Computer Integrated Manufacturing by James A. RehgComputer Integrated Manufacturing by James A. Rehg

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

byJames A. Rehg, Henry W. Kraebber

Paperback | March 30, 2004

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The book presents computer integrated manufacturing as an integral element of the entire manufacturing process, describing its relation to product and process design issues; computer-based process control and automation; operations and information systems for manufacturing; quality; and human considerations. This book delves into the manufacturing enterprise, the design elements and production engineering, controlling the enterprise resources, and enabling processes and systems for modern manufacturing. Professionals preparing for the APICS certification exams.

James A. Rehg, CMfgE, is an Associate Professor of Engineering at Penn State Altoona, where he teaches automation controls courses in the BS program in Electromechanical Engineering Technology. He earned both a Bachelor of Science degree and a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from St. Louis University and has comp...
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Title:Computer Integrated ManufacturingFormat:PaperbackDimensions:592 pages, 8.82 × 7.01 × 1.02 inPublished:March 30, 2004Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0131134132

ISBN - 13:9780131134133

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The global economy and technological innovations bring many new issues and twists to the subject of computer-integrated manufacturing (CINL). It remains as broad as the complex manufacturing enterprises it attempts to model. Some persons would suggest that CIM is too broad for a single course or textbook. However, the essence of CIM is in the integration of the enterprise elements: physical integration through the linking of hardware and software systems, logical integration through shared common enterprise information and data, and philosophical integration based on a new sense of purpose and direction in every entity in the enterprise. Therefore, the integration so critical to a CIM implementation is best introduced in a single course so that links between the enterprise elements can be explored. This book was written to support such an introductory course. Understanding the operation of a comprehensive CIM solution requires some study of traditional manufacturing practice, a look at the current state of CIM, and consideration of how technology and operating procedures may change in the future. The integration of product design techniques and fundamental manufacturing principles, along with a look at changing operations and information systems that support CIM throughout the enterprise, makes this book unique. In the book, we do the following: Describe the different types of manufacturing systems or production strategies used by industries worldwide. This description is important because no two CIM solutions are the same. Go beyond the description of automated machines and software solutions because a successful CIM implementation demands more than technology. In practice, ordering hardware and software is the last step in a CIM implementation; the preliminary work is what guarantees a successful CIM project. Discuss the impact of CIM on all the major elements in an enterprise: product design, shop-floor technology, and manufacturing production and operational control systems. Provide a convincing argument for implementing CIM so that the enterprise will be competitive in the global market. In practice, the technologies available to manufacturers around the globe open every market to world-wide competition. Look at the computer-based systems of the CIM enterprise that support the growing just-in-time and lean production initiatives. In addition, the third edition has the following significant changes: Work-cell design case studies have been added at the end of chapters 1 through 4, 5, 10, and 11, with the work keyed to the concepts presented in the chapters. The chapter on CAD, chapter 4, was changed extensively to an overview of the CAD function in an enterprise and an introduction to product data management (PDM). The enterprise networking concepts were updated and expanded. The finite-element analysis and rapid prototyping sections in chapter 5 were updated and expanded. Numerous new figures have replaced older images, and many new images have been added. Also new to this edition is a CD-ROM containing the demo version of the WinMan software. This software provides its users with an opportunity to work with a fully functional computer-based enterprise resources planning (ERP) system. This tool allows users to see how a modern data-driven system can help companies better manage their operations and the related data. The CD includes a fully functional single-user system that can be installed on a PC. The demonstration takes users through the basics of the system—from the building of item and structure databases to the functions needed to manage customer orders, material management, manufacturing, and accounting information. To provide a complete overview of the computer-integrated enterprise, we divided the book into four parts. In the first part, chapters 1 and 2, we provide an overview of global competition, describe an internal manufacturing strategy, discuss in detail the problem facing manufacturing and the development of an effective solution, and characterize the operation of different types of enterprises. In the characterization, we furnish a classification and description of the manufacturing systems and production strategies used by manufacturing, provide an explanation of the product development and engineering change cycle, and give an overview of the enterprise organization. At the end of part 1, the need for change in manufacturing is made clear and a basic strategy for change in the organization is established. In addition, the description of the enterprise organization in part 1 provides a framework for the CIM concepts introduced in the rest of the text. Part 1 provides the critical introduction to manufacturing and the enterprise that is necessary for a course designed to teach CIM. In part 2, which includes three chapters, we examine the three major design and engineering process segments that take a product from concept to production. Chapter 3 introduces design and production engineering concepts and issues. The use of CIM technology to design and produce world-class products with enhanced enterprise productivity is emphasized. The old design model is compared to a recommended new process that incorporates a concurrent engineering focus to product design. This part of the text concludes with an in-depth description of production engineering functions and the opportunities for productivity gains through integration of technology and data in the enterprise. Computer-aided design (CAD) is the focus of chapter 4. Since design is the starting point for development of the product database, a full chapter is devoted to the integration of CAD into the enterprise operation. To emphasize this integration, we changed the chapter title and the content to include PDM (product data management). The function of CAD technology in the product design process is discussed, and the systems used to develop the product models are described. The importance of PDM and its link to the CAD technology and design department are covered. In chapter 5, we explore the relationships between the concurrent engineering product design model and the computer-aided engineering (CAE) technology available to support every step of the design process and production engineering. We include a complete definition of CAE, design for manufacturing and assembly, finite-element and mass-properties analysis, rapid prototyping, group technology, computer-aided process planning, computer-aided manufacturing, production and process modeling and simulation, maintenance, automation, and product cost analysis. In the final section of chapter 5, we describe the computer network used to tie the design and production engineering functions to the common enterprise database and other business functions. Part 3 of the text shifts the CIM focus to controlling the enterprise resources. CIM is alive and growing in applications that support the management and control of the enterprise. The first chapter in the sequence, chapter 6, describes the concept of manufacturing planning and control (MPC) with a model of a typical MPC system. The function of manufacturing planning and a high-level look at the systems and technologies available for CIM implementations are presented. Attention is given to the high-level system elements of production planning and the master production schedule (MPS). Chapter 6 provides an overview of the critical concepts that are explored in more detail in the following two chapters. In chapter 7, three key elements in the MPC model are discussed in more detail. These include material requirements planning (MRP), capacity requirements planning (CRP), and the production activities that execute the material and capacity plans. Automation software used to implement CIM in this critical part of the enterprise is introduced and explained. Software solutions for the manual MPC functions are included at the end of each section. At the conclusion of chapters 6 through 8, the reader will understand the operation of an MPC system and will be able to follow the logic and calculations of each function in MPC and describe key features of application software capable of automating the MPC functions. Chapter 8, "Enterprise Resources Planning, and Beyond," develops the links between the concepts from MRP and MRP II systems that are essential parts of the new ERP systems. The pace of change in technology and new systems at the end of the 1990s has been extraordinary. There is no way to predict the future, but it is clear that new systems and system features will continue to be developed. Technologies for design, processing and control, information systems, and communication are rapidly converging. The emerging technologies offer substantial new opportunities and benefits, but also present new challenges for the manufacturing enterprise. The quiet revolution in manufacturing coming from just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing and lean production methods is the focus of chapter 9. These methods are based on the elimination of waste throughout the enterprise. The operations and management techniques that are used in JIT and lean systems have deep roots in classic industrial engineering. The methods provide surprising results when they are woven into an integrated system for the operation of the enterprise. Small lot sizes approaching a lot size of 1 unit, visual signals, and expanded work by employee teams are at the heart of this revolution. Computer-based systems still have an important role to play in the support of the JIT and lean production initiatives. Part 4 concentrates on the processes and systems that lay the foundation for modern manufacturing and enterprise-wide concepts critical to a successful CIM implementation. Chapter 10 covers the commonly used production process machines used in manufacturing. In addition, manufacturing systems including one or more machines, called flexible manufacturing cells and flexible manufacturing systems, are addressed in the chapter. Chapter 11 covers machines and systems that support production, including coverage of industrial robots, material-handling systems, automatic guided vehicles, and automatic storage and retrieval systems. The techniques used for the control of production systems are the focus of chapter 12. The control systems discussed include cell control hardware and software, device control hardware and software, programmable logic controllers, and computer numerical controllers. The operation and the management of enterprise networks and common databases are also discussed. A successful implementation of any high technology requires a change in the management viewpoint on manufacturing management and human resource development. As a result, a discussion of a broad range of quality issues and the effective use of human resources are included in chapter 13. In summary, part 1 begins with a global view of manufacturing. In the second and third parts, we focus on the activities required to convert raw material into finished goods and introduce technology to aid in the conversion and the management of the enterprise. The last part of the text shifts back to systems that enable the enterprise to manufacture products competitively, with the discussion centered on the services and support functions required for successful CIM implementation. Common products (hardware, software, and systems) are included throughout the book to demonstrate the technology and to stress the integration issues. We tried to include important trends and real industrial practices in this text. The inputs from colleagues in industry have contributed directly to the improved content of this edition. Special thanks go out to Patrick Delaney, President of SIBC Corporation; Rick Anderson, President of TTW, Inc.; Kurt Freimuth, President of Factory Floor Solutions; Charlie Colosky, President of Operations Development Associates; and Joel Lemke, President of ENOVIA Corporation, for important inputs and background information. The logical order of topics and chapter content was tested in a series of workshops at Trident Technical College offered to college faculty and industrial employees. In addition, the text has been used in numerous university courses at Purdue and other institutions. The insight gained through discussions in these settings was critical to the development of this book. We would especially like to thank John Sjolander, Jerry Bell, and Alan Kalameja for their help with the design automation and control elements. Special thanks to Marci Rehg for her help in developing the CIM workshop material, where many of the presentation ideas were tested. Donald Lucas and Hugo Ramos, former graduate students in the School of Technology at Purdue University, worked on research projects on product lifecycle management that have contributed to this text. Thanks also to all the students who have helped us develop and test instructional materials related to CIM over the years. Finally, thanks to the IBM Corporation, founders of the initial CIM in Higher Education Alliance program, for support in developing the CIM workshops and the CIM capability at two- and four-year colleges. The CIM in Higher Education Alliance is now an independent, nonprofit corporation that continues to encourage and support CIM and education for manufacturing. Thanks also to the reviewers, Don Arney (Ivy Tech State College, IN) and Dr. Michael Costello (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale). James A. Rehg Henry W. Kraebber

Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION TO CIM AND THE MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISE.

1. The Manufacturing Enterprise.

Introduction. External Challenges. Internal Challenges. World-Class Order-Winning Criteria. The Problem and a Solution. Learning CIM Concepts. Going for the Globe. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Problems. Projects. Appendix 1-1: The Benefits of a CIM Implementation. Appendix 1-2: Technology and the Fundamentals of an Operation—Authors' Commentary.

2. Manufacturing Systems.

Manufacturing Classifications. Product Development Cycle. Enterprise Organization. Manual Production Operations. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects. Case Study: Evolution and Progress—One World-Class Company's Measurement System. Appendix 2-1: CIM as a Competitive Weapon.

II. THE DESIGN ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING.

3. Product Design and Production Engineering.

Product Design and Production Engineering. Organization Model. The Design Process: A Model. Concurrent Engineering. Production Engineering. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects. Case Study: Repetitive Design.

4. Design Automation: CAD and PDM.

Introduction to CAD. The Cost of Paper-Based Design Data. CAD Software. CAD: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Application of CAD to Manufacturing Systems. Selecting CAD Software for an Enterprise. Product Data Management. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects. Appendix 4-1: Web Sites for CAD Vendors. Appendix 4-2: B-Splines to NURBS. Appendix 4-3: Web Sites for Computer Companies.

5. Design Automation: CAE.

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly. CAE Analysis. CAE Evaluation. Group Technology. Production Engineering Strategies. Design and Production Engineering Network. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Problems. Projects. Appendix 5-1: Ten Guidelines for DFA. Appendix 5-2: Web Sites for CAE Vendors. Appendix 5-3: Web Sites for Rapid Prototyping Vendors.

III. CONTROLLING THE ENTERPRISE RESOURCES.

6. Introduction to Production and Operations Planning.

Operations Management. Planning for Manufacturing. MPC Model—Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II). Production Planning. Master Production Schedule. Inventory Management. Planning for Material and Capacity Resources. Introduction to Production Activity Control. Shop Loading. Input-Output Control. Automating the Planning and Control Functions. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Problems. Projects. Appendix 6-1: Priority Rule System.

7. Detailed Planning and Production-Scheduling Systems.

From Reorder-Point Systems to Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II). Material Requirements Planning. Capacity Requirements Planning. Manufacturing Resource Planning. Features of Modern Manufacturing Planning and Control Systems. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Problems. Projects. Appendix 7-1: Wright's Bicycle Example. Appendix 7-2: ABCD Checklist. Appendix 7-3: An ERP Example Using WinMan.

8. Enterprise Resources Planning, and Beyond.

MRP II: A Driver of Effective ERP Systems. Information Technology. The Decision to Implement an ERP System. Identifying ERP System Suppliers. Developing Technologies: Converging and Enabling. Integrating Systems to Manage Design Data. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects.

9. The Revolution in Manufacturing.

Just-in-Time Manufacturing. Synchronized Production. The Emergence of Lean Production. Modern Manufacturing Systems in a Lean Environment. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects. Case Study: Production System at New United Motor Manufacturing, Part 1. Case Study: Production System at New United Motor Manufacturing, Part 2.

IV. ENABLING PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MANUFACTURING.

10. Production Process Machines and Systems.

Material and Machine Processes. Flexible Manufacturing. Fixed High-Volume Automation. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects. Appendix 10-1: History of Computer-Controlled Machines.

11. Production Support Machines and Systems.

Industrial Robots. Program Statements for Servo Robots. Programming a Servo Robot. Automated Material Handling. Automatic Guided Vehicles. Automated Storage and Retrieval. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects. Case Study: AGV Applications at General Motors.

12. Machine and System Control.

System Overview. Cell Control. Proprietary Versus Open System Interconnect Software. Device Control. Programmable Logic Controllers. Relay Ladder Logic. PLC System and Components. PLC Types. Relay Logic Versus Ladder Logic. Computer Numerical Control. Automatic Tracking. Network Communications. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects. Appendix 12-1: Turning G Codes.

13. Quality and Human Resource Issues in Manufacturing.

Quality Foundations. Total Quality Management. Quality Tools and Processes. Defect-Free Design Philosophy. The Changing Workforce. Self-Directed Work Teams. Summary. Bibliography. Questions. Projects.

Index.