High-temperature materials is a fast-moving research area with numerous practical applications. Materials that can withstand extremely high temperatures and extreme environments are generating considerable attention worldwide; however, designing materials that have low densities, elevatedmelting temperatures, oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and intrinsic toughness encompass some of the most challenging problems in materials science. The current search for high-temperature materials is largely based on traditional, trial-and-error experimental methods which are costly and time-consuming. An effective way to accelerate research in this field is to use recent advances in materials simulations and high performance computing andcommunications (HPCC) to guide experiments. This synergy between experiment and advanced materials modeling will significantly enhance the synthesis of novel high-temperature materials. This volume collects recent work from experimental and computational scientists on high-temperature materials and emphasizes the potential for collaboration. It features state-of-the-art materials modeling and recent experimental developments in high-temperature materials. Topics includefundamental phenomena and properties; measurements and modeling of interfacial phenomena, stresses, growth of defects, strain, and fracture; and electronic structure and molecular dynamics.