Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community

Paperback | March 13, 2013

byG. David Curry, Scott H. Decker, David C. Pyrooz

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The most comprehensive and current textbook on gang research, gang policy, and gang responses, Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community, Third Edition, offers a full and unbiased assessment of the characteristics of gang members and gang behavior.

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The most comprehensive and current textbook on gang research, gang policy, and gang responses, Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community, Third Edition, offers a full and unbiased assessment of the characteristics of gang members and gang behavior.

G. David Curry is Professor Emeritus of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Scott H. Decker is Foundation Professor and Director of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. David C. Pyrooz is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:256 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.68 inPublished:March 13, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199891915

ISBN - 13:9780199891917

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Table of Contents

AcknowledgementsPreface1. WHAT IS A GANG AND WHY DOES IT MATTER?Defining a GangDefining Gangs and Gang MembersCounting Gangs, Gang Members, and Gang CrimesWalter Miller, The National Youth Gang Survey (1974-75)Walter Miller, The National Youth Gang Survey (1974-82)Needle and Stapleton, Police Handling of Youth Gangs (1983)Spergel and Curry, The National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program (1988)Curry, Ball, and Fox, The National Assessment of Law Enforcement Anti-Gang Information Resources (1992)Curry, Ball, and Decker, The NIJ Extended National Assessment Survey (1994)Malcolm Klein, The Study of Gang Problem Cities (pre-1990-95)Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's National Youth Gang Survey (1995-Present)History and Trends in Gangs and Gang BehaviorsSummary of Key PointsDemographic Correlates of Gang Involvement- Age- Gender- Race and Ethnicity- Socioeconomic Status- Region and Urban Residence- How Does the National Survey Data Compare to Police Data?Summary2. EXPLAINING GANGS AND GANG MEMBERSHIPWhy Do Some Places Have Gang Problems and Others Do Not?- Macro-Level Theories- Structural Control- Structural Adaptation- Macro-Level Evidence- Gang Violence Across Places- Gangs and Gang Membership Across PlacesWhy Do Some People End Up in Gangs and Others Do Not?- Micro-Level Theories- Criminal Propensity Theory- Social Bond Theory- General Strain Theory- Social Learning Theory- Gang Membership Trait Theory- Integrated Gang Membership Theories- Micro-Level Evidence- Major FindingsSummary3. FROM PLAY GROUPS TO AL-QAEDA: HOW ARE GANGS STRUCTURED?Gangs and OrganizationGang Typologies and Gang Member BehaviorOrganizational Features of Gangs- Gang Leaders- Gang Rules- Gang Roles- Gang Meetings- Gang MoneyGangs in Relation to Other Criminal Groups- Gangs and Terrorist Groups- Transnational Organized Crime Groups and Their Activities- Comparing Criminal GroupsSummary4. GANG MEMBERSHIP IN THE LIFE COURSEKey Life-Course Concepts for Understanding Gang MembershipJoining the Gang- Why Do Adolescents Join Gangs?- How Do Adolescents Join Gangs?Life in the Gang- Are All Gang Members Equally Involved in Gangs?- How Long Do Adolescents Remain in Gangs?Leaving the Gang- Why Do Gang Members Leave the Gang?- How Do Gang Members Leave the Gang?Summary5. THE LINK BETWEEN GANGS AND CRIME: WHY IS "GANG" SYNONYMOUS WITH CRIME?Models of Gang Membership, Criminal Behavior, and Victimization- Theory- EvidenceWhat Types of Crime Do Gang Members Commit?- Drug Use- Drug Dealing- Gun Ownership and Gun Carrying- Serious ViolenceViolence, Victimization, and Group Process- What Is Group Process? And How Does It Apply to Gangs?- Group Process and the Cycle of Gang Violence- Coping with Gang ViolenceSummary6. GIRLS, WOMEN, AND GANGS: DOES GANG MEMBERSHIP DIFFER FOR FEMALES?The Scope of Female Gang Involvement- Perspectives on Females and Gangs: Liberated, Exploited, or Marginalized?- The Marginalization Hypothesis: Frederic Thrasher and Female Invisibility- The Liberation Hypothesis: Anne Campbell and Female Autonomy- The Social Injury Hypothesis: Joan Moore and Female Exploitation- So Where Do the Molls Stand?Girls in the Gang- Pathways to Gang Membership- The Serious Consequences of Life in the Gang- Leaving the GangSummary7. GANG MEMBERS, GANGS, AND GANG CRIME AROUND THE WORLDDefining Gangs in a Global ContextThe Global Scope of Gang Activity- Canada- Europe- Gangs in Great Britain- Gangs in Scandinavia- European Summary- atin America and the Caribbean- Gangs in Mexico- Gangs in Trinidad and Tobago- Africa, the Asia Pacific Region, and Elsewhere- Gangs in Africa- Gangs in Asia- Gangs in Israel and Russia- Gangs in AustraliaSummary8. GANGS AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCESTraditional Social Institutions- Family- Schools- Labor Market- PoliticsEmerging Social Institutions- The Internet- The GangSummary9. GANGS AND THE JUVENILE AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMSAddressing Gangs in Street Settings- The Police- Police Gang Units- Gang Databases- Civil Gang Injunctions- Specialized Gang Prosecution- Anti-Gang Legislation- Specialized Gang Probation and ParoleAddressing Gangs in Incarcerated Settings- Gang Members and Jails- Gangs and Prison- Structure and Organization- Prison Gang Types- Prison Gangs and Offending Behind Bars- Correctional Responses to Prison Gangs- Gang Members, Reentry, and RecidivismComprehensive Criminal Justice-Based Gang Interventions- The Office of Community Oriented Policing Anti-Gang Initiative, 1996- Boston Ceasefire- Massachusetts Shannon Grant ProgramSummary10. RESPONDING TO GANGS: COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMS AND A LOOK TO THE FUTURECategories of Response Strategies- Community Organization- The Chicago Area Project- Mobilization for Youth, New York City- Crisis Intervention Network, Philadelphia- Social Intervention- Midcity Project, Boston- Chicago Youth Development Project- The Group Guidance Project and the Ladino Hills Program, Los Angeles- Opportunities Provision- Homeboy Industries (HBI)- Los Angeles Gang Reduction Youth Development (GRYD)- Suppression- Organizational Development and Change- Gang Crime Prevention Center, Illinois- The Legacy of Irving Spergel and The Comprehensive Gang Strategy- The Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI)- Prevention- Gang Resistance Education and Training ProgramContinuing Issues in Responding to Gangs- Delinquency Programs or Gang Programs?- National Versus Local Responses- Denial- Definitional Issues- Linking Causes and Responses- Evaluation- The Role of Gang Members in Responding to Gang Crime Problems- Variations in Gang Crime Problems- Continually Evaluate and Improve Evaluation Itself- Link Response to Theory- What Is the Future of Gangs?Summary