, follow your doctor’s instructions.Instructions are left out for how much to take. Dose amounts can’t be generalized. Dosages of prescription drugs must be individualized for you by your doctor. Be sure the dosage instructions are on the label. Advice to “take as directed” is not helpful if you forget the doctor’s instructions or didn’t understand them. Nonprescription drugs have instructions on the labels regarding how much to take.9—When To TakeDose schedules vary for medicines and for patients.Drugs prescribed on a schedule should usually be taken at approximately the same times each day. Some must be taken at regular intervals to maintain a steady level of the drug in the body. If the schedule interferes with your sleep, consult your doctor.Instructions to take on an empty stomach mean the drug is absorbed best in your body this way. Other drugs must be taken with liquid or food because they irritate the stomach.Instructions for other dose schedules are usually on the label. Variations in standard dose schedules may apply because some medicines interact with others if you take them at the same time.10—If You Forget a DoseSuggestions in this section vary from drug to drug. Most tell you when to resume taking the medicine if you forget a scheduled dose.Establish good habits so you won’t forget doses. Forgotten doses decrease a drug’s therapeutic effect.11—What Drug DoesThis is a simple description of the drug’s action in the body. The wording is generalized and may not be a complete explanation of the complex chemical process that takes place. For some drugs, the method of action is unknown.12—Time Lapse Before Drug WorksThe times given are approximations. Times vary a great deal from person to person, and from time to time in the same person. The figures give you some idea of when to expect improvement or side effects.13—Don’t Take WithSome drugs create problems when taken in combination with other substances. Most problems are detailed in the Interaction section of each chart.Occasionally, an interaction is singled out if the combination is particularly harmful. OVERDOSE14—SymptomsThe symptoms listed are most likely to develop with accidental or purposeful overdose. Overdosage may not cause all symptoms listed. Sometimes symptoms are identical to ones listed as side effects. The difference is intensity and severity. You will have to judge. Consult a doctor or poison control center if you have any doubt.15—What To DoIf you suspect an overdose, whether symptoms are apparent or not, get medical help or advice, and if needed, follow instructions in this section. Additional instructions for emergency treatment for overdose are at the end of the book.16— Possible Adverse Reactions or Side EffectsAdverse reactions or side effects are symptoms that may occur when you take a drug. They are effects on the body other than the desired therapeutic effect.The term side effects implies expected and usually unavoidable effects of a drug. Side effects have nothing to do with the drug’s intended use.For example, the generic drug paregoric reduces intestinal cramps and vomiting. It also often causes a flushed face. The flushing is a side effect that is harmless and does not affect the drug’s therapeutic potential. Many side effects disappear in a short time without treatment.The term adverse reaction is more significant. For example, paregoric can cause a serious adverse allergic reaction in some people. This reaction can include hives, rash and severe itch.Some adverse reactions can be prevented, which is one reason this information is included in the book. Most adverse reactions are minor and last only a short time. With many drugs, adverse reactions that might occur will frequently diminish in intensity as your body adjusts to the medicine.The majority of drugs, used properly for valid reasons, offer benefits that outweigh potential hazards.17—SymptomsSymptoms of commonly known side effects and adverse reactions are listed. Other drug responses may be listed under “Prolonged Use,” “Skin & Sunlight” or “Others.” You may experience a symptom that is not listed. It may be a side effect or adverse reaction to the drug, or it may be an additional symptom of the illness. If you are unsure, call your doctor.18—FrequencyThis is an estimation of how often symptoms occur in persons who take the drug. The four most common categories of frequency can be found under the SYMPTOMS heading and are as follows: Life-threatening means exactly what it says; seek emergency treatment immediately. Common means these symptoms are expected and sometimes inevitable. Infrequent means the symptoms occur in approximately 1% to 10% of patients. Rare means symptoms occur in fewer than 1%.19—What To DoFollow the guidelines provided opposite the symptoms that apply to you. These are general instructions. If you are concerned or confused, always call your doctor.20— Warnings & PrecautionsRead these entries to determine special information that applies to you.21—Don’t Take IfThis section lists circumstances when drug use is not safe. On some drug labels and in formal medical literature, these circumstances are called contraindications.22—Before You Start, Consult Your Doctor IfThis section lists conditions, especially disease conditions, under which a drug should be used only with caution and medical supervision.23—Over Age 60As a person ages, physical changes occur that require special considerations. Liver and kidney functions decrease, metabolism slows and the prostate gland enlarges in men.Most drugs are metabolized or excreted at a rate dependent on kidney and liver functions. Smaller doses or longer intervals between doses may be necessary to prevent unhealthy concentration of a drug. Toxic effects and adverse reactions occur more frequently and cause more serious problems in older people.24—PregnancyThe best rule to follow during pregnancy is to avoid all drugs, including tobacco and alcohol. Any medicine—prescription or nonprescription—requires medical advice and supervision.This section will alert you if there is evidence that a drug harms the unborn child. Lack of evidence does not guarantee a drug’s safety.The definitions of the pregnancy risk categories of drugs used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are listed on page xviii.25—BreastfeedingThis section lets you know if a drug is generally acceptable or generally not recommended with breastfeeding. The decision to continue or stop breastfeeding during therapy should take into account the risk of exposure to the infant and the benefits of treatment to the mother. A nursing mother should always consult her doctor before taking or using any drug.26—Infants & ChildrenMany drugs carry special warnings and precautions for children because of a child’s size and immaturity. In medical terminology, newborns are babies up to 2 weeks old, infants are 2 weeks to 1 year, and children are 1 to 12 years.27—Prolonged UseWith the exception of immediate allergic reactions, most drugs produce no ill effects during short periods of treatment. However, relatively safe drugs taken for long periods may produce unwanted effects. These are listed. Drugs should be taken in the smallest doses and for the shortest time possible. Nevertheless, some diseases and conditions require a prolonged or even lifelong period of treatment. Therefore, follow-up medical examinations and laboratory tests are often recommended. Your doctor may want to change drugs or your treatment plan to minimize problems.The words “functional dependence” sometimes appear in this section. This does not mean physical or psychological addiction. Sometimes a body function ceases to work naturally because it has been replaced or interfered with by the drug. The body then becomes dependent on the drug to continue the function.28—Skin & SunlightMany drugs cause photosensitivity, which means increased skin sensitivity to ultraviolet rays from sunlight or artificial rays from a sunlamp. This section will alert you to this potential problem.29—Driving, Piloting or Hazardous WorkAny drug that alters moods or that decreases alertness, muscular coordination or reflexes may make these activities particularly hazardous. The effects may not appear in all people, or they may disappear after a short exposure to the drug. If this section contains a warning, use caution until you determine how a new drug affects you.30—DiscontinuingThis section gives special warnings about discontinuing a drug.Some patients stop taking a drug when symptoms begin to go away, although complete recovery may require longer treatment.Other patients continue taking a drug when it is no longer needed.Some drugs cause symptoms days or weeks after they have been discontinued.31—OthersWarnings and precautions appear here if they don’t fit into the other categories. This section includes special instructions, reminders, storage instructions, warnings to persons with chronic illness and other information.32— Possible Interaction With Other DrugsPeople often must take two or more drugs at the same time. Many of these drug combinations have the potential to interact adversely. Fortunately, this adverse reaction occurs in only a small proportion of people who take the interacting combinations. Drugs interact in your body with other drugs, whether prescription or nonprescription. Interactions affect absorption, metabolism, elimination or distribution of either drug. Other factors that can influence drug interactions are the patient’s age, state of health and the way the drugs are administered: Time taken, how taken, dosage, dosage forms and duration of treatment. The chart lists interactions by generic name, drug class or drug-induced effect. An asterisk (*) in this column reminds you to “See Glossary” in the back of the book, where that entry is further explained.If a drug class appears, the drug you are looking up may interact with any drug in that class. Drugs in each class that are included in the book are listed in the index. Occasionally drugs that are not included in this book appear in the Interaction column.Interactions are sometimes beneficial. You may not be able to determine from the chart which interactions are good and which are bad. Don’t guess. Consult your doctor or pharmacist if you take drugs that interact. Some combinations can be fatal.Some drugs have too many interactions to list on one chart. The additional interactions appear on the continuation page indicated at the bottom of the list.Testing has not been done on all possible drug combinations. It is important to let your doctor or pharmacist know about any drugs you take, both prescription and nonprescription.33— Possible Interaction With Other SubstancesThe substances listed here are repeated on every drug chart. All people eat food and drink beverages. Many adults consume alcohol. Some people use cocaine and/or smoke tobacco or marijuana. This section shows possible interactions between these substances and each drug.Checklist for Safer Drug Use   • Tell your doctor about any drug you take (even aspirin, allergy pills, cough and cold preparations, antacids, laxatives, herbal preparations, vitamins, etc.) before you take any new drug.   • Learn all you can about drugs you may take before you take them. Information sources are your doctor, your nurse, your pharmacist, this book, other books in your public library and the Internet.   • Keep an up-to-date list of all the medicines you take in a wallet or purse. Include name, dose and frequency.   • Don’t take drugs prescribed for someone else—even if your symptoms are the same.   • Keep your prescription drugs to yourself. Your drugs may be harmful to someone else.   • Tell your doctor about any symptoms you believe are caused by a drug—prescription or nonprescription—that you take.   • Take only medicines that are necessary. Avoid taking nonprescription drugs while taking prescription drugs for a medical problem.   • Before your doctor prescribes for you, tell him about your previous experiences with any drug—beneficial results, side effects, adverse reactions or allergies.   • Take medicine in good light after you have identified it. If you wear glasses to read, put them on to check drug labels. It is easy to take the wrong drug or take a drug at the wrong time.   • Don’t keep any drugs that change mood, alertness or judgment—such as sedatives, narcotics or tranquilizers—by your bedside. These can cause accidental deaths. You may unknowingly repeat a dose when you are half asleep or confused.   • Know the names of your medicines. These include the generic name, the brand name and the generic names of all ingredients in a combination drug. Your doctor, nurse or pharmacist can give you this information.   • Study the labels on all nonprescription drugs. If the information is incomplete or if you have questions, ask the pharmacist for more details.   • If you must deviate from your prescribed dose schedule, tell your doctor.   • Shake liquid medicines before taking (if directed).   • Store all medicines away from moisture and heat. Bathroom medicine cabinets are usually unsuitable.   • If a drug needs refrigeration, don’t freeze.   • Obtain a standard measuring spoon from your pharmacy for liquid medicines. Kitchen teaspoons and tablespoons are not accurate enough.   • Follow diet instructions when you take medicines. Some work better on a full stomach, others on an empty stomach. Some drugs are more useful with special diets. For example, medicine for high blood pressure may be more effective if accompanied by a sodium-restricted diet.   • Tell your doctor about any allergies you have to any substance (e.g., food) or adverse reactions to medicines you’ve had in the past. A previous allergy to a drug may make it dangerous to prescribe again. People with other allergies, such as eczema, hay fever, asthma, bronchitis and food allergies, are more likely to be allergic to drugs.   • Prior to surgery, tell your doctor, anesthesiologist or dentist about any drug you have taken in the past few weeks. Advise them of any cortisone drugs you have taken within two years.   • If you become pregnant while taking any medicine, including birth control pills, tell your doctor immediately.   • Avoid all drugs while you are pregnant, if possible. If you must take drugs during pregnancy, record names, amounts, dates and reasons.   • If you see more than one doctor, tell each one about drugs others have prescribed.   • When you use nonprescription drugs, report it so the information is on your medical record.   • Store all drugs away from the reach of children.   • Note the expiration date on each drug label. Discard outdated ones safely. If no expiration date appears and it has been at least one year since taking the medication, it may be best to discard it. Follow any specific disposal instructions on the drug label or patient information that came with the drug. See page xx for instructions about disposing of drugs.   • Pay attention to the information in the drug charts about safety while driving, piloting or working in dangerous places.   • Alcohol, cocaine, marijuana or other mood-altering drugs, as well as tobacco—mixed with some drugs—can cause a life-threatening interaction, prevent your medicine from being effective or delay your return to health. Be sure that you avoid them during illness.   • Some medications are subject to theft. For example, a repair person in your home who is abusing drugs may ask to use your bathroom, and while there “checkout” your medicine cabinet. Sedatives, stimulants and analgesics are especially likely to be stolen, but almost any medication is subject to theft.   • If possible, use the same pharmacy for all your medications. Every pharmacy keeps a “drug profile,” and if it is complete, the pharmacist may stop medications that are likely to cause serious interactions. Also, having a record of all your medications in one place helps your doctor or an emergency room doctor get a complete picture in case of an emergency.   • If you have a complicated medical history or a condition that might render you unable to communicate (e.g., diabetes or epilepsy), wear some type of medical identification (small tag, bracelet, neck chain or other) to identify your condition. (The MedicAlert Corporation provides this type of product. Call 888-633-4298 or go online www.medicalert.org for information.) Some people carry a wallet card with the information. A newer type of medical alert ID is the USB tag. It is basically a USB flash drive that contains a person’s medical emergency information and can store much more information if desired. Emergency medical people can access the information using any available computer.   • If you are giving medicine to children, read all instructions carefully. Use the specific dosing device (dropper, cup, etc.) that comes with the product. Don’t exceed recommended dose. It does not help and can cause health risks.   • Ask your pharmacist if they will provide an extra, prescription-labeled small bottle or container to use for one or two doses of your medication. It can be used when going out for a meal, during short trips or for a student in school. This avoids carrying all your medications with you.Compliance with Doctors’ InstructionsFor medical purposes, compliance is defined as the extent to which a patient follows the instructions of a doctor and includes taking medications on schedule, keeping appointments and following directions for changes in lifestyle, such as changing one’s diet or exercise.Although the cost of obtaining medical advice and medication is one of the largest items in a family budget, many people defeat the health-care process by departing from the doctor’s recommendations. This failure to carry out the doctor’s instructions is the single most common cause of treatment failure. Perhaps the instructions were not presented clearly, or you may not have understood them or realized their importance and benefits.Factors That Can Cause Problems With Compliance:   • Treatment recommendations that combine two or more actions (such as instructions to take medication, see a therapist and join a support group).   • Recommendations that require lifestyle changes (such as dieting).   • Recommendations that involve long-term treatment (such as taking a medication for life).   • Recommendations for very young patients or for the elderly (when another person has to be responsible for following the instructions).   • Other factors include traveling and time changes, busy work schedules and lack of organization.Examples of Noncompliance:   • Medications are forgotten or discontinued too soon. Forgetting to take a medication is the most common of all shortcomings, especially if a medication must be taken more than once a day. If you need to take a medication several times a day, set out a week’s supply in an inexpensive pill box that you can carry with you.   • Side effects of medications are a common problem. Almost all medications have some unpleasant side effects. Often these disappear after a few days, but if they don’t, let your doctor know right away. Side effects can often be controlled by changing dosage, switching to a similar medication or by adding medications that control the side effects.   • Not taking a drug because it is unpleasant (e.g., bad tasting). Ask your doctor about options.   • Cost is another reason why there are treatment failures. Because of a tight budget, a person may take a medication less frequently than prescribed or just not purchase it. If you can’t afford a medication, perhaps a less costly one can be prescribed or your doctor can find other ways to provide it.   • Laboratory tests, x-rays or other recommended medical studies are not obtained, perhaps due to concerns about costs or fear of the tests themselves.   • Recommendations about behavioral changes such as diet or exercise are ignored (old habits are difficult for anyone to change).   • Suggested immunizations are not obtained, sometimes due to fear of needles.   • Follow-up visits to the doctor are not made, or appointments are canceled, perhaps due to problems finding transportation or long waiting times in the doctor’s office.Communicating With Your Doctor:   • If you don’t understand something, ask.   • If there are reasons why you cannot follow a recommendation, speak up.   • If you have reservations or fears about treatment, discuss them.Remember, it is your health and your money that are at issue. You and your doctor are—or should be—working together to make you well and keep you healthy.Cough and Cold MedicinesThere are hundreds of nonprescription (over-the-counter or OTC) drugs available to treat symptoms of the common cold and other minor respiratory illnesses.Some of these drugs contain a single active ingredient that relieves one specific symptom (such as a cough). Other drugs contain combinations of two or more ingredients intended to relieve a number of different symptoms (such as a cough, stuffy nose and pain).Each of the active ingredients in a drug has a generic (or chemical) name. Generics are names such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, pseudoephedrine, guaifenesin, diphenhydramine and others.Cough and cold drugs can be sorted into five categories (or classes). They include:Antihistamines dry up secretions of the respiratory tract and help control allergy symptoms. Antihistamines may cause drowsiness, slow reflexes and decrease ability to concentrate. Therefore, don’t drive vehicles or pilot aircraft until you learn how this medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. The danger increases if you drink alcohol or take other medicines that affect alertness and reflexes. Antihistamines can cause other side effects or adverse reactions.Decongestants relieve symptoms of nasal or bronchial congestion. Decongestants may cause nervousness, irregular heartbeats in some people, dizziness, confusion and other side effects. Conduct your daily activities with these effects in mind.Antitussives (Cough suppressants) reduce the frequency and severity of a cough. These may be either narcotic (e.g., codeine and hydrocodone) or non-narcotic (e.g., dextromethorphan or carbetapentane). Narcotic cough suppressants are habit-forming and may cause some of the same mental changes that can take place with antihistamines. The most common non-narcotic antitussive medicine, dextromethorphan, is not habit-forming but has other side effects. Carbetapentane is similar (but not covered in this book).Expectorants loosen secretions to make them easier to cough up. The most common expectorant is guaifenesin, which has very few side effects.Analgesics relieve aches, pains and fever. Common analgesics in cough and cold medicines are aspirin, acetaminophen and ibuprofen.These nonprescription drugs are generally recognized as safe, but they do have side effects, possible interactions with other drugs, and need to be used with caution in certain individuals.There is no drug that will cure a cold (including antibiotics). If you decide to take a drug for specific symptoms, a single ingredient one is usually a better choice, unless each of the drug’s ingredients is necessary to relieve your particular symptoms. Before taking a drug, read the label and follow all the directions. Also, read the information in this book about the drug’s generic ingredients. To find information about a drug:   • Look on the label for the generic ingredients that are in the drug product.   • Consult the index for each generic name and find the page number for its drug chart. Then look up each drug chart. Read all the information, especially regarding the adverse reactions and side effects, precautions, and interactions with other drugs you may be taking.Always consult a doctor if any cold symptoms cause you concern.Practice prevention—wash your hands often and keep your hands away from your face.Nonprescription cough and cold drugs in children• Read the label to be sure it is approved for your child’s age. Labels advise you not to use these medicines in children under age 4. Do not give children medications labeled only for adults.• Choose nonprescription cough and cold medicines with child-resistant safety caps, when available. After using, make sure to close the cap tightly and store the medicine out of the sight and reach of children.• Check the “active ingredients” section of the DRUG FACTS label of the medicines that you choose. This will help you know what symptoms the “active ingredients” in the medicine are intended to treat.• Be careful about giving more than one medicine to a child. If you do, make sure they do not have the same type of “active ingredients.” If you use two medicines that have the same or similar active ingredients, a child could get too much of an ingredient and that may hurt your child.• Carefully follow the directions for how to use the medicine in the DRUG FACTS part of the label. The directions tell you how much medicine to give and how often you can give it. If you have a question about how to use the medicine, ask your pharmacist or doctor. Overuse or misuse of these products can lead to serious and potentially life threatening side effects.• Only use measuring devices that come with the medicine or those specially made for measuring drugs. Do not use common household spoons to measure medicines for children because household spoons come in different sizes and are not meant for measuring medicines.• Understand that using nonprescription cough and cold medicines does not cure the cold or cough. These medicines only treat the symptom(s) such as runny nose, congestion, fever and aches. They do not shorten the length of time your child is sick.Pregnancy Risk Category Information for DrugsThe pregnancy risk category assigned to medications identifies the potential risk for that particular drug to cause harmful effects (such as birth defects or death) to an unborn baby (fetus). These categories are assigned by applying the definitions of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to the available clinical information about the drug. Most drugs are tested only on animals and not on humans for safety during pregnancy, because such testing would subject unborn children to unnecessary risks.Labels for nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines usually tell a pregnant woman to speak to her doctor before using the medicine.It is best to avoid all drugs during pregnancy, but this rating system can help you and your doctor to assess the risk-to-benefit ratio should drug treatment become necessary. You and your doctor should discuss these benefits and risks carefully before any drug treatment is initiated. You should not take any medications (including nonprescription drugs such as laxatives or cold remedies) without your doctor’s approval.A brief explanation and the definitions of the drug categories, labeled A, B, C, D, and X, are listed in the next column:• A: No evidence of risk exists. Adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have not shown an increased risk of fetal abnormalities.• B: The risk of fetal harm is possible but remote. Animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus; however, there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, or animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus.• C: Fetal risk can’t be ruled out. Animal studies have shown an adverse effect, and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, or no animal studies have been conducted, and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.• D: Positive evidence of fetal risk exists, but, potential benefits from the drug may outweigh the risk. For example, the drug may be acceptable in a life-threatening situation or serious disease if safer drugs can’t be used or are ineffective. Adequate well-controlled or observational studies in pregnant women have demonstrated a risk to the fetus.• X: Contraindicated during pregnancy. Adequate well-controlled or observational studies in animals or pregnant women have demonstrated positive evidence of fetal abnormalities. The use of the product is contraindicated in women who are or who may become pregnant.• NR: Not rated.Pregnancy and Taking DrugsWhile it may seem obvious, pregnant women should be particularly careful about weighing the risks and benefits of taking medicines. Not all medicines are safe to take during pregnancy. It’s worth emphasizing some of the lesser-known reasons for caution:Pregnancy may change the way your body processes medications. Pregnant women should ask their health care professional if the dosage should be changed for their medicines.Even everyday medicines, such as some nonprescription pain relievers, can be unhealthy for pregnant women and the fetus at certain points during a pregnancy.Many women have serious medical conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, high blood pressure and epilepsy, and they need to take prescription medicine during pregnancy. The risk of stopping a medication could be greater than continuing it during pregnancy.Drug Information: Check the labels on both nonprescription and prescription drugs for any warnings about use during pregnancy.Many women turn to the Internet for information on using medicines during pregnancy. Unfortunately, some online information is confusing and inaccurate.Women should always consult a health care professional before stopping or starting a medicine while pregnant or while trying to get pregnant.Buying Prescription Drugs OnlineThe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) offers these suggestions. When it comes to buying medicine online, it is important to be very careful. Some websites sell medicine that may not be safe to use and could put your health at risk.• Some websites that sell medicine:1. Aren’t U.S. state-licensed pharmacies or aren’t pharmacies at all.2. May give a diagnosis that is not correct and sell medicine that is not right for you or your condition.3. Won’t protect your personal information.• Some medicines sold online:1. Are fake (counterfeit or “copycat” medicines).2. Are too strong or too weak.3. Have dangerous ingredients.4. Have expired (are out-of-date).5. Aren’t FDA-approved (haven’t been checked for safety and effectiveness).6. Aren’t made using safe standards.7. Aren’t safe to use with other medicine or products you use.8. Aren’t labeled, stored, or shipped correctly.What you should do:1. Talk with your doctor and have a physical exam before you get any new medicine for the first time.2. Use only medicine that has been prescribed by your doctor or another trusted professional who is licensed in the U.S. to write prescriptions for medicine.3. Ask your doctor if there are any special steps you need to take to fill your prescription.These tips will help protect you if you buy medicines online:• Know your source to make sure it’s safe.• Make sure a website is a state-licensed pharmacy that is located in the United States. Pharmacies and pharmacists in the United States are licensed by a state’s board of pharmacy. Your state board of pharmacy can tell you if a website is a state-licensed pharmacy, is in good standing, and is located in the United States. Find a list of state boards of pharmacy on the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) website at www.nabp.info.• The NABP has a program to help you find some of the pharmacies that are licensed to sell medicine online. Internet websites that display the seal of this program have been checked to make sure they meet state and federal rules. For more on this program and a list of pharmacies that display the Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites™ Seal, (VIPPS® Seal), go to www.vipps.info.• Look for websites with practices that protect you. A safe website should:1. Be located in the United States and licensed by the state board of pharmacy where the website is operating.2. Have a licensed pharmacist to answer your questions.3. Require a prescription from your doctor or other health care professional who is licensed in the United States to write prescriptions for medicine.4. Have a way for you to talk to a person if you have problems.• Be sure your privacy is protected.1. Look for privacy and security policies that are easy-to-find and easy-to-understand.2. Don’t give any personal information (such as social security number, credit card, or medical or health history), unless you are sure the website will keep your information safe and private.3. Make sure that the site will not sell your information, unless you agree.Report websites you are not sure of, or if you have complaints about a site.Go to www.fda.gov/buyonline and click on “Your Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA.”Guidelines for Disposing of DrugsFollow any specific disposal instructions on the prescription drug labeling or patient information that accompanies the medicine. Do not flush medicines down the sink or toilet unless this information specifically instructs you to do so.Take advantage of community drug take-back programs that allow the public to bring unused drugs to a central location for proper disposal. Call your city or county government’s household trash and recycling service to see if a take-back program is available in your community. If no disposal instructions are given on the prescription drug labeling and no take-back program is available in your area, throw the drugs in the household trash following these steps.1. Remove them from their original containers and mix them with an undesirable substance, such as used coffee grounds or kitty litter (this makes the drug less appealing to children and pets, and unrecognizable to people who may intentionally go through the trash seeking drugs). 2. Place the mixture in a sealable bag, empty can, or other container to prevent the drug from leaking or breaking out of a garbage bag.Before throwing out a medicine container, scratch out all identifying information on the prescription label to make it unreadable. This will help protect your identity and the privacy of your personal health information.Do not give your medicine to friends. Doctors prescribe medicines based on a person’s specific symptoms and medical history. A medicine that works for you could be dangerous for someone else.When in doubt about proper disposal, talk to your pharmacist.The same disposal methods for prescription drugs can apply to nonprescription drugs as well.Why Some Drugs are Flushed AwayPrescription drugs such as powerful narcotic pain relievers and other controlled substances carry instructions for flushing to reduce the danger of unintentional use or overdose and illegal abuse.For example, the fentanyl patch, an adhesive patch that delivers a potent pain medicine through the skin, comes with instructions to flush used or leftover patches. Too much fentanyl can cause severe breathing problems and lead to death in babies, children, pets, and even adults, especially those who have not been prescribed the medicine.Even after a patch is used, a lot of the medicine remains in the patch so don’t throw something in the trash that contains a powerful and potentially dangerous narcotic that could harm others.Disposal of Inhaler ProductsInhalers are used by people who have asthma or other breathing problems, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Read handling instructions on the labeling of inhalers and aerosol products because they could be dangerous if punctured or thrown into a fire or incinerator. To ensure safe disposal that complies with local regulations and laws, contact your local trash and recycling facility.Getting Help From Your PharmacistOne of the most important services a pharmacist can offer is to talk to you about your medicines. A pharmacist can help you understand how and when to take your medicines, what side effects you might expect, or what interactions may occur. A pharmacist can answer your questions privately in the pharmacy or over the telephone.Here are some other ways your pharmacist can help:Many pharmacists keep track of medicines on their computer. If you buy your medicines at one store and tell your pharmacist all the nonprescription and prescription drugs or dietary supplements you take, your pharmacist can help make sure your medicines don’t interact harmfully with one another.Ask your pharmacist to place your prescription medicines in easy-to-open containers if you have a hard time taking off child-proof caps and do not have young children living in or visiting your home. Remember to keep all medicines out of the sight and reach of children.Your pharmacist may be able to print labels on prescription medicine containers in larger type, if reading the medicine label is hard for you.Your pharmacist may be able to give you written information to help you learn more about your drugs. This information may be available in large type or in a language other than English. (Information from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.)Cutting Medicine CostsMedicines are an important part of treating an illness because they often allow people to remain active and independent. But medicine can be expensive. Here are some ideas to help lower costs:Tell your doctor if you are worried about the cost of your drug. Your doctor may not know the cost of a prescription, but may be able to tell you about another less expensive medicine, such as a generic drug or OTC product.Ask for a senior citizen’s discount.Shop around. Look at prices at different stores or pharmacies. Lower medicine prices may not be a bargain if you need other services, such as home delivery, patient medicine profiles, or pharmacist consultation, or if you cannot get a senior citizen discount.Ask for medicine samples. If your doctor gives you a prescription for a new medicine, ask your doctor for samples you can try before filling the prescription.Buy bulk. If you need to take medicine for a long period of time and your medicine does not expire quickly, you may be able to buy a larger amount of the medicine for less money.Try mail order. Mail-order pharmacies can provide drugs at lower prices. It is a good idea to talk with your doctor before using such a service. Make sure to find a backup pharmacy in case there is a problem with the mail service.Buy nonprescription medicines when they are on sale. Check the expiration dates and use them before they expire. If you need help choosing a nonprescription medicine, ask the pharmacist for help.If you decide to buy drugs on the Internet, first read Buying Prescription Drugs Online on page xix.(Information from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.)Aging and Taking MedicinesAs you get older you may be faced with more health conditions that you need to treat on a regular basis. It is important to be aware that more use of medicines and normal aging body changes can increase the chance of unwanted or maybe even harmful drug interactions. The more you know about your drugs and the more you talk with your health care providers, the easier it is to avoid problems.Body changes can affect the way medicines are absorbed and used. For example, changes in the digestive system can affect how fast drugs enter the bloodstream. Changes in body weight can influence the amount of medicine you need to take and how long it stays in your body. The circulatory system may slow down, which can affect how fast drugs get to the liver and kidneys. The liver and kidneys also may work more slowly, affecting the way a drug breaks down and is removed from the body.Because of these body changes, there is also a bigger risk of drug interactions among older adults. It’s important to know about drug interactions.Side effects are unplanned symptoms or feelings you have when taking a medicine. Most side effects are not serious and go away on their own; others can be more bothersome and even serious. To help prevent possible problems with medicines, seniors must know about the medicine they take and how it makes them feel.Keep track of side effects to help your doctor know how your body is responding to a medicine. New symptoms or mood changes may not be a result of getting older, but could be from the medicine you’re taking or another factor, such as a change in diet or routine. If you have an unwanted side effect, call your doctor.Information about Substances of AbuseEach of the drug charts list the interactions of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine. These three drugs are singled out because of their wide use and abuse.Drugs of abuse include those that are addictive and harmful.Common drugs of abuse:Tobacco (nicotine)What it does: Tobacco smoke contains noxious, addictive and cancer-producing ingredients. They include nicotine, carbon monoxide, ammonia and tars. Carcinogens probably come from the tars. Tars are present in chewing tobacco, snuff, cigarettes, cigars and pipes.Short-term effects of average amount: Relaxation of mood if you are a steady smoker. Constriction of blood vessels.Short-term effects of large amount inhaled: Headache, appetite loss, nausea.Long-term effects: Risk of lung cancer and other cancers. Breathing problems and chronic lung disease, heart and blood vessel disease, risk of abortion and reduced birth weight of baby born to women who smoke during pregnancy.AlcoholWhat it does:• Central Nervous SystemIt depresses normal mental activity and normal muscle function. Alcoholism is associated with accidents of all types. Marital, family, work, legal and social problems also occur. Abuse of alcohol may result in nerve damage and cause various types of brain disorders.• Gastrointestinal SystemIncreases stomach acid, poisons liver function. Chronic alcoholism frequently leads to permanent damage to the liver.• Heart and Blood VesselsDecreased normal function, leading to heart diseases such as cardiomyopathy and disorders of the blood vessels and kidney, such as high blood pressure. Bleeding from the esophagus and stomach frequently accompany liver disease.• Unborn Fetus (teratogenicity)Alcohol abuse in the mother carrying a fetus causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). It includes mental deficiency, facial abnormalities, slow growth and other major and minor problems in a newborn.Signs of Use:Early signs: Smell of alcohol on the breath, behavior changes (aggressive; passive; lack of sexual inhibition; poor judgment; uncontrolled emotion, such as rage).Intoxication signs: Unsteady gait, slurred speech, poor performance of any brain or muscle function, stupor or coma in severe alcoholic intoxication.Long-term effects:Addiction: Compulsive alcohol use. Persons addicted to alcohol have severe withdrawal symptoms if alcohol is unavailable.Liver disease: Usually cirrhosis.Loss of sexual function: Impotence, erectile dysfunction, loss of libido.Increased incidence of cancer: Lung and other types. Interferes with medications.Marijuana (cannabis, hashish)What it does: Heightens perception, causes mood swings, relaxes mind and body.Signs of use: Red eyes, lethargy, uncoordinated body movements.Long-term effects: Decreased motivation. Possible brain, heart, lung and reproductive system damage, schizophrenia.Amphetamines (including ecstasy)What they do: Speed up physical and mental processes to cause a false sense of energy and excitement. The moods are temporary and unreal.Signs of use: Dilated pupils, insomnia, trembling.Long-term effects or overdose: Violent behavior, paranoia, inflammation of blood vessels, renal failure, possible death from overdose.Anabolic SteroidsWhat they do: Enhance strength, increase muscle mass.Signs of use: Significant mood swings, aggressiveness.Long-term effects or overdose: Possible heart problems, paranoia and mania, liver damage, male infertility and impotence, male characteristics in females.BarbituratesWhat they do: Produce drowsiness and lethargy.Signs of use: Confused speech, lack of coordination and balance.Long-term effects or overdose: Disrupt normal sleep pattern. Possible death from overdose, especially with alcohol abuse.Sedative-hypnotics (benzodiazepines, “party drugs” that include gammahydroxybutyrate and rohypnol)What they do: Produce drowsiness and lethargy.Signs of use: Slow breathing, low blood pressure, vomiting, delirium, amnesia, possible coma.Long-term effects or overdose: Disrupt normal sleep pattern. Possible death from overdose, especially in combination with alcohol.CocaineWhat it does: Stimulates the nervous system, heightens sensations and may produce hallucinations.Signs of use: Trembling, intoxication, dilated pupils, constant sniffling.Long-term effects or overdose: Soreness of nasal passages. Itching all over body, some with open sores. Possible brain damage or heart rhythm disturbance. Possible death from overdose.Crystal MethamphetamineWhat it does: Stimulates the nervous system, heightens sensations and has long-lasting euphoric effects.Signs of use: Obsessively picking at the face or body, hallucinations, teeth grinding, extreme energy and no sleep for 2-3 days, major loss of weight.Long-term effects or overdose: Rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, damaged blood vessels in the brain, fever, convulsions and death.Opiates (codeine, heroin, morphine, methadone, opium)What they do: Relieve pain, create temporary and false sense of well-being.Signs of use: Small pupils, mood swings, slurred speech, sore eyes, lethargy, weight loss, sweating.Long-term effects or overdose: Loss of appetite, infections, need to increase drug amount to produce same effects, death.Phencyclidine (PCP, angeldust)What they do: Produce euphoria along with a feeling of numbness.Signs of use: Violent behavior, dizziness, loss of motor skills, disorientation.Long-term effects or overdose: Seizures, high or low blood pressure, rigid muscles. Possible death from overdose.Psychedelic Drugs (LSD, mescaline)What they do: Produce hallucinations, either pleasant or frightening.Signs of use: Dilated pupils, sweating, trembling, fever, chills.Long-term effects or overdose: Lack of motivation, unpredictable behavior, hallucinations, death from overdose.Volatile Substances (glue, solvents, nitrous oxide, other volatile compounds)What they do: Produce hallucinations, false sense of well-being, loss of consciousness.Signs of use: Dilated pupils, flushed face, confusion, respiratory failure, coma.Long-term effects or overdose: Permanent brain, liver, kidney damage; death.Medical Conditions and Their Commonly Used DrugsThis list contains the names of many medical problems and the names of drugs that may be used for their treatment. The drugs are listed either as a generic name (e.g., Acetaminophen) or class name (e.g., Antihistamines). Specific brand or trade names of drugs are not shown. This list of drugs is intended only as a guide and is not meant to be 100% complete. Use it for a general reference.The inclusion of a drug name does not mean it is necessarily an appropriate treatment for you. Also, your doctor may prescribe a drug for you that is not listed, but is quite appropriate for treatment. Your doctor knows your medical history and can prescribe the drug that should work best for you.You can find information about the drugs listed by looking up the name in the General Index and referring to the page listed. Do not be concerned if the drug chart does not list your specific illness in the USES section. For example, that section may state that a drug is used for bacterial infections and not list specific bacterial disorders (such as a vaginal infection or urinary tract infection).Acid Indigestion & Upset StomachAntacidsBismuth SaltsHistamine H2 Receptor AntagonistsHyoscyamineProton Pump InhibitorsSimethiconeSodium BicarbonateAcneAntiacne Cleansing (Topical)Antibacterials for Acne (Topical)Azelaic AcidBenzoyl PeroxideErythromycinsIsotretinoinKeratolyticsNitroimidazolesRetinoids (Topical)TetracyclinesActinic KeratosesFluorouracil (Topical)Acute Myocardial InfarctionAngiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) InhibitorsAddison’s DiseaseAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)AgingDehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)AIDS – See HIV InfectionAlcohol WithdrawalAcamprosateBenzodiazepinesBeta-Adrenergic Blocking AgentsCarbamazepineDisulfiramHydroxyzineLithiumNaltrexoneThiamineAllergies & Allergic ReactionsAdrenocorticoids (Nasal Inhalation)Adrenocorticoids (Oral Inhalation)Adrenocorticoids (Systemic)AntihistaminesAntihistamines (Nasal)Antihistamines, NonsedatingAntihistamines, Phenothiazine-DerivativeCromolynDecongestants (Ophthalmic)EphedrineHydroxyzineLeukotriene ModifiersAlopecia5-Alpha Reductase InhibitorsMinoxidilAltitude IllnessCarbonic Anhydrase InhibitorsAlzheimer’s DiseaseCholinesterase InhibitorsMemantineAmebiasisChloroquineIodoquinolNitroimidazolesAmenorrheaBromocriptineProgestinsAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)RiluzoleAnemiaAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)AndrogensCyclosporineFolic AcidIron SupplementsLeucovorinVitamin B-12AnginaAntithyroid DrugsBeta-Adrenergic Blocking AgentsCalcium Channel BlockersDipyridamoleNitratesRanolazineAnkylosing SpondylitisAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs) COX-2 inhibitorsAspirinMethotrexateSulfasalazineTumor Necrosis Factor BlockersAnorexiaAntidepressants, TricyclicProgestinsSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)AnxietyAntidepressants, TricyclicBarbituratesBenzodiazepinesBeta-Adrenergic Blocking AgentsBuspironeHaloperidolHydroxyzineLoxapineMeprobamatePhenothiazinesSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Serotonin & Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)ThiothixeneAppetite StimulantAntihistaminesDronabinolAppetite SuppressantAppetite SuppressantsArrhythmias – See Heart RhythmDisordersArthritisAcetaminophenAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)AnakinraAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs) COX-2 InhibitorsAspirinAzathioprineCapsaicinChloroquineCyclosporineDiclofenac (Topical)Gold CompoundsHydroxychloroquineLeflunomideMeloxicamMethotrexateSalicylatesTofacitinibTumor Necrosis Factor BlockersAsthmaAdrenocorticoids (Nasal Inhalation)Adrenocorticoids (Oral Inhalation)Adrenocorticoids (Systemic)Bronchodilators, AdrenergicBronchodilators, XanthineCromolynEphedrineIpratropiumLeukotriene ModifiersAthlete’s FootAntifungals (Topical)Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & ADDAmphetaminesAtomoxetineCentral Alpha AgonistsStimulant MedicationsStimulants, Amphetamine-RelatedAutismAripiprazoleHaloperidolOlanzapineQuetiapineSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Serotonin-Dopamine AntagonistsStimulant MedicationsBacterial InfectionsAcetohydroxamic Acid (AHA)CephalosporinsClindamycinErythromycinsFluoroquinolonesKanamycinLincomycinLinezolidMacrolide AntibioticsNeomycin (Oral)NitrofurantoinNitroimidazolesPenicillinsPenicillins & Beta-Lactamase InhibitorsRifamycinsSulfonamidesTelithromycinTetracyclinesTrimethoprimVancomycinBaldness – See Hair LossBedwetting (Enuresis)Antidepressants, TricyclicDesmopressinBipolar DisorderAripiprazoleAsenapineCarbamazepineLithiumDivalproexQuetiapineSerotonin-Dopamine AntagonistsValproic AcidZiprasidoneBirth Control – See ContraceptionBites & StingsAdrenocorticoids (Topical)Anesthetics (Topical)Bladder Infection – See CystitisBladder, Overactive – See Overactive BladderBladder SpasmsClidiniumPropanthelineBleedingAntifibrinolytic AgentsVitamin KBlood CirculationIntermittent Claudication AgentsIsoxsuprineVitamin EBlood ClotsAnticoagulants (Oral)DabigatranDipyridamoleFactor Xa InhibitorsPlatelet InhibitorsTicagrelorBronchial SpasmsAnticholinergicsBronchodilators, AdrenergicBronchitisBronchodilators, AnticholinergicBronchodilators, XanthineCephalosporinsDextromethorphanFluoroquinolonesIpratropiumMacrolide AntibioticsSulfonamidesTetracyclinesBulimiaAntidepressants, TricyclicLithiumSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)BurnsAnesthetics (Topical)Zinc SupplementsBursitisAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)AspirinSalicylatesCancerAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)AminoglutethimideAndrogensAntiandrogens, NonsteroidalAntifungals, AzolesBusulfanCapecitabineChlorambucilCyclophosphamideEstramustineEstrogensEtoposideHydroxyureaImatinibLomustineMelphalanMercaptopurineMethotrexatePaclitaxelProcarbazineProgestinsRaloxifeneTamoxifenThyroid HormonesToremifeneCancer of the SkinFluorouracil (Topical)Mechlorethamine (Topical)Canker SoresAmlexanoxAnesthetics (Mucosal-Local)ChickenpoxAcetaminophenAntihistaminesAntivirals for Herpes VirusCholesterol, HighCholestyramineColestipolEzetimibeGemfibrozilHMG-CoA Reductase InhibitorsNeomycin (Oral)NiacinRaloxifeneChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)Adrenocorticoids (Systemic)Bronchodilators, AdrenergicBronchodilators, AnticholinergicBronchodilators, XanthineIpratropiumRoflumilastCirrhosisColchicineCyclosporineThiamine (Vitamin B-1)Colds & CoughAcetaminophenAnticholinergicsAntihistaminesAntihistamines, NonsedatingAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)AspirinDextromethorphanEphedrineGuaifenesinOxymetazolinePhenylephrinePhenylephrine (Ophthalmic)PseudoephedrineColicHyoscyamineSimethiconeColitis – See Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseCongestion, ChestBronchodilators, AdrenergicEphedrineOxymetazolinePhenylephrinePseudoephedrineXylometazolineCongestive Heart FailureAngiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) InhibitorsBeta-Adrenergic Blocking AgentsBeta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents & Thiazide DiureticsDigitalis PreparationsDiuretics, LoopDiuretics, Potassium-SparingDiuretics, Potassium-Sparing & HydrochlorothiazideDiuretics, ThiazideNitratesConjunctivitis (Pink Eye)Antibacterials (Ophthalmic)Antivirals (Ophthalmic)Conjunctivitis, Seasonal AllergicAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (Ophthalmic)Antiallergic Agents (Ophthalmic)ConstipationLaxatives, Bulk-FormingLaxatives, OsmoticLaxatives, Softener/LubricantLaxatives, StimulantLinaclotideLubiprostoneTegaserodContraceptionContraceptives, Oral & SkinContraceptives, VaginalSelective Progesterone Receptor ModulatorsConvulsions (Epilepsy; Seizures)Anticonvulsants, HydantoinAnticonvulsants, SuccinimideBarbituratesBenzodiazepinesCarbamazepineDivalproexFelbamateGabapentinLacosamideLamotrigineLevetiracetamOxcarbazepinePrimidoneTiagabineTopiramateValproic AcidZonisamideCorneal UlcersAntibacterials (Ophthalmic)Crohn’s Disease – See Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseCushing’s DiseaseAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)AminoglutethimideAntifungals, AzolesMetyraponeCystitisPhenazopyridineSee also – Bacterial InfectionsDandruffAntifungals (Topical)Antiseborrheics (Topical)Coal TarDeep Vein Thrombosis – See Blood ClotsDementiaBuspironeCholinesterase InhibitorsErgoloid MesylatesHaloperidolDepressionAntidepressants, TricyclicAripiprazoleBupropionErgoloid MesylatesLoxapineMaprotilineMirtazapineMonoamine Oxidase (MAO) InhibitorsMonoamine Oxidase Type B (MAO-B) InhibitorsNefazodoneSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Serotonin & Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)Stimulant MedicationsTrazodoneVilazodoneVortioxetineDermatitisAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)Adrenocorticoids (Topical)Anesthetics (Topical)Antiseborrheics (Topical)Coal TarColchicineDapsoneKeratolyticsDermatomyositisAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)MethotrexateDiabetesAcarboseBromocriptineColesevelamDPP-4 InhibitorsGLP-1 Receptor AgonistsInsulinInsulin AnalogsMeglitinidesMetforminMiglitolPramlintideSGLT2 InhibitorsSulfonylureasThiazolidinedionesDiarrheaAttapulgiteBismuth SaltsCharcoal, ActivatedDifenoxin & AtropineDiphenoxylate & AtropineKaolin & PectinLoperamideNitazoxanideParegoricRifaximinDietary SupplementCalcium SupplementsIron SupplementsNiacinVitamin AVitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin)Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)Vitamin DVitamin EVitamin KZinc SupplementsDigestive SpasmsClidiniumDicyclomineDifenoxin & AtropineHyoscyaminePropanthelineDiverticulitisCephalosporinsClindamycinFluoroquinolonesNitroimidazolesPenicillinsDrowsinessCaffeineDry EyesProtectant (Ophthalmic)Dry MouthPilocarpine (Oral)Dysmenorrhea – See Menstrual CrampsEar Infections or ProblemsAntibacterials (Otic)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Steroidal (Otic)Antipyrine & Benzocaine (Otic)PhenylephrineSee also – Bacterial InfectionsEar WaxAntipyrine & Benzocaine (Otic)EczemaAdrenocorticoids (Topical)Coal TarDoxepin (Topical)KeratolyticsEdema – See Fluid RetentionEmphysemaAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)Bronchodilators, AdrenergicBronchodilators, AnticholinergicBronchodilators, XanthineIpratropiumEndometriosisDanazolNafarelinEpilepsy – See ConvulsionsErectile DysfunctionAlprostadilErectile Dysfunction AgentsPapaverineEsophagitisHistamine H2 Receptor AntagonistsMetoclopramideProton Pump InhibitorsEstrogen DeficiencyEstrogensEye AllergiesAntiallergic Agents (Ophthalmic)Eye ConditionsAntibacterials (Ophthalmic)CromolynCycloplegic, Mydriatic (Ophthalmic)Cyclopentolate (Ophthalmic)Decongestants (Ophthalmic)Natamycin (Ophthalmic)Phenylephrine (Ophthalmic)FatigueCaffeineFeverAcetaminophenAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)AspirinSalicylatesFibrocystic Breast DiseaseDanazolVitamin EFibromyalgiaPregabalinFlu – See InfluenzaFluid RetentionCarbonic Anhydrase InhibitorsDiuretics, LoopDiuretics, Potassium-SparingDiuretics, ThiazideGuanethidine & HydrochlorothiazideIndapamideFungal InfectionsAntifungals, AzolesAntifungals (Topical)Antifungals (Vaginal)GriseofulvinNystatinTerbinafine (Oral)GallstonesUrsodiolGastroesophageal RefluxHistamine H2 Receptor AntagonistsProton Pump InhibitorsSucralfateGenital WartsCondyloma Acuminatum AgentsGiardiasisFurazolidoneNitroimidazolesGingivitis & Gum DiseaseChlorhexidineErythromycinsPenicillinsTetracyclinesGlaucomaAntiglaucoma, Adrenergic AgonistsAntiglaucoma, AnticholinesterasesAntiglaucoma, Beta BlockersAntiglaucoma, Carbonic Anhydrase InhibitorsAntiglaucoma, Cholinergic AgonistsAntiglaucoma, ProstaglandinsCarbonic Anhydrase InhibitorsGonorrheaCephalosporinsErythromycinsFluoroquinolonesMacrolide AntibioticsPenicillinsTetracyclinesGoutAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)Antigout DrugsAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)ColchicineMeloxicamProbenecidHair, Excess FacialEflornithineHair Loss5-Alpha Reductase InhibitorsAnthralin (Topical)Minoxidil (Topical)Hay FeverAntiallergic Agents (Ophthalmic)AntihistaminesAntihistamines, NonsedatingAntihistamines, Phenothiazine-DerivativeAntihistamines, PiperazineEphedrineGuaifenesinHydroxyzinePhenylephrine (Ophthalmic)Headache (Cluster, Migraine, Sinus, Tension, Vascular)AcetaminophenAntidepressants, TricyclicAntihistaminesAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)AspirinBeta-Adrenergic Blocking AgentsBuspironeButorphanolCaffeineCalcium Channel BlockersCentral Alpha AgonistsDivalproexErgot DerivativesLithiumMonoamine Oxidase InhibitorsTopiramateTriptansHeart Rhythm DisordersAntiarrhythmics, Benzofuran-TypeBeta-Adrenergic Blocking AgentsCalcium Channel BlockersDigitalis PreparationsDisopyramideDofetilideFlecainide AcetateMexiletinePropafenoneQuinidineHeartburnAntacidsHistamine H2 Receptor AntagonistsProton Pump InhibitorsSodium BicarbonateHemorrhoidsAdrenocorticoids (Topical)Anesthetics (Rectal)Hydrocortisone (Rectal)HerpesAntivirals (Topical)Antivirals for Herpes VirusHepatitis BNucleotide Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorsHigh Blood Pressure – See HypertensionHIV InfectionFusion InhibitorsIntegrase InhibitorsMaravirocNon-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorsNucleoside Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorsNucleotide Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorsProtease InhibitorsHives (Urticaria)AntihistaminesAntihistamines, NonsedatingAntihistamines, Phenothiazine-DerivativeHydroxyzineHuntington’sHaloperidolHypercalcemiaColesevelamColestipolDextrothyroxineHMG-CoA Reductase InhibitorsHypertensionAlpha Adrenergic Receptor BlockersAngiotensin II Receptor AntagonistsAngiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) InhibitorsBeta-Adrenergic Blocking AgentsBeta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents & Thiazide DiureticsCalcium Channel BlockersCentral Alpha AgonistsDiuretics, LoopDiuretics, Potassium-SparingDiuretics, Potassium-Sparing & HydrochlorothiazideDiuretics, ThiazideEplerenoneGuanethidineGuanethidine & HydrochlorothiazideHydralazineIndapamideMinoxidilHyperthyroidismAntithyroid DrugsHypertriglyceridemiaFibratesGemfibrozilHMG-CoA Reductase InhibitorsOmega-3-acid Ethyl EstersHypoglycemiaGlucagonHypothyroidismThyroid HormonesImpotence - See Erectile DysfunctionIncontinenceAntidepressants, TricyclicEstrogensMuscarinic Receptor AntagonistsIndigestion – See HeartburnInfertilityBromocriptineClomipheneDanazolProgestinsInflammationAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs) COX-2 InhibitorsAspirinMesalamineSalicylatesInflammatory Bowel DiseaseAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)CyclosporineInfliximabMesalamineNitroimidazolesOlsalazineInfluenzaAntivirals for InfluenzaAntivirals for Influenza, Neuraminidase InhibitorsRibavirinInsomniaBarbituratesBenzodiazepinesEszopicloneMelatoninMeprobamateRamelteonTrazodoneTriazolamZaleplonZolpidemIntermittent ClaudicationIntermittent Claudication AgentsPentoxifyllineIrregular Heartbeat – See Heart Rhythm DisordersIrritable Bowel SyndromeLinaclotideTegaserodItchingAdrenocorticoids (Topical)Doxepin (Topical)Jet LagMelatoninJock ItchAntifungals (Topical)Joint PainAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs) COX-2 InhibitorsAspirinKidney StonesAntigout DrugsCitratesDiuretics, ThiazidePenicillamineSodium BicarbonateTioproninLabyrinthitisAntihistamines, Phenothiazine-DerivativeAntihistamines, PiperazineBenzodiazepinesLeg Pain or CrampsIntermittent Claudication AgentsPentoxifyllineQuinineLeukemiaImatinibLicePediculicidesLupus (Skin & Systemic)Adrenocorticoids (Systemic)Adrenocorticoids (Topical)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal(NSAIDs) COX-2 InhibitorsHydroxychloroquineMethotrexateLyme DiseaseCephalosporinsErythromycinsMacrolide AntibioticsPenicillinsTetracyclinesMalabsorptionVitamin KMalariaAntimalarialAtovaquoneChloroquineHydroxychloroquinePrimaquineProguanilQuinidineQuinineSulfadoxine & PyrimethamineTetracyclinesMale Hormone DeficiencyAndrogensMelanomaHydroxyureaMelphalanMeniere’s DiseaseAntihistaminesAntihistamines, PiperazineBenzodiazepinesScopolamine (Hyoscine)Menopause SymptomsEstrogensOspemifeneProgestinsSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Menorrhagia – See Menstruation, ExcessiveMenstrual CrampsAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs) COX-2 InhibitorsContraceptives, Oral & SkinMenstruation, Excessive (Menorrhagia)Antifibrinolytic AgentsContraceptives, Oral & SkinDanazolEstrogensProgestinsMental & Emotional DisturbancesLoxapineSerotonin-Dopamine AntagonistsMotion SicknessAntihistaminesAntihistamines, NonsedatingAntihistamines, Phenothiazine-DerivativeAntihistamines, PiperazineClotrimazoleDiphenidolScopolamineMultiple SclerosisAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)BaclofenTizanidineMuscle Cramp, Spasm, StrainBaclofenCyclobenzaprineDantroleneMuscle Relaxants, SkeletalQuinineTizanidineMyasthenia GravisAdrenocorticoids (Systemic)AntimyasthenicsAzathioprineCyclosporineNarcolepsyAmphetaminesPemolineStimulant MedicationsStimulants, Amphetamine-RelatedNarcotic WithdrawalBuprenorphine & NaloxoneCentral Alpha AgonistsNaltrexoneNasal AllergyAdrenocorticoids (Nasal Inhalation)Antihistamines (Nasal)Nausea & VomitingAntihistamines, Phenothiazine-DerivativeBismuth SaltsDiphenidolDronabinolHydroxyzineMetoclopramideNabilonePhenothiazinesScopolamineTrimethobenzamideNerve DisordersPregabalinNeural Tube Defects (prevention)Folic AcidObesityAppetite SuppressantsLorcaserinOrlistatSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Obsessive Compulsive DisorderAntidepressants, TricyclicSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Ocular HypertensionAntiglaucoma, Carbonic AnhydraseInhibitorsBeta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents (Ophthalmic)Osteoarthritis – See ArthritisOsteoporosisBisphosphonatesBone Formation AgentsCalcitoninCalcium SupplementsEstrogensRaloxifeneSodium FluorideVitamin DOtitis Media – See Ear InfectionOveractive BladderMirabegronMuscarinic Receptor AntagonistsPaget’s DiseaseBisphosphonatesColchicinePainAcetaminophenAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs) COX-2 InhibitorsAspirinButorphanolCarbamazepineNarcotic AnalgesicsSalicylatesTapentadolTramadolTrazodonePain In MouthAnesthetics (Mucosal-Local)Panic DisorderAntidepressants, TricyclicBenzodiazepinesMonoamine Oxidase InhibitorsParasitesAnthelminticsPentamidineParkinson’s DiseaseAntidyskineticsAntihistaminesAntivirals for InfluenzaBromocriptineCarbidopa & LevodopaCOMT InhibitorsDopamine Agonists, NonergotLevodopaMonoamine Oxidase Type B (MAO-B) InhibitorsParkinson’s TremorsAntihistaminesNiacinPeripheral NeuropathySerotonin & Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)Pneumocystis JiroveciAtovaquoneDapsonePrimaquineTrimethoprimPneumoniaFluoroquinolonesRibavirinSulfonamidesPneumonia, Community AcquiredTelithromycinPoisoningCharcoal, ActivatedPotassium DeficiencyPotassium SupplementsPremature LaborIsoxsuprinePremenstrual Syndrome (PMS)Antidepressants, TricyclicAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs)BuspironeCalcium SupplementsContraceptives, Oral & SkinDanazolPyridoxine (Vitamin B-6)Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Vitamin EPressure SoresBenzoyl PeroxideProstate Hyperplasia, Benign5-Alpha Reductase InhibitorsAlpha Adrenergic Receptor BlockersPsoriasisAdrenocorticoids (Topical)Anthralin (Topical)Biologics for PsoriasisCoal TarCyclosporineKeratolyticsMethotrexatePsoralensRetinoids (Oral)Retinoids (Topical)Tumor Necrosis Factor BlockersVitamin D (Topical)Psychotic DisordersAripiprazoleAsenapineCarbamazepineClozapineHaloperidolLoxapineLurasidoneOlanzapinePhenothiazinesQuetiapineSerotonin-Dopamine AntagonistsThiothixeneZiprasidonePulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)Endothelin Receptor AntagonistsRashes – See Skin DisordersRectal FissuresAnesthetics (Rectal)Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)RibavirinRestless Legs SyndromeAntidyskineticsBenzodiazepinesCarbidopa & LevodopaDopamine Agonists, NonergotNarcotic AnalgesicsRheumatoid Arthritis – See ArthritisRicketsVitamin DRingworm – See Fungal InfectionsRosaceaAntibacterials (Topical)Antibacterials for Acne (Topical)Azelaic AcidBenzoyl PeroxideBrimonidineNitroimidazolesTetracyclinesScabiesPediculicidesSchizophreniaAripiprazoleCarbamazepineClozapineHaloperidolOlanzapinePhenothiazinesQuetiapineSerotonin-Dopamine AntagonistsSeasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)BupropionSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Seizures – See ConvulsionsShinglesAntivirals (Topical)Antivirals for Herpes VirusCapsaicinSickle Cell DiseaseHydroxyureaSinusitisCephalosporinsErythromycinsMacrolide AntibioticsPenicillinsPenicillins & Beta-Lactamase InhibitorsSulfonamidesTetracyclinesTrimethoprimXylometazolineSkin Cancer – See Cancer of the SkinSkin DisordersAnesthetics (Topical)Antibacterials (Topical)CyclophosphamideCondyloma Acuminatum AgentsFluorouracil (Topical)IsotretinoinRetinoids (Topical)Skin Lines & WrinklesBotulinum Toxin Type ASmoking CessationBupropionCentral Alpha AgonistsNicotineVareniclineSore ThroatAnesthetics (Mucosal-Local)See also – Bacterial InfectionsStroke PreventionPlatelet InhibitorsSunburnAdrenocorticoids (Topical)Anesthetics (Topical)Swelling – See Fluid RetentionThyroid Disorders – See Hyperthyroidism; HypothyroidismTonsillitisCephalosporinsMacrolide AntibioticsTourette’s SyndromeAntidyskineticsHaloperidolToxoplasmosisAtovaquoneTransplantation, Organ (Antirejection)AzathioprineCyclosporineImmunosuppressive AgentsTremorsBenzodiazepinesBeta-Adrenergic Blocking AgentsTrichomoniasisNitroimidazolesTrigeminal NeuralgiaBaclofenCarbamazepineTuberculosisCycloserineEthionamideIsoniazidNitroimidazolesRifamycinsUlcersAntacidsAnticholinergicsBismuth SaltsGlycopyrrolateHistamine H2 Receptor AntagonistsNitroimidazolesProton Pump InhibitorsSodium BicarbonateSucralfateTetracyclinesUlcers, SkinBecaplerminUlcerative ColitisOlsalazineSulfasalazineUrethra SpasmsClidiniumPropanthelineUrethritisErythromycinsFluoroquinolonesMacrolide AntibioticsPhenazopyridineTetracyclinesUrinary FrequencyMuscarinic Receptor AntagonistsUrinary RetentionAntimyasthenicsBethanecholUrinary Tract InfectionAcetohydroxamic Acid (AHA)Atropine, Hyoscyamine, MethenamineCephalosporinsCycloserineFluoroquinolonesMethenaminePenicillinsPenicillins & Beta-Lactamase InhibitorsPhenazopyridineSulfonamidesTetracyclinesTrimethoprimUrine AcidityCitratesVitamin CUveitisAnti-Inflammatory Drugs, Steroidal (Ophthalmic)Vaginal Infections or IrritationClindamycinEstrogensNitroimidazolesProgestinsVaginal Yeast InfectionsAntifungals (Vaginal)VertigoAntihistamines, PiperazineNiacinVirus Infections of the EyeAntivirals (Ophthalmic)Vitamin DeficiencyPantothenic AcidRiboflavinVitamin AVitamin B-12Vitamin CVitamin DVitamin EVitamin KVitiligoPsoralensVomiting – See Nausea & VomitingWartsKeratolyticsRetinoids (Topical)Wilson’s DiseasePenicillamineZinc SupplementsWormsAnthelminticsZinc DeficiencyZinc SupplementsDRUG CHARTS5-ALPHA REDUCTASE INHIBITORSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESDUTASTERIDEAvodartDuagenJalynFINASTERIDEPropeciaProscarBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Dihydrotestosterone inhibitor USES• Treats symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) in men with enlarged prostate.• Treatment of male pattern hair loss in men. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet or capsule—Swallow with liquid. May take with or without food. If you can’t swallow whole, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice.------------------------------When to take:Once a day or as directed on prescription.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Inhibits the enzyme needed for the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Dihydrotestosterone is required for the development of benign prostatic hypertrophy.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:• May require up to 6 months for full therapeutic effect for BPH.• For treatment of hair loss, may not see any benefit for 3 months or more.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist, especially nonprescription decongestants. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Effects unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to dutasteride or finasteride. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.• You are a female, are pregnant or a child.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have had prostate cancer or not had a blood test to check for prostate cancer.• Your sexual partner is pregnant or may become pregnant.• You have a liver disorder.• You have reduced urinary flow.• You have large residual urinary volume.------------------------------Over age 60:No special problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:• Not recommended for women.• Pregnant women should not handle the crushed tablets.• Ask your doctor if you should avoid exposure to mate’s semen if he takes these drugs.• Risk category X (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:These drugs are not recommended for women.------------------------------Infants & children:Not recommended.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check the effectiveness of the treatment.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No special problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:• Don’t discontinue without medical advice.• Consult doctor if some adverse effects such as problems with libido, ejaculation and orgasm continue after stopping the drug.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• May affect results of some medical tests (especially prostate specific antigen [PSA] which is a test for prostate cancer).• For those who respond well, the drug must be continued indefinitely.• Taking these drugs may increase risk for a prostate cancer called high grade prostate cancer. Consult your doctor about your risks.• Drug use may lead to male infertility and/or poor semen quality. Once drug is stopped, these effects improve or return to normal.• Don’t donate blood until 6 months have passed after you stop taking the drug. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESACAMPROSATEBRAND NAMESCampralBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Alcohol-abuse deterrent USESTreatment for alcohol dependence. It is used after alcohol withdrawal to help maintain abstinence by reducing cravings. The drug should be part of a complete treatment plan (e.g., counseling, behavior therapy and support of family and friends). The drug does not diminish or eliminate withdrawal symptoms. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Delayed-release tablet—Swallow whole with liquid. May be taken with or without food. Do not chew, crush or split tablet.------------------------------When to take:Usually three times a day at the same times each day (such as at mealtimes).------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for that dose (don’t double this dose) and resume regular schedule.------------------------------What drug does:Action is not fully understood. It appears to affect chemicals (called neurotransmitters) in the brain and reduces the craving for alcohol.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:About one week.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Diarrhea and possibly other symptoms.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to acamprosate. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have kidney (renal) disease or severe kidney impairment.• You suffer from depression, have thoughts about suicide or have history of drug abuse.------------------------------Over age 60:No special problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Safety and effectiveness of use in children under age 18 not established.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to determine drug’s effectiveness and to monitor for symptoms and suicidal thoughts.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:• Avoid if the drug makes you feel dizzy; otherwise no problems expected.• If you start drinking alcohol again, avoid driving, piloting or hazardous work.------------------------------Discontinuing:Do not stop taking acamprosate without talking to your doctor. Continue taking acamprosate even if you start drinking alcohol again.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• Drug may affect the accuracy of some medical tests.• Contact your doctor if you develop symptoms of depression, have suicidal thoughts or start drinking alcohol again. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESACARBOSEBRAND NAMESPrecoseBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic USESTreatment for hyperglycemia (excess sugar in the blood) that cannot be controlled by diet alon in patients with type 2 diabetes. It may be used alone or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet—Swallow whole with liquid. Take at the very beginning of a meal.------------------------------When to take:Usually 3 times a day or as directed by doctor. Dosage may be increased at 4- to 8-week intervals until maximum benefits are achieved.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Impedes the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and their subsequent conversion into glucose, improving control of blood glucose, and may reduce the complications of diabetes. However, acarbose does not cure diabetes.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:May take several weeks for full effectiveness.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:• Symptoms of lactic acidosis (acid in the blood)—chills, diarrhea, severe muscle pain, sleepiness, slow heartbeat, breathing difficulty, unusual weakness.• Symptoms of hypoglycemia (not a problem with acarbose used alone)— stomach pain, anxious feeling, cold sweats, chills, confusion, convulsions, cool pale skin, excessive hunger, nausea or vomiting, rapid heartbeat, nervousness, shakiness, unsteady walk, unusual weakness or tiredness, vision changes, unconsciousness.WHAT TO DO:• For mild low blood sugar symptoms, drink or eat something containing sugar right away.• For more severe symptoms, dial 911 (emergency) for medical help or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to acarbose. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have any kidney or liver disease or any heart or blood vessel disorder.• You have any chronic health problem.• You have an infection, illness or any condition that can cause low blood sugar.• You have a history of acid in the blood (metabolic acidosis or ketoacidosis).• You have inflammatory bowel disease or any other intestinal disorder.• You are allergic to any medication, food or other substance.------------------------------Over age 60:No special problems expected. A lower starting dosage may be recommended by your doctor.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risks to unborn baby. Risk category B (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Safety and efficacy have not been established. Use only under close medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Schedule regular doctor visits to determine if the drug is continuing to be effective in controlling the diabetes and to check for any problems in kidney function.• You will most likely require an antidiabetic medicine for the rest of your life.• You will need to test your blood glucose levels several times a day; or for some, once to several times a week.• Acarbose may reduce absorption of iron, causing anemia. Discuss with your doctor.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No special problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without consulting your doctor even if you feel well. You can have diabetes without feeling any symptoms. Untreated diabetes can cause serious problems.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. Drug may interfere with the accuracy of some medical tests.• Follow any special diet your doctor may prescribe. It can help control diabetes.• Consult doctor if you become ill with vomiting or diarrhea.• Use caution when exercising. Ask your doctor about an appropriate exercise program.• Wear or carry medical identification stating that you have diabetes and take this drug.• Learn to recognize the symptoms of low blood sugar. You and your family need to know what to do if these symptoms occur.• Have a glucagon kit and syringe in the event severe low blood sugar occurs.• High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) may occur with diabetes. Ask your doctor about symptoms to watch for and treatment steps to take.• Educate yourself about diabetes. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESACETAMINOPHENBRAND NAMESSee full list of brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 829.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? No, for mostAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Analgesic; fever reducer USESTreatment of mild to moderate pain and fever. Acetaminophen does not relieve redness, stiffness or swelling of joints or tissue inflammation. Use other drugs for inflammation. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Note—Acetaminophen comes in several dosage forms and is also an ingredient in other painkillers and many cold, cough and flu remedies. Read labels carefully. Do not use, or give, more than the dosages listed for adults or children. Too much acetaminophen can result in liver or kidney damage.• Tablet or capsule—Swallow with liquid. Do not open, crush or chew tablet or capsule.• Chewable tablet—Chew and swallow.• Liquid drops—Follow package instructions.• Liquid—Follow instructions on label.• Powder—Mix as instructed with water or other liquid and swallow. May be mixed with small amount of food and eaten.• Granules—Mix with a small amount of applesauce, ice cream or jam and eat.• Dissolving tablet—Place tablet on tongue and let dissolve (or chew) before swallowing.• Extended-release or controlled-release tablet—Swallow whole. Don’t crush or chew.• Squeeze packet (for child)—one dose per packet. Follow instructions on product.• Rectal suppository—Remove wrapper and moisten suppository with water. Gently insert into rectum. Push well into rectum with finger.------------------------------When to take:As needed, depending on the dosage. May range from 4 to 8 hours between dosages.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. Wait 4 to 8 hours for next dose (depends on dosage used).------------------------------What drug does:Exact mechanism is not fully known. It blocks pain impulses in central nervous system. Reduces fever by its action on the brain’s heat regulating center.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:15 to 30 minutes. May last 4 or more hours.------------------------------Don’t take with:• Other drugs that contain acetaminophen without consulting your doctor or pharmacist.• Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:May take up to 12 hours after an overdose for symptoms to occur. Sweating, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, stomach upset and cramping or pain, irritability, loss of appetite, yellow skin or eyes, seizures, coma.WHAT TO DO:• If you suspect overdose, even if not sure, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for help. Symptoms may not appear until damage has occurred.• Dial 911 (emergency) if symptoms occur.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to acetaminophen or have had a serious skin reaction while using the drug.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have kidney or liver disease.• You drink alcohol.------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected as long as proper dosage is taken.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits outweigh risks to unborn child. Risk category B (see page xviii). Category can change with combination drug products.------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Read the label on the product to see if it is approved for your child’s age. Always follow the directions on product’s label about how to use. Use measuring cup or dropper provided. If unsure, ask your doctor or pharmacist.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical exams or lab studies to check liver and kidney functions.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected with acetaminophen-only product.------------------------------Discontinuing:• Follow instructions on label for nonprescription product.• Consult doctor before discontinuing use of prescription acetaminophen.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine (if you take it regularly).• There is a risk for severe liver injury if person takes more than recommended dose, takes high doses on regular basis or takes with other drug containing acetaminophen.• This drug has been associated with a risk of rare but serious skin reactions (that could be fatal). Stop taking drug and seek medical help if symptoms develop (e.g., blisters, serious rash, reddening or peeling skin).• Diabetic patients may get false blood glucose results while taking this drug. Check with the doctor if any changes occur.• May interfere with the accuracy of some medical tests.• If the sore throat or fever symptoms don’t improve after 2 to 3 days use or if pain symptoms continue more than 5 days in children or 10 days for adults, call your doctor. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESACETOHYDROXAMIC ACID (AHA)BRAND NAMESLithostatBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? NoDrug class: Antibacterial (antibiotic), antiurolithic USES• Treatment for chronic urinary tract infections.• Prevents formation of urinary tract stones. Will not dissolve stones already present. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet—Swallow with liquid. Take on an empty stomach (1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal). If you can’t swallow whole, crumble tablet and take with liquid or food.------------------------------When to take:At the same times each day, according to instructions on prescription label.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Stops enzyme action that makes urine too alkaline. Alkaline urine favors bacterial growth and stone formation and growth.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:1 to 3 weeks.------------------------------Don’t take with:• Alcohol or iron supplement.• Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Appetite loss, tremor, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, feeling sluggish, lack of well-being.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to AHA.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You are anemic or have blood disorder.• You have kidney disease or liver problems.• You are a female of reproductive age.• You have or have had blood clots (e.g., phlebitis or thrombophlebitis).------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons.------------------------------Pregnancy:Consult doctor. Drug should not be used during pregnancy. Can cause harm to unborn baby. Risk category X (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally not recommended with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use only with close medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check blood pressure, liver function, kidney function, urinary pH.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes, such as antihistamines, tranquilizers, sedatives, pain medicines, narcotics and mind-altering drugs.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without consulting doctor. Dose may require gradual reduction if you have taken drug for a long time. Doses of other drugs may also require adjustment.------------------------------Others:Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESADRENOCORTICOIDS (Nasal Inhalation)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESBECLOMETHASONE (nasal)BeconaseBeconase AQQnaslVancenaseVancenase AQBUDESONIDE (nasal)Rhinocort AquaRhinocort Nasal InhalerRhinocort TurbuhalerCICLESONIDE (nasal)OmnarisZetonnaFLUTICASONE (nasal)DymistaFlonaseVeramystMOMETASONE (nasal)AsmanexNasonexNasonex Aqueous Nasal SprayTRIAMCINOLONE (nasal)AllerNazeNasacort Allergy 24HRNasacort AQNasacort HFATri-NasalBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? Yes, for mostAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Adrenocorticoid (nasal); anti-inflammatory (steroidal), nasal USES• Treats allergic conditions such as hay fever (seasonal rhinitis).• Treats nasal polyps and noninfectious-inflammatory nasal conditions. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:May have upset stomach if swallowed by mouth.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Spray—Read patient instruction sheet supplied with your prescription. Usually 1 or 2 sprays into each nostril every 12 hours. Save container for possible refills.------------------------------When to take:At the same time each day, according to instructions on prescription label.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:• Subdues inflammation by decreasing secretion of prostaglandins in cells of the lining of the nose and by inhibiting release of histamine.• Very little, if any, of the nasal adrenocorticoid gets absorbed into the bloodstream.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Usually 5 to 7 days, but may be as long as 2 to 3 weeks.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to cortisone or any cortisone-like medication.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You are allergic to any of the propellants in the spray. These include benzalkonium chloride, disodium acetate, phenylethanol, fluorocarbons and propylene glycol.• You have sores in the nose, have had recent surgery or injury involving the nose.• You have amebiasis, asthma, type 2 diabetes, glaucoma, herpes eye infection, liver disease, tuberculosis, underactive thyroid, any heart condition or any infection.------------------------------Over age 60:No special problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (budesonide is category B) (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:• Approval for use in children varies for these drugs (ranging from ages over 2, 4 and 6).• Adrenocorticoids taken by mouth may slow or decrease growth rate or cause reduced adrenal gland function. The nasal form is generally considered safer than the oral form. Be sure you and your child’s doctor discuss all benefits and risks of the drug.------------------------------Prolonged use:Not recommended.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes.------------------------------Discontinuing:No special problems expected.------------------------------Others:Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you use this medicine. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESADRENOCORTICOIDS (Oral Inhalation)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESBECLOMETHASONE (oral inhalation)BeclodiskBecloforteQvarVancerilBUDESONIDE (oral inhalation)Pulmicort FlexhalerPulmicort RespulesSymbicortCICLESONIDEl (oral inhalation)Alvesco InhalationFLUTICASONE (oral inhalation)Advair DiskusAdvair HFABreo ElliptaFloventFlovent HFAMOMETASONE (oral inhalation)DuleraBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Anti-inflammatory (inhalation), antiasthmatic USES• Treatment for prevention of symptoms of chronic bronchial asthma. Does not relieve the symptoms of an acute asthma attack.• Treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Oral inhaler—Follow instructions that come with your prescription or from your doctor. If you don’t understand the instructions or have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Most effective if taken regularly. More effective if taken with a spacer.------------------------------When to take:Your doctor will determine the dosage amount and schedule that will help control the asthma symptoms and lessen risks of side effects. Usually 1 to 2 inhaled puffs 3 to 4 times a day is sufficient.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. Then spread out the remaining doses for that day at regularly spaced intervals.------------------------------What drug does:Helps prevent inflammation in the lungs and breathing passages. May decrease progression of severe disease.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:1 to 4 weeks for the initial response and up to several months for full benefits.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to any corticosteroids.*------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have osteoporosis.• You have or have had tuberculosis.• You are taking oral corticosteroid drugs.------------------------------Over age 60:No special problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:• Should be safe with regular low-dosage regimen. These drugs may slow or decrease growth rate or cause reduced adrenal gland function. Be sure you and your child’s doctor discuss all benefits and risks of the drug.• Children using large doses of this drug are more susceptible to infectious disease (chicken pox, measles). Avoid exposure to infected people and keep all immunizations up to date.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check adrenal function, growth and development in children, pulmonary function and inhalation technique.• The drug may lose its effectiveness. If this occurs, consult your doctor.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No special problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue this drug after prolonged use without consulting doctor. Dosage may require a gradual reduction before stopping to avoid any withdrawal symptoms.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you use this medicine.• Carry or wear identification to state that you use this medicine.• Call your doctor if you have any injury, infection or other stress to your body.• Take medicine only as directed. Do not increase or reduce dosage without doctor’s approval. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESADRENOCORTICOIDS (Systemic)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 832.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for mostDrug class: Anti-inflammatory (steroidal), corticosteroid, immunosuppressant USES• Used for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effect in the treatment of many medical disorders.• Treats allergies, asthma, arthritis, Addison’s disease, skin problems, ulcerative colitis, some cancers and numerous other conditions. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Tablet or capsule—Swallow with liquid. Take with food to lessen stomach irritation. If you have trouble swallowing drug, ask doctor or pharmacist for advice.• Extended-release tablet or extended-release capsule—Swallow whole with liquid. Take with food to lessen stomach irritation.• Oral disintegrating tablet—Let tablet dissolve in mouth. Do not chew or swallow tablet.• Oral suspension, syrup or enema—Follow instructions on label.------------------------------When to take:At the same time(s) each day. Take once-a-day or once-every-other-day doses in mornings.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Decreases inflammatory responses. Suppresses immune response. Stimulates bone marrow.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Starts working within hours, but may take days to weeks for full benefit.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:May have psychological changes, heart rhythm problems or allergic symptoms (e.g., shortness of breath).WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to any cortisone* drug.• You have an active case of tuberculosis, systemic fungal infection, herpes infection of eyes or peptic ulcer disease.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:You have, or have had, heart disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, AIDS, HIV infection, glaucoma, underactive or overactive thyroid, high blood pressure, myasthenia gravis, blood clots in legs or lungs, peptic ulcer disease, tuberculosis, recent or current chickenpox or measles, kidney or liver disease, esophagitis, cold sores, osteoporosis, systemic lupus erythematosus or hyperlipidemia.------------------------------Over age 60:With long term use, the adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent or severe; may have increased risk of osteoporosis, eye problems or high blood pressure.------------------------------Pregnancy:Risk factors vary for drugs in this group. See category list on page xviii and consult doctor.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:• Use only under close medical supervision. These drugs may slow or decrease growth rate or cause reduced adrenal gland function. Be sure you and your child’s doctor discuss all benefits and risks of the drug.• Children using large doses of this drug are more susceptible to infectious disease.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Greatly increases the risk of adverse effects.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical exams or laboratory studies.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected (unless you feel dizzy).------------------------------Discontinuing:• Don’t discontinue without doctor’s advice until you complete prescribed dose, even though symptoms diminish or disappear.• Don’t stop drug suddenly. Drug dose usually needs to be gradually reduced (tapered). Consult doctor if withdrawal symptoms occur (e.g., fatigue, weakness, stomach pain, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea or low blood pressure).• Drug can affect your response to surgery, illness, injury or stress for 2 years after discontinuing. Tell anyone who takes medical care of you within 2 years about use of this drug.------------------------------Others:• Consult your doctor before receiving any type of vaccination. Some vaccines may be less effective in persons taking this drug.• Resistance to infection is less while taking this medicine. Consult doctor if infection occurs.• Call doctor about swelling or rapid weight gain.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• May cause recurrence of tuberculosis.• Can interfere with the accuracy of some medical tests.• Wear or carry medical identification that indicates use of this drug (if using long term). POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGSThis Possible Interactions With Other Drugs table continues here POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESADRENOCORTICOIDS (Topical)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 833.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? Yes, for someAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Adrenocorticoid (topical) USESRelieves redness, swelling, itching, skin discomfort of hemorrhoids; insect bites; poison ivy, oak, sumac; soaps, cosmetics; jewelry; burns; sunburn; numerous skin rashes; eczema; discoid lupus erythematosus; swimmer’s ear; sun poisoning; hair loss; scars; pemphigus; psoriasis; pityriasis rosea. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• Cream, lotion, ointment, gel—Apply small amount and rub in gently.• Foam—Follow directions on container. Don’t breathe vapors.• Other forms—Follow directions on container.------------------------------When to use:When needed or as directed. Don’t use more often than directions allow.------------------------------If you forget an application:Use as soon as you remember.------------------------------What drug does:Reduces inflammation by affecting enzymes that produce inflammation.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:15 to 20 minutes.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other topical medicine without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTSNote: Side effects are unlikely if topical adrenocorticoids are used in low doses for short periods of time. High doses for long periods can possibly cause the adverse reactions of cortisone, listed under ADRENOCORTICOIDS (Systemic). WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any topical adrenocorticoid (cortisone) preparation.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You plan pregnancy within medication period.• You have diabetes.• You have infection at treatment site.• You have stomach ulcer.• You have tuberculosis.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons, especially thinning of the skin.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn child. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:• Use only under medical supervision. Too much for too long can be absorbed into blood stream through skin and retard growth.• For infants in diapers, avoid plastic pants or tight diapers.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Increases chance of absorption into blood stream to cause side effects of oral cortisone drugs.• May thin skin where used.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:Desoximetasone may cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:May be unnecessary to finish medicine. Follow doctor’s instructions.------------------------------Others:• Don’t use a plastic dressing longer than 2 weeks.• Aerosol spray—Store in cool place. Don’t use near heat or open flame or while smoking. Don’t puncture, break or burn container.• Don’t use for acne or gingivitis. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESALPHA ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR BLOCKERSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESALFUZOSINUroXatralDOXAZOSINCarduraCardura XLPRAZOSINMinipressMinizideSILODOSINRapafloTAMSULOSINFlomaxJalynTERAZOSINHytrinBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Antihypertensive USES• Treatment for high blood pressure.• May improve congestive heart failure.• Treatment for Raynaud’s disease.• Treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Tablet (doxazosin)—Swallow with liquid. If you can’t swallow whole, crush or crumble tablet and take with liquid or food.• Tablet or capsule or extended-release tablet— Swallow whole with liquid. Do not crumble or crush or chew tablet or open capsule.------------------------------When to take:At the same times each day.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Expands and relaxes blood vessel walls to lower blood pressure.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:30 minutes; may take days or weeks for full effect.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Extreme weakness; rapid or irregular heartbeat; loss of consciousness; cold, sweaty skin; weak, rapid pulse; coma.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to alpha adrenergic receptor blockers. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You experience lightheadedness or fainting with other antihypertensive drugs.• You suffer from depression.• You have impaired brain circulation or have had a stroke.• You will have surgery within 2 months, including eye or dental surgery.• You have coronary heart disease (with or without angina).• You have kidney disease or impaired liver function.------------------------------Over age 60:Begin with no more than 1 mg. per day for first 3 days. Increases should be gradual and supervised by your doctor. Don’t stand while taking. Sudden changes in position may cause falls. Sit or lie down promptly if you feel dizzy. If you have impaired brain circulation or coronary heart disease, excessive lowering of blood pressure should be avoided. Report problems to your doctor immediately.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category B or category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Not recommended.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without doctor’s advice until you complete prescribed dose, even though symptoms diminish or disappear.------------------------------Others:• First dose likely to cause dizziness or lightheadedness. Take drug at night and get out of bed slowly next morning.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• May affect the results in some medical tests. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESALPROSTADILBRAND NAMESCaverjectEdexMuseBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? NoDrug class: Impotence therapy USESTreatment for impotence in some men who have erectile dysfunction due to neurologic, vascular, psychological or mixed causes. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• Injection—The first injection will be given in the doctor’s office to determine proper dosage and to train you in preparing and self-injecting the drug. When using it at home, follow the instructions provided with the prescription or use as directed by your doctor to inject drug into the penis.• Intraurethral—Use as a single dose suppository 10 to 30 minutes prior to intercourse.------------------------------When to take:Usually 10 to 30 minutes prior to sexual intercourse. Do not use injection more than 3 times in one week and do not use more than once in a 24-hour period. Do not use more than 2 suppositories in one 24-hour period.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Not used on a scheduled basis.------------------------------What drug does:Increases the blood flow into the penis and decreases the blood flow from the penis. The change in blood flow causes the penis to swell and elongate.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:5 to 20 minutes. Erections may last up to 60 minutes.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Prolonged penile erection.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to alprostadil or you have been advised not to have sex.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have liver disease.• You have sickle cell anemia or trait.• You have multiple myeloma or leukemia.• You have a penile implant or any type of penile malformation.• You are allergic to any other medications.• You have a history of priapism (prolonged penile erection).------------------------------Over age 60:Effects on this age group are variable. Consult doctor.------------------------------Pregnancy:Not used by females. Men should not use the product to have sexual intercourse with a pregnant woman unless the couple uses a condom barrier.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Not used by females.------------------------------Infants & children:Not used in this age group.------------------------------Prolonged use:Have regular checkups with your doctor while using this drug to determine the effectiveness of the treatment and to check for any penile problems.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No special problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No special problems expected.------------------------------Others:• Don’t increase dosage or frequency of use without your doctor’s approval.• Follow label instructions and dispose of all needles properly after use. Do not reuse or share needles.• The injection of this drug provides no protection from sexually transmitted diseases. Other protective measures, such as condoms should be used when necessary to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.• Slight bleeding may occur at injection site. Apply pressure if this occurs. If bleeding persists, consult doctor. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESAMINOGLUTETHIMIDEBRAND NAMESCytadrenBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? NoDrug class: Antiadrenal, antineoplastic USES• Treats Cushing’s syndrome.• Treats breast and prostate cancer. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet—Swallow with liquid. If you can’t swallow whole, crumble tablet and take with liquid or food. Instructions to take on empty stomach mean 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating.------------------------------When to take:Follow doctor’s instructions exactly.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Suppresses adrenal cortex.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:1 to 2 hours.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicines (including nonprescription drugs such as cough and cold medicines, laxatives, antacids, diet pills, caffeine, nose drops, vitamins or other diet supplements) without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:May be more severe form of adverse effects.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to aminoglutethimide or glutethimide. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have recently been exposed to chicken pox.• You have shingles (herpes zoster).• You have decreased thyroid function (hypothyroidism).• You have any liver or kidney disorder.• You have any form of infection.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons. You may need smaller doses for shorter periods of time.------------------------------Pregnancy:Consult doctor. Use of the drug in pregnancy is not recommended. It could cause harm to the unborn baby. Risk category D (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally not recommended with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Effect not documented. Consult your doctor.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check thyroid function, liver function, serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and blood pressure.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No special problems expected.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• May affect results in some medical tests.• May cause decreased thyroid function. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESAMLEXANOXBRAND NAMESAphthasolOraDiscBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? NoDrug class: Antiaphthous ulcer agent USESTreatment for severe canker sores (aphthous ulcers) in the mouth. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• Oral paste—Use fingertips to apply paste directly to each canker sore following oral hygiene.• Patch—Apply to affected area in the mouth. The drug will dissolve slowly.------------------------------When to use:Use as soon as symptoms of a canker sore appear. Apply four times a day—after meals and before bedtime. Wash hands after application.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Exact healing mechanism is unknown. Appears to stop the inflammatory process and hypersensitivity reaction.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Pain relief may occur within hours or up to 24 hours. Complete healing time will take several days.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other medicine for mouth ulcers without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to amlexanox. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You are allergic to any medication, food or other substance.• You have a weak immune system due to drugs or illness.------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits outweigh risks to unborn child. Risk category B (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Safety and efficacy have not been established. Use only under close medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Normally only used for up to 10 days of treatment.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:May be unnecessary to finish medicine. Discontinue when canker sores heal.------------------------------Others:• If canker sores do not heal after 10 days, consult your dentist or health care provider.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESAMPHETAMINESGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESAMPHETAMINE & DEXTROAMPHETAMINEAdderallAdderall XRDEXTROAMPHETAMINEDexedrineDexedrine SpansuleLiquaddOxydessSpancapLISDEXAMFETAMINEVyvanseMETHAMPHETAMINEDesoxynDesoxyn GradumetBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? YesPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Central nervous system stimulant USES• Treats narcolepsy (sleep attacks).• Treats attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults, adolescents and children. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Tablet—Swallow with liquid.• Extended-release capsule or tablet—Swallow each dose whole with liquid; do not crush.• Solution—Follow instructions on prescription.------------------------------When to take:• Short-acting form—Don’t take later than 6 hours before bedtime.• Long-acting form—Take on awakening.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for that dose (don’t double this dose) and resume regular schedule.------------------------------What drug does:• Hyperactivity—Decreases motor restlessness and increases ability to pay attention.• Narcolepsy—Increases motor activity and mental alertness; diminishes drowsiness.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Takes several weeks to see if drug is effective.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any diet supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Rapid heartbeat, hyperactivity, high fever, hallucinations, suicidal or homicidal feelings, convulsions, coma.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to any amphetamine. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.• Patient has certain underlying heart defects.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You plan to become pregnant.• You have glaucoma, diabetes, overactive thyroid, anxiety or suffer from stress.• You have a history of substance abuse.• You have any heart or blood vessel disorder, high blood pressure or tic disorder (e.g., Tourette syndrome).• Adult or child patient has a mental illness.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally not recommended with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:You and your child’s doctor should discuss all risks and benefits before using this drug.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Drug can be habit forming. Ask your doctor about the risks involved.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check blood pressure, growth charts in children and need for continued treatment.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes.------------------------------Discontinuing:• May be unnecessary to finish medicine, but don’t suddenly stop. Follow doctor’s instructions.• During a withdrawal phase, may cause prolonged sleep of several days.------------------------------Others:• Use of this drug must be closely supervised. Don’t use for appetite control or depression.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• Don’t use for fatigue or to replace rest.• Drug may rarely cause serious heart and psychiatric (mental) problems, including sudden death. Read warning information provided with prescription. Call doctor right away if symptoms develop (e.g., chest pain, shortness of breath, fainting or hallucinations).• Drug may rarely cause blood vessel problems in fingers or toes; they feel cold or numb and very rarely, can develop wounds. Contact doctor right away if symptoms occur. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGSThis Possible Interactions With Other Drugs table continues here POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANAGRELIDEBRAND NAMESAgrylinBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Platelet count-reducing agent; antithrombocythemia USESReduces elevated platelet counts and the risk of thrombosis (formation of a blood clot); also makes symptoms more tolerable in patients with essential thrombocythemia. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Capsule—Swallow with liquid. Take with or without food.------------------------------When to take:At the same time each day. Dose may be adjusted to maintain proper platelet count.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, then skip the missed dose and wait for your next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Exact mechanism is unknown.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:One to two weeks.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:None expected immediately. May lower platelet count, leading to increased bleeding.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to anagrelide. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have any kidney or liver disease or any heart or blood vessel disorder.• You have any chronic health problem.• You are pregnant or nursing.------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn child. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Safety and efficacy have not been established in patients under 16. Use only under close medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Schedule regular visits with your doctor for laboratory examinations to monitor the continued effectiveness of the medication.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without consulting your doctor even if you feel well.------------------------------Others:• Close medical supervision, including frequent platelet counts, required at start of therapy with this drug.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you are using this medicine. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANAKINRABRAND NAMESKineretBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? NoDrug class: Antirheumatic; biological response modifier USESTreatment of moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis. Used for patients who have not responded to one or more disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). May be used alone or in combination with certain other arthritis drugs. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Injection—The drug is self-injected under the skin (subcutaneously). Follow your doctor’s instructions and the directions provided with the prescription on how and where to inject. Do not use the medication unless you are sure about the proper method for injection. Store medication in the refrigerator (do not freeze) until you plan to use it. After each use, throw away the syringe and any medicine left in it (ask your pharmacist about disposal methods). Never reuse the needle or syringe.------------------------------When to take:Inject every day at the same time each day.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Inject as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and resume dosing schedule. Do not double doses.------------------------------What drug does:Reduces the actions of chemicals in the body that cause inflammatory and immune responses. It helps prevent progressive joint destruction.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:It will take several weeks before full benefits of the drug are noticeable.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to anakinra or the components of the drug (including proteins made from bacterial cells such as E coli). Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have a chronic disorder or infection or are immunosuppressed.• You have asthma (increases risk of infections).• You have a kidney disorder.• You have an active infection.• You are allergic or sensitive to latex.------------------------------Over age 60:Used with caution in elderly patients, since infections are more common in this age group.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn child. Risk category B (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Not recommended for children under age 18.------------------------------Prolonged use:• No specific problems expected.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check effectiveness of the drug and to monitor for infections.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected. Consult doctor.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• Using this drug increases the risk of infections. Consult your doctor if any signs or symptoms of infection occur.• Avoid immunizations unless approved by your doctor. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANDROGENSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 835.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Androgen USES• Corrects male hormone deficiency. Reduces “male menopause” symptoms (loss of sex drive, depression, anxiety).• Decreases calcium loss of osteoporosis (softened bones).• Blocks breast cancer cell growth in women.• Stimulates beginning of puberty in certain boys.• Augments treatment of aplastic anemia.• Stimulates weight gain after illness, injury or for chronically underweight persons.• Stimulates growth in treatment of dwarfism. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Tablet or capsule—Take with food to lessen stomach irritation.• Gel, cream, buccal system, transdermal (skin patch), topical solution—Follow instructions provided with prescription or by your doctor.• Injection—Given as needed for the condition by medical professional. May be self-injected as prescribed by your doctor.------------------------------When to take:Follow directions provided with your prescription.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take or use as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose). For gel or patch, usually wait for next scheduled time.------------------------------What drug does:• Stimulates cells that produce male sex characteristics.• Replaces hormone deficiencies.• Stimulates red-blood-cell production.• Suppresses production of estrogen (female sex hormone).------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Varies with problems treated. May require 2 or 3 months of regular use for desired effects.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any male hormone.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You might be pregnant.• You have cancer of- or enlarged prostate.• You have heart disease or arteriosclerosis.• You have kidney or liver disease.• You have breast cancer (male or female).• You have high blood pressure.• You have diabetes (drug can affect blood sugar).------------------------------Over age 60:• May stimulate sexual activity.• In males, can enlarge prostate, worsen prostate cancer and cause urinary retention. Have a prostate exam before starting this medication.------------------------------Pregnancy:Consult doctor. Drug should not be used during pregnancy. Can cause harm to unborn baby. Risk category X (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use with children only under close medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:• May cause liver cancer, possible kidney stones. In women may cause unnatural hair growth and deep voice.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check effects of the drug.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected.------------------------------Others:• Reduces sperm count and volume of semen. This effect is usually temporary.• With patch or gel, drug can pass to sexual partner. Consult doctor if partner starts getting any of the side effects listed.• Wash hands carefully after applying gel and cover area where gel applied.• Children and women need to avoid contact with areas of skin where men have applied the gel. It can cause serious side effects, especially in children. Consult doctor if symptoms occur.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• In women, may cause changes such as deepened voice, increased hair growth, enlarged clitoris. Some changes may not go away after drug is discontinued. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANESTHETICS (Mucosal-Local)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESBENZOCAINEAnbesol Baby GelAnbesol Maximum Strength GelAnbesol Maximum Strength LiquidBaby AnbesolBaby OrabaseBaby OragelBaby Oragel Nighttime FormulaBenzodentChildren’s Chloraseptic LozengesDentapaineDentocaineDent-Zel-IteHurricaineNumzidentNum-Zit GelNum-Zit LotionOrabase-B with BenzocaineOrajel Extra StrengthOrajel LiquidOrajel Maximum StrengthOratect GelRid-A-PainSensoGARD Canker Sore ReliefSpec-T Sore Throat AnestheticTopicaineBENZOCAINE & MENTHOLChlorasepticLozengesCherry FlavorBENZOCAINE & PHENOLAnbesol GelAnbesol LiquidAnbesol Regular Strength GelAnbesol Regular Strength LiquidDYCLONINEChildren’s SucretsSucrets Maximum StrengthSucrets Regular StrengthLIDOCAINEXylocaineXylocaine ViscousZilactin-LTETRACAINESupracaineBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? Yes, for someAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Anesthetic (mucosal-local) OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Overabsorption by body—Dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, drowsiness.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. USESRelieves pain or irritation in mouth caused by toothache, teething, mouth sores, dentures, braces, dental appliances. Also relieves pain of sore throat for short periods of time. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• For mouth problems—Apply to sore places with cotton-tipped applicator. Don’t swallow.• For throat—Gargle, but don’t swallow.• For aerosol spray—Don’t inhale.------------------------------When to use:As directed by physician or label on package.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember.------------------------------What drug does:Blocks pain impulses to the brain.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Immediately.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other medicine for your mouth without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any of the products listed. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You are allergic to anything.• You have infection, canker sores or other sores in your mouth.• You take medicine for myasthenia gravis, eye drops for glaucoma or any sulfa medicine.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons. Ask doctor about smaller doses.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category B or C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Prolonged use:Not intended for prolonged use.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Wait to see if causes dizziness, sweating, drowsiness or blurred vision. If not, no problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected.------------------------------Others:• Keep cool, but don’t freeze.• Don’t puncture, break or burn aerosol containers.• Don’t eat, drink or chew gum for 1 hour after use.• Heat and moisture in bathroom medicine cabinet can cause breakdown of medicine. Store someplace else.• Before anesthesia, tell dentist about any medicines you take or use. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANESTHETICS (Rectal)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESBENZOCAINEAmericaine HemorrhoidalEthyl AminobenzoateDIBUCAINENupercainalLIDOCAINEAnamantle HC Cream KitPeranex HC CreamRecticare AnorectalXyralid RCPRAMOXINEFleet ReliefProCortProctofoamTronolaneTronothaneTETRACAINEPontocaine CreamTETRACAINE & MENTHOLPontocaine OintmentBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? Yes, for someAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Anesthetic (rectal) USES• Relieves pain, itching and swelling of hemorrhoids (piles).• Relieves pain of rectal fissures (breaks in lining membrane of the anus). DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• Rectal cream or ointment—Apply to surface of rectum with fingers. Insert applicator into rectum no farther than 1/2 and apply inside. Wash applicator carefully or discard.• Aerosol foam—Read patient instructions. Don’t insert into rectum. Use the special applicator and wash carefully after using.• Suppository—Remove wrapper and moisten with water. Lie on side. Push blunt end of suppository into rectum with finger. If suppository is too soft, run cold water over wrapper or put in refrigerator for 15 to 45 minutes before using.• Pads—For external use only. Follow instructions on label. Do not use for more than 1 week without doctor’s approval.------------------------------When to use:As directed on the product’s label.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember.------------------------------What drug does:Deadens nerve endings to pain and touch.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:5 to 15 minutes.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other topical rectal medicine without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to any topical anesthetic. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have skin infection at site of treatment.• You have had severe or extensive skin disorders such as eczema or psoriasis.• You have bleeding hemorrhoids.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category B or C or unclassified (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use caution. More likely to be absorbed through skin and cause adverse reactions.------------------------------Prolonged use:Possible excess absorption. Don’t use longer than 3 days for any one problem.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:May be unnecessary to finish medicine. Follow doctor’s instructions.------------------------------Others:• Report any rectal bleeding to your doctor.• Store medicine per label instructions. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANESTHETICS (Topical)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 836.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed?High strength: YesLow strength: NoAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Anesthetic (topical) USESRelieves pain and itch of sunburn, insect bites, scratches and other minor skin irritations. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:All forms—Use only enough to cover irritated area. Follow instructions on label or use as directed by doctor. Avoid using on large areas of skin.------------------------------When to use:When needed for discomfort, no more often than every hour.------------------------------If you forget an application:Use as needed.------------------------------What drug does:Blocks pain impulses from skin to brain.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:3 to 15 minutes.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other topical medicine without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to any topical anesthetic. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have skin infection at site of treatment.• You have had severe or extensive skin disorders such as eczema or psoriasis.• You have bleeding hemorrhoids.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category B or C or unclassified (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use caution. More likely to be absorbed through skin and cause adverse reactions.------------------------------Prolonged use:Possible excess absorption.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:May cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:May be unnecessary to finish medicine. Follow doctor’s instructions.------------------------------Others:• Contact doctor if condition being treated doesn’t improve within a week. Call sooner if new symptoms develop or pain worsens.• Wash hands carefully after use. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESAZILSARTANEdarbiEdarbyclorCANDESARTANAtacandAtacand PlusEPROSARTANTevetenTeveten HCTIRBESARTANAvalideAvaproLOSARTANCozaarHyzaarOLMESARTANAzorBenicarBenicar HCTTribenzorTELMISARTANMicardisMicardis HCTMicardis PlusTwynstaVALSARTANDiovanDiovan HCTDiovan OralExforgeExforge HCTValturnaBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Antihypertensive, angiotensin II receptor antagonist USES• Treatment for hypertension (high blood pressure) and heart failure. May be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive medications.• Reduces risk of heart attack or stroke in certain patients. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet—Swallow with liquid. May be taken with or without food.------------------------------When to take:Once or twice daily as directed.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for that dose (don’t double this dose) and resume regular schedule.------------------------------What drug does:Lowers blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels to allow improved blood flow in the body.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:May take several weeks for full effectiveness.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Slow or irregular heartbeat, faintness, dizziness, lightheadedness.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to angiotensin II receptor antagonists.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have any kidney or liver disease.• You are pregnant or planning pregnancy.• You are allergic to any medication, food or other substance.------------------------------Over age 60:No special problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:• Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risks to unborn baby. Risk category C for first trimester and category D (could harm unborn baby) for second/third trimesters (see page xviii).• Contact doctor and stop taking losartan right away if pregnancy occurs.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally not recommended with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Olmesartan and valsartan approved to treat high blood pressure in ages 6 to 16. For other angiotensin II receptor antagonists, consult doctor.------------------------------Prolonged use:• No special problems expected. Hypertension usually requires life-long treatment.• Schedule regular doctor visits to determine if drug is continuing to be effective in controlling the hypertension and to check for any kidney problems.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take other medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without consulting your doctor, even if you feel well. You can have hypertension without feeling any symptoms. Untreated high blood pressure can cause serious problems.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. May interfere with the accuracy of some medical tests.• Follow any special diet your doctor may prescribe. It can help control hypertension.• Consult doctor if you become ill with vomiting or diarrhea.• Olmesartan can cause intestinal problems (sprue-like enteropathy). May occur after months or years of use. Symptoms include severe, chronic diarrhea and weight loss. Call doctor if symptoms develop.• Use caution when exercising or performing activities in hot weather and with excessive sweating. You may experience dizziness, lightheadedness or faintness. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) INHIBITORSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 836.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Antihypertensive, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor USES• Treatment for hypertension (high blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.• Used for kidney disease in diabetic patients.• Helps prevent complications in patients with stable coronary artery disease.• Treatment for acute myocardial infarction. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Capsule, tablet, long-acting tablet, liquid—Follow directions provided with your prescription.------------------------------When to take:At the same times each day, usually 2-3 times daily. Captopril should be taken on an empty stomach 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for that dose (don’t double this dose) and resume regular schedule.------------------------------What drug does:Relaxes artery walls and lowers blood pressure.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:60 to 90 minutes.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Low blood pressure, fever, chills, sore throat, fainting, convulsions, coma.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to any ACE inhibitor.*• You are receiving blood from a blood bank.• You will have surgery within 2 months, including dental surgery, requiring general or spinal anesthesia.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have had a stroke.• You have angina or heart or blood vessel disease.• You have any autoimmune disease, including AIDS or lupus.• You have high level of potassium in blood.• You have kidney or liver disease.• You are on severe salt-restricted diet.• You have a bone marrow disorder.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons.------------------------------Pregnancy:Consult doctor. Use of the drug in pregnancy is not recommended. It could cause harm to the unborn baby. Risk category D (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Under close medical supervision only.------------------------------Prolonged use:Request periodic laboratory blood counts and urine tests.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:One or more drugs in this group may cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Avoid if you become dizzy or faint. Otherwise, no problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without consulting doctor. Dose may require gradual reduction if you have taken drug for a long time. Doses of other drugs may also require adjustment.------------------------------Others:• Avoid exercising in hot weather.• May affect results in some medical tests.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGSThis Possible Interactions With Other Drugs table continues here POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTACIDSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 837.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? NoAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Antacid USESTreatment for hyperacidity in upper gastrointestinal tract, including stomach and esophagus. Symptoms may be heartburn or acid indigestion. Diseases include peptic ulcer, gastritis, esophagitis, hiatal hernia. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Follow package instructions.------------------------------When to take:1 to 3 hours after meals unless directed otherwise by your doctor.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember, but not simultaneously with any other medicine.------------------------------What drug does:• Neutralizes some of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach.• Reduces action of pepsin, a digestive enzyme.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:15 minutes for antacid effect.------------------------------Don’t take with:• Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist.• Other drugs at the same time. Decreases absorption of that drug. Wait 2 hours. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Diarrhea or constipation, nausea, excess thirst, stomach pain, other symptoms.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTSNote: Side effects are rare unless too much medicine is taken for a long time. WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to any antacid. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.• You have a high blood-calcium level.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:You have kidney disease, chronic constipation, colitis, diarrhea, symptoms of appendicitis, stomach or intestinal bleeding, irregular heartbeat.------------------------------Over age 60:Usually no problems with occasional use. Advise your doctor if you use antacids regularly.------------------------------Pregnancy:Generally acceptable with pregnancy. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor before using.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use only under medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:• High blood level of calcium (if your antacid contains calcium) which disturbs electrolyte balance.• Kidney stones, impaired kidney function.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check kidney function, serum calcium, serum potassium.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:May be unnecessary to finish medicine. Follow doctor’s instructions.------------------------------Others:• Don’t take longer than 2 weeks unless under medical supervision.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. May affect results in some medical tests. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTHELMINTICSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESALBENDAZOLEAlbenzaIVERMECTINStromectolPYRANTELAntiminthAutCobantrilHelmexLombriareuReese’s Pinworm MedicineTrilombrinTHIABENDAZOLEFoldanMintezolMintezol TopicalMinzolumTriasoxBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Anthelmintics, antiparasitic USES• Treatment of roundworms, pinworms, whipworms, hookworms and other intestinal parasites.• Treatment of hydatid disease, neurocysticercosis, strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take or apply:• Tablet—Swallow with liquid or food to lessen stomach irritation.• Topical suspension—Apply to end of each tunnel or burrow made by worm.• Chewable tablet—Chew thoroughly before swallowing.• Oral suspension—Follow package instructions.------------------------------When to take:Morning and evening with food to increase uptake.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Skip dose and begin treatment again. Often only one or two doses are needed to complete treatment.------------------------------What drug does:Kills or paralyzes the parasites. They then pass out of the body in the feces. Usually the type of worm parasite must be identified so the appropriate drug can be prescribed.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Some take only hours; others, 1 to 3 days.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Increased severity of adverse reactions and side effects.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any anthelmintic. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have liver disease.• You have Crohn’s disease.• You have ulcerative colitis.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons. You may need smaller doses for shorter periods of time.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:No problems expected. Don’t give to a child under age 2 without doctor’s approval.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Not intended for long-term use.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check stools, cellophane tape swabs pressed against rectal area to check for parasite eggs, complete blood counts (white blood cell count, platelet count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit).------------------------------Skin & sunlight:Thiabendazole may cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Use caution if the medicine causes you to feel dizzy or weak. Otherwise, no problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected.------------------------------Others:• Take full course of treatment. Repeat course may be necessary if follow-up examinations reveal persistent infection.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• Wash all bedding after treatment to prevent reinfection. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTHRALIN (Topical)BRAND NAMESAnthra-DermAnthraforteAnthranolAnthrascalpDithranolDrithocremeDrithocreme HPDritho-ScalpLasanLasan HPLasan PomadeLasan UnguentMicanolBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? NoDrug class: Antipsoriatic, hair growth stimulant USES• Treats quiescent or chronic psoriasis.• Stimulates hair growth in some people (not an approved use by the FDA). DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• Wear plastic gloves for all applications.• If directed, apply at night.• Cream, lotion, ointment—Bathe and dry area before use. Apply small amount and rub gently.• If for short contact, same as above for cream.• Leave on 20 to 30 minutes. Then remove medicine by bathing or shampooing.• If for scalp overnight—Shampoo before use to remove scales or medicine. Dry hair. Part hair several times and apply to scalp. Wear plastic cap on head. Clean off next morning with petroleum jelly, then shampoo.------------------------------When to use:As directed.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember.------------------------------What drug does:Reduces growth activity within abnormal cells by inhibiting enzymes.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:May require several weeks or more.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:• You are allergic to anthralin. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.• You have infected skin.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have chronic kidney disease.• You are allergic to anything.------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Prolonged use:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:May cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected.------------------------------Others:• Keep cool, but don’t freeze.• Apply petroleum jelly to normal skin or scalp to protect areas not being treated.• Will stain hair, clothing, shower, bathtub or sheets. Wash as soon as possible.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• Heat and moisture in bathroom medicine cabinet can cause breakdown of medicine. Store someplace else. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIACNE, CLEANSING (Topical)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESALCOHOL & ACETONESeba-NilALCOHOL & SULFURLiquimatPostacneSULFURATED LIMEVlemasqueVleminckx SolutionBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? NoAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Antiacne agent, cleansing agent USESTreats acne or oily skin. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• Lotion, gel or pledget—Start with small amount and wipe over face to remove dirt and surface oil. Don’t apply to wounds or burns. Don’t rinse with water and avoid contact with eyes. Skin may be more sensitive in dry or cold climates.• Plaster—Follow package instructions.------------------------------When to use:As directed. May increase frequency up to 3 or more times daily as tolerated. Warm, humid weather may allow more frequent use.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember and then go back to regular schedule.------------------------------What drug does:Helps remove oil from skin’s surface.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Works immediately.------------------------------Don’t use with:Other topical acne treatments unless directed by doctor. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You have to apply over a wounded or burned area.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:You use benzoyl peroxide, resorcinol, salicylic acid, sulfur or tretinoin (vitamin A acid).------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Pregnancy risk category not assigned to this drug group. Consult doctor about use.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:No problems expected, but check with doctor. Use only under close medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Excessive drying of skin.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Others:Some antiacne agents are flammable. Don’t use near fire or while smoking. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIALLERGIC AGENTS (Ophthalmic)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESALCAFTADINELastacaftAZELASTINE (ophthalmic)OptivarBEPOTASTINEBepreveEMEDASTINEEmadineEPINASTINEElestatKETOTIFENAlawayClaritin EyeRefresh Eye Itch ReliefZaditorZyrtec Eye DropsLEVOCABASTINELivostinLODOXAMIDEAlomideNEDOCROMILAlocrilOLOPATADINEPatadayPatanolPEMIROLASTAlamastBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? Yes, for someAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Ophthalmic antiallergic agents, antihistaminic USESPrevention and treatment of seasonal allergic (hay fever) eye disorders. May be referred to as seasonal conjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, vernal keratitis or vernal keratoconjunctivitis. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:Eye solution• Wash hands.• Apply pressure to inside corner of eye with middle finger.• Continue pressure for 1 minute after placing medicine in eye.• Tilt head backward. Pull lower lid away from eye with index finger of the same hand.• Drop eye drops into pouch and close eye. Don’t blink.• Keep eyes closed for 1 to 2 minutes.------------------------------When to use:1 to 2 drops 4 times a day or as directed by doctor or instructions on product.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember, then return to regular schedule.------------------------------What drug does:Prevents a hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens such as pollen.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Relief of symptoms may begin immediately, but full benefit might take a few days.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other eye medications without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to any of the antiallergic ophthalmic drugs.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You wear soft contact lenses.• You are allergic to any other medications, foods or other substances.------------------------------Over age 60:No special problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Risk category B for azelastine, emedastine, levocabastine, lodoxamide, nedocromil and pemirolast. Risk category C for epinastine, olopatadine and ketotifen. See page xviii for category information. Consult doctor about use.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:No information available on safety or effectiveness for children under age 2 for lodoxamide and under age 12 for levocabastine. Consult doctor. Azelastine approved for children 3 years and older.------------------------------Prolonged use:No special problems expected.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Avoid if you feel dizzy or side effects cause vision problems.------------------------------Discontinuing:No special problems expected.------------------------------Others:• Don’t use leftover medicine for other eye problems without your doctor’s approval.• If symptoms don’t improve after a few days of use, call your doctor. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIANDROGENS, NONSTEROIDALGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESBICALUTAMIDECasodexFLUTAMIDEEuflexEulexinNILUTAMIDEAmandronNilandronBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? NoDrug class: Antineoplastic USESTreatment for prostate cancer. Used in combination with a testosterone lowering measure such as surgery (removal of the testicles) or use of a special monthly injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet or capsule—Swallow with liquid. May be taken with or without food.------------------------------When to take:According to doctor’s instructions. Normally at the same times each day.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and return to your regular dosing schedule (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Interferes with utilization of androgen (male hormone) testosterone by body cells. Prostate cancer cells require testosterone in order to grow and reproduce.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Starts working within two hours, but may take several weeks to be effective.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, tiredness, headache, dizziness, breast tenderness.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTSNote: Adverse effects may also be due to use of LHRH or prostate cancer symptoms. WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to any of the antiandrogens.• You are female.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have liver disease.• You use tobacco.• You have lung disease or other breathing problems.• You have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency or hemoglobin M disease.• You are planning on starting a family. May decrease sperm count.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons. You may need smaller doses for shorter periods of time.------------------------------Pregnancy:Consult doctor. These drugs are not intended for use in women.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Not intended for use in women.------------------------------Infants & children:Not intended for use in infants and children.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check liver and pulmonary functions, PSA levels, chest x-rays, and other tests as recommended.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:May cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:You may experience vision problems when going from a dark area to a lighted area and vice versa (such as driving in and out of tunnels). Use caution.------------------------------Discontinuing:No special problems expected. Don’t discontinue drug without doctor’s approval.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• May affect results in some medical tests.• May decrease sperm count. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIARRHYTHMICS, BENZOFURAN-TYPEGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESAMIODARONECordaroneDRONEDARONEMultaqBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for amiodaroneDrug class: Antiarrhythmic USESPrevents and treats certain types of life-threatening irregular heart rhythms. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet—Swallow whole with liquid or food to lessen stomach irritation. If you can’t swallow tablet whole, ask doctor or pharmacist for advice.------------------------------When to take:Amiodarone is usually taken once a day. Dronedarone is usually taken twice daily (with morning and evening meals).------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and wait for your next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Antiarrhythmic drugs slow the electrical impulses in the heart to help restore, maintain or control normal heart rhythm.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:May take up to 2 weeks for therapeutic effect.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Weakness, slow heart rate, lightheadedness, or fainting.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to amiodarone or dronedarone.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have diabetes; liver, kidney, thyroid, lung, or electrolyte (e.g., low potassium) disorder.• You are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.• You take herbal or vitamin supplements.• You have any heart problem or heart disorder (e.g., slow heartbeat, congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, or stroke).------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Consult doctor. Drug could harm unborn baby. Use of amiodarone (risk category D) is not recommended and dronedarone (risk category X) should not be used in pregnancy. See page xviii.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally not recommended with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Safety and efficacy not established.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Blue-gray discoloration of skin may occur with. amiodarone.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical exams or lab tests.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:May cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (called photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take other medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.------------------------------Discontinuing:• Don’t discontinue without doctor’s advice. Dose may require gradual reduction if you have taken drug for a long time. Doses of other drugs may also require adjustment.• Notify doctor if cough, fever, breathing difficulty or other symptoms occur after discontinuing the drug.------------------------------Others:• Call doctor right away if you have symptoms of lung toxicity (e.g., cough or painful breathing) or liver toxicity (e.g., yellow skin or eyes, swelling of feet and ankles).• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• Dronedarone has been linked to increased risk of death, stroke, and heart failure in some patients. Ask your doctor about your risks.• May interfere with the accuracy of some medical tests.• It is important that you have regular eye exams before and during treatment.• Carry or wear medical identification stating that you are taking this drug. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGSThis Possible Interactions With Other Drugs table continues here POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIBACTERIALS FOR ACNE (Topical)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESCLINDAMYCIN (topical)AcanyaBenzaclinCleocinClinda-DermClindaReachDalacin T Topical SolutionDUAC Topical GelEvoclin FoamVeltin GelZiana GelERYTHROMYCIN (topical)Akne-MycinBenzamycinEryGelErythro-statinSans-AcneTheramycin ZBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Antibacterial (topical) USESTreats acne by killing skin bacteria that may be part of the cause of acne. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• Pledgets and solutions are flammable. Use away from flame or heat.• Apply drug to entire area, not just to pimples.• If you use other acne medicines on skin, wait an hour after using erythromycin before applying other medicine.• Cream, lotion, ointment—Wash and dry area Then apply small amount and rub gently.------------------------------When to use:2 times a day, morning and evening, or as directed by your doctor.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember.------------------------------What drug does:Kills bacteria on skin, skin glands or in hair follicles.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:3 to 4 weeks to begin improvement.------------------------------Don’t use with:Other skin medicine without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to clindamycin or erythromycin. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You are allergic to any substance that touches your skin.• You use benzoyl peroxide, resorcinol, salicylic acid, sulfur or tretinoin (vitamin A acid).------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category B (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Prolonged use:Excess irritation to skin.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Others:• Use water-base cosmetics.• Keep medicine away from mouth or eyes.• If accidentally gets into eyes, flush immediately with clear water.• Keep medicine away from heat or flame.• Keep medicine cool, but don’t freeze. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIBACTERIALS (Ophthalmic)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 838.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Antibacterial (ophthalmic) USES• Helps body overcome eye infections on surface tissues of the eye.• Treatment for corneal ulcers. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:Eye drops• Wash hands.• Apply pressure to inside corner of eye with middle finger.• Continue pressure for 1 minute after placing medicine in eye.• Tilt head backward. Pull lower lid away from eye with index finger of the same hand.• Drop eye drops into pouch and close eye. Don’t blink.• Keep eyes closed for 1 to 2 minutes.Eye ointment• Wash hands.• Pull lower lid down from eye to form a pouch.• Squeeze tube to apply thin strip of ointment into pouch.• Close eye for 1 to 2 minutes.• Don’t touch applicator tip to any surface (including the eye). If you accidentally touch tip, clean with warm soap and water.• Keep container tightly closed.• Wash hands immediately after using.------------------------------When to use:As directed. Don’t miss doses.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember.------------------------------What drug does:Penetrates bacterial cell membrane and prevents cells from multiplying.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Begins in 1 hour. May require 7 to 10 days to control infection.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other eye drops or ointment without checking with your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to any antibiotic used in the eyes or on skin, ears, vagina and rectum.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:You have had an allergic reaction to any medicine, food or other substances.------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Risk factors vary for drugs in this group. See category list on page xviii and consult doctor.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:No problems expected. Use only under medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Sensitivity reaction may develop.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected.------------------------------Others:• Notify doctor if symptoms fail to improve in 2 to 4 days.• Keep medicine cool, but don’t freeze. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGSClinically significant interactions with oral or injected medicines unlikely. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIBACTERIALS (Otic)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESACETIC ACIDVoSolACETIC ACID & ALUMINUM ACETATEACETIC ACID & HYDROCORTISONEAcetasol HCVoSol HCCIPROFLOXACIN (otic)CetraxalCIPROFLOXACIN & DEXAMETHASONECiprodexCIPROFLOXACIN & HYDROCORTISONECipro HCNEOMYCIN, COLISTIN & HYDROCORTISONEColy-Mycin SNEOMYCIN, POLYMIXIN B & HYDROCORTISONE (otic)CortatrigenCort-BioticCortisporin OticDroticEar-EzeMasporin OticOctigenOticairOtimarOtocidinOtocorPedioticOFLOXACIN (otic)Floxin OticBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for some Drug class: Antibacterial (otic) USES• Treatment for outer ear infection (called swimmer’s ear or otitis externa).• Treats certain acute or chronic middle ear infections (e.g., otitis media).• Most of these drugs contain an antibacterial to fight the infection and an anti-inflammatory to help provide relief from redness, irritation and discomfort. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:As directed by your doctor or pharmacist. The following are general instructions.How to use ear drops:• Wash and dry hands.• Warm drops by holding container in your hand for a few minutes.• Lie down with affected ear up.• Adults—Pull ear lobe back and up.• Children—Pull ear lobe down and back.• Put the correct number of drops into the ear. Do not allow dropper to touch the ear.• Wipe away any spilled drops.• Stay lying down for 2 to 5 minutes.------------------------------When to use:As directed on label. The number of daily doses will vary depending on the specific drug.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Antibacterials destroy the bacteria causing the infection. Anti-inflammatories reduce symptoms of inflammation.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Symptoms should improve within a few days. Complete healing of the infection will take longer.------------------------------Don’t use with:Other ear medications unless directed by your doctor or pharmacist. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to any of the drugs listed or other antibiotics, fluoroquinolones or steroid medications.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• Your eardrum is punctured.• You have tendonitis (if ofloxacin prescribed).• You have a viral infection such as chickenpox (varicella) or herpes simplex.------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn child. Risk category C for most of these drugs (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Follow instructions provided by your doctor. Use the correct dosage for your infant or child’s age and weight.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Not intended for prolonged use. Don’t use longer than prescribed by your doctor.• Overuse or unnecessary use of the drug can lead to its decreased effectiveness in fighting infections.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Avoid if you experience dizziness or balance problems caused by the ear infection.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without doctor’s advice until you complete prescribed dosage.------------------------------Others:• Follow your doctor’s instructions for additional ear care at home.• Call your doctor if ear symptoms worsen or don’t improve after a few days of treatment.• There is a slight risk of a secondary infection (one that occurs during or after treatment of another infection). Consult doctor if new, unexpected symptoms develop.• Rarely, some of these drugs may increase the risk of hearing or balance problems. Discuss the drug’s benefits and risks with your doctor.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you are using this drug. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIBACTERIALS (Topical)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESMUPIROCINBactrobanBactroban NasalNEOMYCIN (Topical)MyciguentNEOMYCIN, POLYMIXIN B & BACITRACINCortisporin CreamCortisporin OintmentTriple AntibioticRETAPAMULINAltabaxSILVER SULFADIAZINEFlamazineSilvadeneSSDSSD AFThermazeneBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? Yes, for someAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Antibacterial (topical) USESTreats skin infections that may accompany burns, superficial boils, insect bites or stings, skin ulcers, impetigo, minor surgical wounds. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to use:• Cream, lotion, ointment—Bathe and dry area before use. Apply small amount and rub gently. May cover with gauze or bandage if desired.• Nasal ointment—Follow instructions provided with prescription.------------------------------When to use:3 or 4 times daily, or as directed by doctor.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Use as soon as you remember.------------------------------What drug does:Kills susceptible bacteria by interfering with bacterial DNA and RNA.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Begins first day. May require treatment for a week or longer to cure infection.------------------------------Don’t use with:Any other topical medicine without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:If person uses much larger amount than prescribed or if accidentally swallowed, call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions or dial 911 (emergency) for help. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t use if:You are allergic to any topical antibacterial drug. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:Any of the lesions on the skin are open sores.------------------------------Over age 60:No problems expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category B or C or unassigned (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Prolonged use:No problems expected, but check with doctor.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:No problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:No problems expected------------------------------Others:• Heat and moisture in bathroom medicine cabinet can cause breakdown of medicine. Store someplace else.• Keep medicine cool, but don’t freeze. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTICHOLINERGICSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESHOMATROPINEHydrometTussigonMEPENZOLATECantilMETHSCOPOLAMINEAH-ChewPaminePamine FortePrehist DBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed?Low strength: NoHigh strength: YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Antispasmodic, anticholinergic USES• Reduces spasms of digestive system, bladder and urethra.• Treatment of bronchial spasms.• Used as a component in some cough and cold preparations.• Treatment of peptic ulcers. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet—Swallow with liquid or food to lessen stomach irritation.------------------------------When to take:30 minutes before meals (unless directed otherwise by doctor).------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Blocks nerve impulses at parasympathetic nerve endings, preventing muscle contractions and gland secretions of organs involved.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:15 to 30 minutes.------------------------------Don’t take with:• Antacids* or antidiarrheals.*• Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Dilated pupils, rapid pulse and breathing, dizziness, fever, hallucinations, confusion, slurred speech, agitation, flushed face, convulsions, coma.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to any anticholinergic. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.• You have trouble with stomach bloating.• You have difficulty emptying your bladder completely.• You have narrow-angle glaucoma.• You have severe ulcerative colitis.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have open-angle glaucoma.• You have angina or any heart disease or heart rhythm problem.• You have chronic bronchitis or asthma.• You have liver, kidney or thyroid disease.• You have hiatal hernia or esophagitis.• You have enlarged prostate or urinary retention.• You have myasthenia gravis.• You have peptic ulcer.• You will have surgery within 2 months, including dental surgery, requiring general or spinal anesthesia.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C for homatropine and methscopolamine; category B for mepenzolate (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use only under medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Chronic constipation, possible fecal impaction. Consult doctor immediately.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Use disqualifies you for piloting aircraft. Otherwise, no problems expected.------------------------------Discontinuing:May be unnecessary to finish medicine. Follow doctor’s instructions.------------------------------Others:Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTICOAGULANTS (Oral)GENERIC AND BRAND NAMESWARFARINCoumadinJantovenBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Anticoagulant USESIt is used to help prevent harmful blood clots from forming (or growing larger) in the blood vessels or heart. Preventing clots helps reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack or pulmonary embolism. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet—Swallow with liquid. It may be taken with or without food. If you can’t swallow whole, crumble tablet and take with liquid or food.------------------------------When to take:Once a day at the same time each day.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:It is in a class of drugs called anticoagulants (blood thinners). It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:It will begin to work within 24 hours, but the full effect may take 3 to 5 days.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. Many interactions are possible with warfarin. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Bloody vomit, coughing blood, bloody or black stools, red urine.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any oral anticoagulant.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have a bleeding disorder.• You have an active ulcer.• You have high blood pressure (hypertension).• You have a stomach or intestinal infection.• You have congestive heart failure or have had deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or a stroke.• You drink alcohol or have problems with alcohol abuse.• You have diabetes.• You fall often.• You are a female of reproductive age.• You have a bladder catheter.• You have protein C or protein S deficiency.• You have liver or kidney disease.• You have memory problems and may not be able to take drug as prescribed.• You will have surgery in the near future (including eye or dental surgery).------------------------------Over age 60:May have risk of side effects (e.g., bleeding).------------------------------Pregnancy:Consult doctor. Drug should not be used during pregnancy. Can cause harm to unborn baby. Risk category X (risk category D for women with mechanical heart valves). See page xviii.------------------------------Breastfeeding:This drug is generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use only under doctor’s supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Your doctor will schedule regular blood tests to monitor drug levels.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Avoid hazardous activities that could cause injury. Don’t drive if you experience dizziness.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue drug without doctor’s approval. Stopping the drug can increase the risk of blood clots and their complications.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor, dentist or pharmacist whom you consult that you take this drug.• Get regular blood tests to check your response to the drug.• Your doctor or dentist may tell you to stop taking warfarin or change the dosage before surgery or a medical procedure.• Carry or wear medical ID to state that you take this drug.• Your genetic makeup may affect your response to warfarin. Ask your doctor about genetic testing.• Use of this drug may cause severe bleeding (can be life-threatening or even cause death). POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTICONVULSANTS, HYDANTOINGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESETHOTOINPeganonePHENYTOINDilantinDilantin 30Dilantin 125Dilantin InfatabsDilantin KapsealsDiphenylanBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Anticonvulsant (hydantoin) USES• Prevents some forms of epileptic seizures.• Stabilizes irregular heartbeat. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Tablet—Swallow with liquid.• Chewable tablet—Chew well before swallowing.• Suspension—Shake solution well before taking with liquid.------------------------------When to take:At the same time each day.------------------------------If you forget a dose:• If drug taken 1 time per day—Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).• If taken several times per day—Take as soon as possible, then return to regular schedule.------------------------------What drug does:Stabilizes electrical activity in the brain.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:7 to 10 days continual use.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Jerky eye movements; stagger; slurred speech; imbalance; drowsiness; blood pressure drop; slow, shallow breathing; coma.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any hydantoin anticonvulsant.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have had impaired liver function or disease.• You will have surgery within 2 months, including dental surgery, requiring general or spinal anesthesia.• You have diabetes.• You have a blood disorder.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use only under medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Weakened bones.• Lymph gland enlargement.• Possible liver damage.• Numbness and tingling of hands and feet.• Continual back-and-forth eye movements.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check complete blood counts (white blood cell count, platelet count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit), liver function, EEG.*------------------------------Skin & sunlight:One or more drugs in this group may cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without consulting doctor. Dose may require gradual reduction if you have taken drug for a long time. Doses of other drugs may also require adjustment.------------------------------Others:• May cause learning disability.• Good dental care is important while using this medicine.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult about the use of this drug.• Rarely, antiepileptic drugs may lead to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Call doctor right away if suicidal symptoms or unusual behaviors occur. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGSThis Possible Interactions With Other Drugs table continues here POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTICONVULSANTS, SUCCINIMIDEGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESETHOSUXIMIDEZarontinMETHSUXIMIDECelontinBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Anticonvulsant (succinimide) USESControls seizures in treatment of some forms of epilepsy. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Capsule or syrup—Swallow with liquid or food to lessen stomach irritation.------------------------------When to take:Every day in regularly spaced doses, according to prescription.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:Depresses nerve transmissions in part of brain that controls muscles.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:3 hours.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Severe drowsiness, slow or irregular breathing, coma.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any succinimide anticonvulsant.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You plan to become pregnant within medication period.• You take other anticonvulsants.• You have blood disease.• You have kidney or liver disease.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally not recommended with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use only under medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check complete blood counts (white blood cell count, platelet count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit), liver function, kidney function, urine.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes, such as antihistamines, tranquilizers, sedatives, pain medicine, narcotics and mind-altering drugs.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without doctor’s advice until you complete prescribed dose, even though symptoms diminish or disappear.------------------------------Others:• Your response to medicine should be checked regularly by your doctor. Dose and schedule may have to be altered frequently to fit individual needs.• Periodic blood cell counts, kidney and liver function studies recommended.• May discolor urine pink to red-brown. No action necessary.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you use this medicine.• Rarely, antiepileptic drugs may lead to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Call doctor right away if suicidal symptoms or unusual behaviors occur. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIDEPRESSANTS, TRICYCLICGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 839.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Antidepressant (tricyclic) USES• Treatment for several types of depression.• Treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder and bedwetting.• May be used to treat narcolepsy, bulimia, anxiety, panic attacks, cocaine withdrawal, attention-deficit disorder, chronic pain, migraines, restless leg syndrome and other disorders. The brand name Silenor treats insomnia. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:Tablet, capsule or syrup—Swallow with liquid.------------------------------When to take:At the same time each day, usually at bedtime.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Bedtime dose—If you forget your once-a-day bedtime dose, don’t take it more than 3 hours late. If more than 3 hours, wait for next scheduled dose. Don’t double this dose.------------------------------What drug does:Probably affects part of brain that controls messages between nerve cells.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:2 to 4 weeks. May require 4 to 6 weeks for maximum benefit.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Hallucinations, drowsiness, enlarged pupils, respiratory failure, fever, cardiac arrhythmias, convulsions, coma. WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to any tricyclic antidepressant. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.• You drink alcohol in excess.• You have had a heart attack in past 6 weeks.• You have taken MAO inhibitors* within 2 weeks.• Patient is younger than age 12.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You will have surgery within 2 months, including dental surgery, requiring anesthesia.• You have an enlarged prostate or glaucoma.• You have high blood pressure, heart disease or stomach or intestinal problems.• You have an overactive thyroid.• You have asthma or liver disease.------------------------------Over age 60:More likely to develop urination difficulty and serious side effects such as seizures, hallucinations, shaking, dizziness, fainting, headache, insomnia.------------------------------Pregnancy:Risk factors vary for drugs in this group. See category list on page xviii and consult doctor.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Most drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:• Not recommended for ages 12 and under.• Carefully read information provided with prescription. Contact doctor right away if depression symptoms get worse or there is any talk of suicide or suicide behaviors. Also, read information under Others.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies to check complete blood counts (white blood cell count, platelet count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit), blood pressure, eyes, teeth.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:One or more drugs in this group may cause rash or intensify sunburn in areas exposed to sun or ultraviolet light (photosensitivity reaction). Avoid overexposure and use sunscreen. Notify doctor if reaction occurs.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes.------------------------------Discontinuing:• Don’t discontinue without consulting doctor. Dose may require gradual reduction if you have taken drug for a long time. Doses of other drugs may also require adjustment.• Physical or emotional withdrawal symptoms may occur once you stop drug. Contact your doctor if any symptoms cause concern.------------------------------Others:• Adults and children taking antidepressants may experience a worsening of the depression symptoms and may have increased suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Call doctor right away if these symptoms or behaviors occur.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGSThis Possible Interactions With Other Drugs table continues here POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIDYSKINETICSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESSee full list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 839.BASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? YesDrug class: Antidyskinetic, antiparkinsonism, dopamine agonists USES• Treatment of Parkinson’s disease.• Treatment of adverse effects of certain central nervous system drugs.• Treatment of moderate to severe restless leg syndrome.• Treatment for Tourette syndrome. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Tablet—Swallow with liquid. If you can’t swallow whole, ask doctor or pharmacist for advice.• Extended-release capsule or tablet—Swallow whole with liquid.• Elixir—Follow directions on prescription label.• All forms—Take with, or right after, a meal to lessen stomach irritation (unless otherwise directed by doctor).------------------------------When to take:At the same time(s) each day.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:• Balances chemical reactions necessary to send nerve impulses within base of brain.• Improves muscle control and reduces stiffness.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:1 to 2 hours. Full effect may take 2 to 3 days.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Agitation, dilated pupils, hallucinations, dry mouth, rapid heartbeat, sleepiness. WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTSNote: Many symptoms caused by side effects either disappear or decrease when dose is reduced. Consult doctor. WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any antidyskinetic. Allergic reactions are rare, but may occur.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have glaucoma or retinal problems.• You have had high blood pressure, heart disease, impaired liver function.• You have hypotension or orthostatic hypotension.*• You have had tardive dyskinesia.*• You have had kidney disease, urination difficulty, prostatic hypertrophy or intestinal obstruction.• You have myasthenia gravis.------------------------------Over age 60:More sensitive to drug. Aggravates symptoms of enlarged prostate. Causes impaired thinking, hallucinations, nightmares. Consult doctor about any of these.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally not recommended with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use only under doctor’s supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:• Possible glaucoma.• Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations to assess drug’s effectiveness and examination to check eye pressure.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No special problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes, such as antihistamines, tranquilizers, sedatives, pain medicine, narcotics and mind-altering drugs.------------------------------Discontinuing:• Don’t discontinue without consulting doctor. Dose may require gradual reduction if you have taken drug for a long time. Doses of other drugs may also require adjustment.• After discontinuing, if you experience extrapyramidal reaction* recurrence or worsening, orthostatic hypotension, fast heartbeat, or trouble sleeping, consult doctor.------------------------------Others:• Internal eye pressure should be measured regularly.• Avoid becoming overheated.• Use caution when arising from a sitting or lying position.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGSThis Possible Interactions With Other Drugs table continues here POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIFIBRINOLYTIC AGENTSGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESAMINOCAPROICACIDAmicarTRANEXAMIC ACIDCyklokapronLystedaBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? YesAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Antifibrinolytic, antihemorrhagic USES• Treats serious bleeding, especially that occurring after surgery, dental or otherwise.• Treatment of women with menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding).• May be used before surgery to help prevent risk of excessive bleeding in patients with disorders that increase the chance of serious bleeding. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Tablet—Swallow with liquid or food to lessen stomach irritation. If you can’t swallow whole, crumble tablet and take with liquid or food.• Syrup—Take as directed on label.------------------------------When to take:As directed by your doctor.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. Don’t double this dose.------------------------------What drug does:Inhibits activation of plasminogen to cause blood clots to disintegrate.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Within 2 hours.------------------------------Don’t take with:• Thrombolytic chemicals such as streptokinase or urokinase.• Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Unknown.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:• You are allergic to aminocaproic acid or tranexamic acid.• You have a diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have heart disease.• You have bleeding from the kidney.• You have had impaired liver function.• You have had kidney disease or urination difficulty.• You have blood clots in parts of the body.------------------------------Over age 60:No changes from other age groups expected.------------------------------Pregnancy:Decide with your doctor if drug benefits justify risk to unborn baby. Risk category C for aminocaproic acid and risk category B for tranexamic acid (see page xviii).------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally not recommended with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use for children only under doctor’s supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Talk to your doctor about the need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes, such as antihistamines, tranquilizers, sedatives, pain medicine, narcotics and mind-altering drugs.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without consulting doctor. Dose may require gradual reduction if you have taken drug for a long time. Doses of other drugs may also require adjustment.------------------------------Others:• Should not be used in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• Have eyes checked frequently. POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCESANTIFUNGALS, AZOLESGENERIC AND BRAND NAMESFLUCONAZOLEDiflucanITRACONAZOLESporanoxKETOCONAZOLENizoralPOSACONAZOLENoxafilVORICONAZOLEVfendBASIC INFORMATIONHabit forming? NoPrescription needed? Yes, for someAvailable as generic? Yes, for someDrug class: Antifungal USES• Treatment for fungal infections.• Treatment for certain types of meningitis.• Treatment for prostate cancer. DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATIONHow to take:• Capsule or tablet—Swallow with liquid. If you can’t swallow whole, crumble tablet or open capsule and take with liquid or food.• Oral suspension—Shake well before using; follow instructions supplied with medication.------------------------------When to take:At the same time(s) each day.------------------------------If you forget a dose:Take as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for the next scheduled dose (don’t double this dose).------------------------------What drug does:• Prevents fungi from growing and reproducing.• For prostate cancer, ketoconazole decreases male hormone (testosterone) levels.------------------------------Time lapse before drug works:Several weeks or months for full benefit.------------------------------Don’t take with:Any other medicine or any dietary supplement without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. OVERDOSESYMPTOMS:Mostly unknown. May have hallucinations, paranoid behavior, vision problems, loss of balance, shortness of breath, drooling, enlarged pupils, seizures.WHAT TO DO:• Dial 911 for all medical emergencies or call poison control center 1-800-222-1222 for instructions.• See emergency information on last 3 pages of this book. POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONSDon’t take if:You are allergic to any azole antifungal.------------------------------Before you start, consult your doctor if:• You have impaired kidney or liver function.• You have been diagnosed with reduced stomach acidity.------------------------------Over age 60:Adverse reactions and side effects may be more frequent and severe than in younger persons. Dosage may need adjustment if there is age-related kidney impairment.------------------------------Pregnancy:Risk factors vary for drugs in this group. See category list on page xviii and consult doctor.------------------------------Breastfeeding:Drugs in this group are generally acceptable with breastfeeding. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.------------------------------Infants & children:Use only under close medical supervision.------------------------------Prolonged use:Request periodic liver function studies.------------------------------Skin & sunlight:No problems expected.------------------------------Driving, piloting or hazardous work:Don’t drive or pilot aircraft until you learn how medicine affects you. Don’t work around dangerous machinery. Don’t climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicine affecting alertness and reflexes, such as antihistamines, tranquilizers, sedatives, pain medicine, narcotics and mind-altering drugs.------------------------------Discontinuing:Don’t discontinue without consulting doctor. Dose may require gradual reduction if you have taken drug for a long time. Doses of other drugs may also require adjustment.------------------------------Others:• Advise any doctor or dentist whom you consult that you take this medicine.• Ketoconazole taken orally increases risk of liver damage (can be life threatening) and adrenal gland problems. Its use is restricted. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.• May affect the results of some medical tests.

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