Conservation Biology: Foundations, Concepts, Applications by Fred Van DykeConservation Biology: Foundations, Concepts, Applications by Fred Van Dyke

Conservation Biology: Foundations, Concepts, Applications

byFred Van Dyke

Paperback | November 6, 2010

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Fred Van Dyke's new textbook, Conservation Biology: Foundations, Concepts, Applications, 2nd Edition, represents a major new text for anyone interested in conservation. Drawing on his vast experience, Van Dyke's organizational clarity and readable style make this book an invaluable resource for students in conservation around the globe.Presenting key information and well-selected examples, this student-friendly volume carefully integrates the science of conservation biology with its implications for ethics, law, policy and economics.
Fred Van Dyke is a professor of biology at Wheaton College (Illinois). He has previously served on the faculties of Northwestern College (Iowa) and the Au Sable Institute for Environmental Studies, as a wildlife biologist for the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, as a scientific and professional consultant to the U. S. Na...
Title:Conservation Biology: Foundations, Concepts, ApplicationsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:508 pages, 10.98 × 8.27 × 0.07 inPublished:November 6, 2010Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:9048177537

ISBN - 13:9789048177530

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Table of Contents

1. The History and Distinctions of Conservation Biology. 1.1 Perspectives and Questions for an Inquiry into Conservation Biology. 1.2 The Origins of Conservation. 1.2.1 Conservation in Historical Context. 1.2.2 Cultural Foundations of Conservation. 1.2.3 Conservation as Expression of Privilege. 1.2.4 Conservation as Right Relationship with Nature - The Arcadian Vision. 1.2.5 Conservation as Knowledge - The Invitation to Study and Appreciate Nature. 1.2.6 Conservation to Save Species - Origins of the First Conservation Organizations. 1.2.7 Conservation as Preservation of Landscape - The Washburn Expedition Goes to Yellowstone. 1.3 Intellectual Foundations and History of Conservation in the United States. 1.3.1 Conservation as Moral Mission - John Muir and Theodore Roosevelt. 1.3.2 "Scientific Conservation" through Sustained Yield -Moral Mission Gives Way to Utilitarian Purpose. 1.3.2.1 The Federal Government Empowers Conservation as Science and Democratic Ideal. 1.3.2.2 German Influences in Conservation - Forest. Monocultures and Maximum Yields. 1.3.2.3 The Rise of the Resource Conservation Ethic. 1.3.2.4 Aldo Leopold and the Formation of the "Wilderness Ideal" in Conservation. 1.4. The Emergence of Global Conservation - Shared Interests Lead to Cooperation. 1.4.1 Multilateral Treaties - The Beginnings of International Conservation Efforts. 1.4.1.1 Conservation Driven by Shared Commercial Interests. 1.4.1.2 International Protection of Migratory Species. 1.4.2 Forums for International Conservation - the United Nations and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. 1.5 Conservation in the Developing World: New Expressions of Resource Management, National Parks and Nature Preserves. 1.6 Return to Start: What Is the Place of Conservation Biology in the World Conservation Effort? 1.6.1 The Emergence of Conservation Biology from the Applied Sciences. 1.6.2 Conceptually Distinctive Characteristics of Conservation Biology. 1.7 Synthesis.- 2. Values and Ethics in Conservation. 2.1 What Does Science Have to Do with Value? 2.1.1 Avoiding the Absurd - Being Self-Aware of Values in Conservation Decisions. 2.1.2 Recognizing Management Actions as Value Judgements. 2.1.3 Values and Ethics - Definitions and Initial Assessments. 2.2 The Problem of Categories: How Do We Classify Different Kinds of Conservation Values? 2.2.1 An Overview of Value Categories. 2.2.2 Instrumental Values. 2.2.2.1 General Considerations. 2.2.2.2 Determining Attitudes with Sociological Surveys. 2.2.2.3 Tools of Economic Valuation: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Safe. Minimum Standard Criteria, and Contingency Valuation Analysis. 2.2.2.4 Contingent Valuation Analysis. 2.2.2.4.1 Willingness to Pay. 2.2.2.4.2. Willingness to Accept Compensation. 2.2.2.5 Criticisms of Contingent Valuation Analysis. 2.3 The Problem of Moral Value: Assigning Intrinsic Values in Conservation. 2.3.1 Where Does Intrinsic Value Reside? 2.3.2 Ecocentrism as a Basis for the Intrinsic Value. 2.3.3 Intrinsic Value in the Judeo-Christian Tradition. 2.3.4 Other Western Religious Traditions - Islam. 2.3.5 Eastern Religious Traditions and Conservation - Hinduism and Buddhism. 2.3.5.1. Hinduism. 2.3.5.2 Buddhism. 2.3.6 Practical Implications - Faith-based Organizations in Conservation. 2.3.6.1 "Goal Rational" Versus "Value Rational" Conservation. 2.3.6.2 Jewish and Christian FBOs. 2.3.6.3 FBOs in Islam. 2.3.6.4. Conservation Activism in Hinduism. 2.3.6.5. Conservation FBOs in Buddhism. 2.3.6.6 Future Roles and Contributions of FBOs in Global Conservation. 2.4 The Problem of Practice: Do Conservation Values Require Conservation Virtues? 2.4.1 The Problem of Plastic Trees. 2.4.2 From Values to Virtues: Virtue-based Ethics in Conservation. 2.4.3 What Are Appropriate Conservation Virtues? 2.5 Orphaned Orangutans - Ethical Applications in Conservation. 2.6 Synthesis.- 3. The Legal Foundations of Conservation Biology. 3.1. Conservation Law and Policy. 3.1.1 Context and Definition. 3.1.2 Historical Origins of Conservation Law. 3.2 Environmental and Conservation Law in Individual Nations: Modern Examples from the United States, South Africa, and Australia. 3.2.1 General Considerations. 3.2.2 Common Characteristics of Effective National Conservation Law. 3.2.3. The U. S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 3.2.3.1 NEPA's History and Content. 3.2.3.2 NEPA and U.S. Federal Lands. 3.2.3.3 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement. 3.3.3.4 Shortcomings of the National Environmental Policy Act. 3.2.4 The U.S. Endangered Species Act . 3.2.4.1 Historical Origins and Content. 3.2.4.2 The Endangered Species Act and Landowner Conflicts: The Case of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. 3.2.4.3 San Bruno Mountain and the Evolution of Habitat Conservation Planning. 3.2.4.4 Criticisms of the Endangered Species Act. 3.2.5 Water as an Inalienable Reserve - South Africa and Australia Establish Radical Categories for Conservation Law. 3.3 International Conservation Law: Concept and Development. 3.3.1 General Considerations. 3.3.2 A Forum for Cooperation and Legal Foundation - the United Nations and its Environmental Programmes. 3.3.2.1 Background and Context. 3.3.2.2 Stockholm: The Beginnings of Modern International Conservation Law. 3.3.2.3 Protection of Endangered Species: The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). 3.3.2.4 Rio 1992 - Combining Conservation and Economics in International Agreements. 3.4 The Process: Creating and Enforcing International Conservation Law. 3.5 The Problem of Interdependence: How Does One Nation Promote Global Conservation without Negative Effects on Other Nations? 3.5.1 The Nature of International Legal Interdependence. 3.5.2 Case History I: Tuna and Dolphins. 3.5.3 Case History II: Shrimp and Sea Turtles. 3.5.4 Outcomes and Future Prospects. 3.6 Synthesis.- 4.  Biodiversity: Concept, Measurement, and Challenge. 4.1. Biodiversity and conservation biology. 4.2 The Problem of Concept and Quantity: How Do We Know What Biodiversity Is and How Do We Measure It? 4.2.1 Conceptual Definition of Biodiversity. 4.2.2 Biodiversity and the Definition of Species. 4.2.3 Contemporary Issues of the Species Concept. 4.2.4. Implications of the Species Concept in Conservation. 4.2.5. Measuring Biodiversity. 4.2.5.1 What Biodiversity Measurements Tell Us. 4.2.5.2 Alpha diversity. 4.2.5.3 Beta diversity. 4.2.5.4 Gamma diversity. 4.2.6 Application and Integration of Diversity Measures to Address Issues in Conservation: A Case Study from Eastern Amazonia. 4.2.7. Problems of Diversity Indices and Alternative Measures. 4.3 The Problem of Process and Pattern: What Explains Variation in Local Biodiversity? 4.3.1 Niche Assembly Theories of Biodiversity. 4.3.2 The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity. 4.4 The Problem of Dispersion: Where Is Biodiversity Located? 4.4.1 Global Patterns of Biodiversity. 4.4.2 Measures of Biodiversity: How Can We Identify "Hotspots" with Incomplete Information? 4.5. The Problem of Quantity: How Much Biodiversity Is There? 4.5.1 General Considerations. 4.5.2 Biodiversity and Rarity. 4.5.2.1 The Problem of Rarity. 4.5.2.2 Habitat Generalists Versus Habitat Specialists. 4.5.2.3 Large Populations Versus Small Populations. 4.5.2.4 Widespread Distribution Versus Restricted Distribution. 4.5.3 The Problem of Endemism. 4.5.3.1 Endemism in the Extreme - A Case History. 4.5.2.2 Endemism, Biodiversity, and Rarity. 4.5.3.3. Endemism and Island Species. 4.6 The Problem of Application: How Do We Preserve and Manage Biodiversity? 4.6.1 The Problem with "Hotspots". 4.6.2 Identifying Areas of Conservation Value Using Remotely Sensed Data. 4.6.3 Tracking Biodiversity Using Indicator Species. 4.6.3.1 Biodiversity indicators: using "surrogate" species as biodiversity indices. 4.6.3.2 Taxon-based biodiversity indicators. 4.6.3.3 Structure- and function-based biodiversity indicators. 4.6.3.4 Bison as an example of a function-based keystone species. 4.6.3.5 Ecological redundancy and function-based biodiversity indicators. 4.7 The Problem of Conservation: How Do We Identify and Prioritize Areas to Preserve Biodiversity? 4.7.1 Current Global Prioritization Strategies. 4.7.2 Management Approaches to Biodiversity at Landscape Levels. 4.7.2.1 Gathering Appropriate Background Data. 4.7.2.2 Maintaining Ecological and Evolutionary Processes Promoting Biodiversity. 4.7.2.3 Regional Biodiversity Management - Defining Functional Conservation Areas. 4.7.3 Building Biodiversity Conservation into Existing Management Plans - The New South Wales Environmental Services Scheme. 4.8 Synthesis.- 5. Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change. 5.1 Climate and Climate Change. 5.1.1 Why Does Climate Change Threaten Biodiversity? 5.1.2 What is "Climate" and What is "Climate Change"? 5.1.3 Should Contemporary Global Warming Be Called "Climate Change?" 5.1.4 The Implications of Rapidly Rising CO2. 5.1.5 Why We Call it "Climate" Change -Non-temperature Variations in Climate in a Warming World. 5.2 The Global Fingerprint of Climate Change on Biodiversity. 5.2.1 Extinction Patterns in Edith's Checkerspot Butterfly. 5.2.2 Finding the Global Fingerprint of Climate Change. 5.2.3 Can Climate Change Cause Extinction of Local Populations? 5.2.3.1 Climate Change and Pikas. 5.2.3.2 Climate Change and Desert Bighorn Sheep. 5.3 Climate Change in Ecosystems - Species Loss and System Degradation. 5.3.1 Climate Change at Ecosystem Levels: Biome Boundaries and Elevational Shifts. 5.3.2 Life Zone Changes in Tropical Forests. 5.3.3 Elevational Shifts in Tropical Cloud Forests: The Case of the Golden Toad. 5.4 Climate-mediated Mechanisms of Ecosystem Change. 5.4.1 Climate Influences on a Keystone Species: The Case of the Whitebark Pine. 5.4.2 Climate Influences on Ecosystem Processes: Invasive Species in a Warmer World . 5.4.3 Climate Influences on Ecosystem Structure. 5.4.3.1 The Future of Coral in Warmer Oceans. 5.4.3.2 Loss of Polar Sea Ice: Implications for Polar Biodiversity. 5.5. Conservation Planning and Climate Change: Creating Climate-Integrated Conservation Strategies. 5.5.1 The Bioclimate Envelope: Modeling Climate Effects on Individual Species. 5.5.2 Climate Change-Integrated Strategies for Conservation. 5.5.3 Modeling Efforts to Predict Future Responses to Ongoing Climate Change. 5.5.4 Errors of Application: Use and Misuse of Endangerment Criteria to Model Climate Change Effects on Biodiversity. 5.6 Policy Initiatives for Climate Change and Conservation. 5.7 Synthesis.- 6. Genetic Diversity - Understanding Conservation at Genetic Levels. 6.1 Genetics and Conservation: An Essential Integration. 6.2 Conservation Genetics and Conservation Biology. 6.3 Measuring Genetic Diversity in Populations. 6.3.1 Foundational Measures of Genetic Diversity. 6.3.2 The Loss of Genetic Diversity over Time: Bottlenecks and Genetic Drift. 6.3.3 Genetic Drift and Effective Population Size. 6.3.4 Bottlenecks, Small Populations and Rare Alleles. 6.4 The Problem of Inbreeding. 6.4.1 What Do We Mean by "Inbreeding" and How Would We Measure It? 6.4.2 The Problem of Inbreeding Depression. 6.4.3 Measures of Inbreeding. 6.5 Inbreeding and Outbreeding in Population Subunits: Estimation of Gene Flow and Metapopulation Structure. 6.5.1 Historical Development of Gene Flow Theory. 6.5.2 Current Models of Gene Flow: Predictions and Implications. 6.5.3 Models of Recolonization: Propagule Pools and Migrant Pools. 6.6. Can Inbreeding Cause Extinction? 6.6.1 Laboratory Experiments and Models. 6.6.2 Field Studies of Inbreeding. 6.6.3 Inbreeding Was a Cause of Extinction in Butterfly Populations. 6.6.4 Inbreeding Effects - Environmental and Demographic Variability. 6.7 Hybridization and Introgression. 6.7.1 Hybridization and Introgression in Animals: The Case of the Red Wolf. 6.7.2 Importing Genetic Diversity: Genetic Restoration of Inbred Populations. 6.7.3 Hybridization in Plants - Conservation Threat or Conservation Asset? 6.7.4 Introgression from Genetically Modified Organisms. 6.8 Outbreeding Depression. 6.9 Synthesis.- 7.  Genetic Management - Managing Genetic Diversity for Conservation Goals. 7.1. Conservation Genetics: From Theory to Application. 7.2 Genetic Techniques: Solving the Problem of Assessing Genetic Status and Change. 7.2.1 General Considerations. 7.2.2 Allozyme Electrophoresis: Genetic Variation at Molecular Levels. 7.2.3 The Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Non-invasive Method for Genotyping Endangered Species. 7.2.4 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis. 7.2.5 DNA Fingerprinting: The Use of Satellite Markers. 7.2.5.1 Minisatellites and Microsatellites - What Are Satellite Markers? 7.2.5.2 Measuring Genetic Diversity with Minisatellites and Microsatellites. 7.2.6 Mitochondrial DNA. 7.2.7 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP): A Technique for Assessment of Genetic Variation Among Individuals. 7.3 Captive Breeding: Managing Genetics of Captive Populations. 7.3.1 Using Genetic Techniques to Recover Genetic Diversity and Population Size in Captive Populations: The Historical Background. 7.3.2 Solving the Fundamental Problem: Minimizing Adaptation to Captivity. 7.3.3 Captive Breeding Today . 7.3.4 Conservation Implications of Captive Breeding - The Example of the Okapi. 7.3.4.1 The Significance of the Captive Okapi Population. 7.3.4.2 Pedigree Analysis and Kinship. 7.3.4.3 Population Mean Kinship. 7.3.4.4 Relationship of Inbreeding to Kinship. 7.3.4.5 How Can a Captive Population Manager Retain Gene Diversity? 7.3.5 Captive Breeding Strategies. 7.3.5.1 Random Mating and Avoidance of Inbreeding Strategies. 7.3.5.2 Mean Kinship Breeding Strategies. 7.3.6 Making Sound Judgments in Captive Breeding Strategies: An Overview. 7.4 The Problem of Application: How Do We Use Genetic Information and Techniques in Conservation? 7.4.1 General Considerations. 7.4.2 Genetics Can Clarify Relatedness, Taxonomy, and Phylogeny. 7.4.3 Genetic Can Define Management Units of Fragmented or Widespread Populations. 7.4.4 Genetic Techniques Can Determine Rates of Gene Flow among Populations. 7.4.5 Genetic Techniques Can Estimate the Time Since Past Population Bottlenecks. 7.4.6 Genetic Techniques Can Determine Patterns of Reproductive Ecology. 7.4.7 Genetic Forensics: Genetic Techniques Can Determine if Conservation Laws and Treaties Are Being Obeyed. 7.4.8 An Exemplary Case History: Exposing Exploitation of Protected Stocks and Species Through Genetic Forensics. 7.5 Building Genetic Insights into Conservation Management. 7.5.1 Advanced Technologies, Limited Applications: The Current State of Genetic Considerations in Field Conservation. 7.5.2 Genetic Conservation Reserves: Genetics as a Basis for Reserve Design. 7.6 Synthesis.- 8. The Conservation of Populations: Concept, Theory, and Analysis. 8.1 Defining Populations. 8.2 Basic Population Processes and Small Populations. 8.2.1 Population Demography. 8.2.2 Stochastic Perturbations. 8.2.2.1 Deterministic versus Stochastic Factors. 8.2.2.2 Genetic and Environmental Stochasticity. 8.2.2.3 Demographic Stochasticity. 8.2.2.4 Natural Catastrophes. 8.3 Populations and Metapopulations: Complexities of Population Subdivision and Fragmentation. 8.3.1 Origins of Metapopulation Theory. 8.3.2 The Definition and Development of Metapopulation Concepts. 8.3.3 A Metapopulation Case History: The Florida Scrub Jay. 8.3.4 Managing Metapopulation Interactions: Implications of a Theoretical Model. 8.4 Population Viability Analysis. 8.4.1 Conceptual Foundations. 8.4.2 Uses of PVA Models. 8.4.3 A Stage-Based Deterministic PVA Model - The Western Prairie Fringed Orchid. 8.4.3.1 General Considerations. 8.4.3.2 Stage-based Deterministic Models. 8.4.3.3 Constructing the Model and Matrices. 8.4.3.3.1 Life-history Stages and their Parameters. 8.4.3.3.2 Constructing Transition Matrices for the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid. 8.4.3.3.3 Estimating Fruit Set. 8.4.4 The Concept and Use of Elasticity in PVA Analysis. 8.4.5 Stochastic Models. 8.4.6 The Arizona Cliffrose: PVA Analysis of an Endangered Species. 8.5. Making Management Decisions for Small Populations. 8.5.1 PVA and the Analysis of Risk. 8.5.2 The Problem of PVA Application: How Do We Use and Interpret Population Viability Analyses? 8.5.3 Can PVAs Predict the Future? Test Cases and General Trends. 8.5.4 A Final Review: What Are We to Think of PVA? 8.6. Synthesis.- 9. Population Management and Restoration. 9.1 Minimum Viable Populations and Recovery Strategies for Threatened Species. 9.1.1 General Considerations. 9.1.2 The Use of PVA to Identify Threats and Recovery Strategies in In Situ Populations: The Case of the Little Bustard. 9.1.3 The Case History of Viper's Grass: When Large Populations Are Not Enough. 9.1.4 The Lord Howe Island Woodhen: A Case Study in Managing Multiple Threats to a Small and Declining Population. 9.1.5 Trend Analysis and Factor Resolution: Systematic Approaches for Identifying Causes of Population Decline and Strategies for Restoration. 9.1.6 The Gray Wolf: A Case History of Natural Population Restoration. 9.2 Invasive Species: Threats to Native Biodiversity. 9.2.1 General Considerations. 9.2.2 Characteristics of Successful Invading Species. 9.2.3 Invasive Species Alter Native Habitats. 9.3 Managing Invasive Species: Prediction, Response, and Restoration. 9.3.1 The Problem of Prediction: Can We Construct Models of Invasive Patterns to Understand the Invasive Process? 9.3.2 The Problem of Practical Response: How Do We Prevent or Control Invasions? 9.3.2.1 General Considerations. 9.3.2.2 Step One: Preventing Entry of Invasive Species. 9.3.2.3 Step Two: Controlling Initial Infestations of Invasive Species. 9.3.2.4 Step Three: Controlling Negative Effects of Invasive Species on Native Populations. 9.3.3 The Problem of Restoration: Can Native Populations Eradicated by Invaders Be Restored? The Case of the White-clawed Crayfish. 9.4 Practical Steps in Making Management Decisions for Populations: A Conceptual Framework. 9.5 Synthesis.- 10. The Conservation of Habitat and Landscape. 10.1 The Definition, Concept, and Importance of Habitat. 10.1.1 What is Habitat? 10.1.2 How Do We Measure Habitat Use? 10.1.2.1 An Example In Moose: Habitat Choices of a Habitat Generalist. 10.1.2.2 Measuring Habitat Selection and Preference. 10.2 Heterogeneity, Landscape Gradients and Patch Dynamics. 10.2.1 Habitat Heterogeneity, Gradients and Patchiness. 10.2.2 Habitats and Landscapes: Understanding Scales of Space and Time. 10.2.3 How Do We Predict Habitat Change? 10.2.3.1 Predicting Habitat Transitions Using a Markov Model. 10.2.3.2 Habitat Transition in Conservation - Managing the Successional Process. 10.3 Problems of Habitat Loss, Isolation, and Fragmentation. 10.3.1 Neutral Landscape Models and The Isolation of Effects. 10.3.2 Percolation Theory: Defining the Critical Threshold of Fragmentation. 10.3.3 Can Percolation Theory Explain the Real World? Model, and Field Studies. 10.3.3.1 Habitat-Population Models Support the Predictions of Percolation Theory. 10.3.3.2 The Spotted Owl: Population Predictions and Conservation Planning. 10.3.4 Field and Experimental Studies of Habitat Fragmentation. 10.3.5 Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Experimental Isolation of Separate Effects. 10.4 Life on the Edge - Edge Effects Lead to Habitat Degradation. 10.4.1 Understanding the Effects of Edge: First Principles. 10.4.2 Edge Influence: Understanding Processes and Effects. 10.4.3 Environmental Characteristics of Edges. 10.5 Managing Habitat Connectivity: The Role of Corridors in Habitat Conservation. 10.5.1 The Theoretical Basis of Habitat Corridors. 10.5.2 Experimental Studies of Corridors. 10.5.3 Potential Disadvantages of Corridors. 10.6 Planning for Reserve Design. 10.6.1 Algorithms of Reserve Design. 10.6.2 GAP Analysis and Reserve Design. 10.6.3 Reserve Design and Habitat Suitability. 10.6.4 Determining Appropriate Reserve Size. 10.7 Habitat Management on Non-reserve Lands: Multiple Use and Conservation. 10.7.1 Mitigating Human Effects on Non-reserve Lands: The Case of the Line Creek Elk. 10.7.2 Managing Non-reserve Lands for Habitat Conservation: The Multiple-Use Module. 10.8 Synthesis.- 11. The Conservation of Aquatic Systems. 11.1 Conservation Challenges of Aquatic Habitats. 11.1.1 Overcoming the Terrestrial Bias. 11.1.2 Conservation Challenges of Freshwater Habitats. 11.2 Management OF Freshwater Habitats FOR Conservation. 11.2.1 Managing Chemical and Physical Inputs to Aquatic Systems. 11.2.2 Managing Freshwater Systems Through Riparian Zones. 11.2.3 Organizing Information About Freshwater Ecosystems for Conservation - The Problem of Classification and Prioritization. 11.2.3.1 Coarse-Filter Approaches for Regional Representation - The Nature Conservancy's Nested Classification System of Aquatic Habitats. 11.2.3.2 Setting Priorities for Conservation in Freshwater Aquatic Habitats -Incorporating Threat and Urgency in Conservation Planning. 11.2.3.3 A Fine-Filter Approach to Conservation - Species Conservation Value in the Iberian Peninsula. 11.3 Wetlands -Unique Challenges in Habitat Conservation. 11.3.1 What Are Wetlands? 11.3.2 Managing Wetlands for Conservation - Management and Legislation. 11.4 Marine Habitats and Biodiversity. 11.4.1 A History of Overexploitation. 11.4.2 Causes of Marine Habitat Degradation. 11.4.3 Threats to Coral Reef Ecosystems. 11.4.4 Rehabilitation Techniques for Coral Reefs. 11.5 Conservation of Marine Habitat and Biodiversity - Managing the Marine Reserve. 1.5.1 Management Context, Goals and Strategies in Marine Reserves. 11.5.2 Tourist-recreation Marine Reserves: The Bonaire Marine Park. 11.5.3 Protection at Ecosystem Levels: Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. 11.5.4 The "Co-Management" Model - Shared Authority Between Local Citizens and Government Agencies. 11.5.5 Marine Protected Areas and Commercial Fisheries. 11.5.6 Mariculture - The Case History of the Giant Clam. 11.5.7 Multiple and Conflicting Jurisdictions over Marine Resources. 11.6 Synthesis.- 12. Ecosystem Management. 12.1 The Concept of Ecosystem Management. 12.1.1 What is Ecosystem Management? 12.1.2 The Historical Roots of Ecosystem Management. 12.1.3 Development of the Ecosystem Management Paradigm. 12.2 How Do We Choose What to Do? Changing the Decision Making Process in Ecosystem Management. 12.2.1 The Role of Adaptive Management. 12.2.2 Evaluating Ecosystem Management as a Performance-Based System. 12.2.2.1 Theoretical Constructs for Performance-based Evaluation. 12.2.2.2 The Black-legged Kittiwake and the Swamp Wallaby. 12.2.2.2.1 Kittiwakes, Sand Eels and Performance Driven Management. 12.2.2.2.2 Linking Research Insights and Policy Decisions - The Swamp Wallaby in Australian Forests. 12.2.3 Stakeholder Participation in Ecosystem Management. 12.3 The Scientific Basis of Ecosystem Management. 12.3.1 The Problem of Location - Where is the Ecosystem? 12.3.2 The Problem of Information - What Data Should Be Collected and Interpreted for Ecosystem Management? 12.3.2.1 General Considerations. 12.3.2.2 Regularly Collected Data. 12.3.2.3 Ecosystem Management and Geographic Information. Systems -How Technology Enables Management Purpose and Strategy. 12.3.2.4 Archived Data and Historical "Experiments". 12.3.2.5 Data from Long-term Natural Repositories. 12.4 Implementing Management Decisions - What Are the Tools of Ecosystem Management? 12.4.1 Ecosystem Modeling. 12.4.2 Fire. 12.4.3 Water Flow. 12.4.4 Herbivory and Herbivores. 12.4.5 Predation and Predators. 12.4.6 Managing Ecosystem Components, Structure and Function. 12.5 What Does Ecosystem Management Accomplish? The Fruits of Ecosystem Management Initiatives. 12.5.1 Top-down Approaches - Ecosystem Management through Government Agency Initiative. 12.5.2 Initiative from the Bottom Up - Emerging Coalitions Driven by Environmental Concern. 12.6 Why Ecosystem Management Matters: The Case of the Spotted Owl. 12.7 Synthesis.- 13. Conservation Economics. 13.1 Identifying and Protecting the Values of Biodiversity. 13.1.1 The Value of Ecosystem Goods and Services. 13.1.2 Stock-Flow Resources and Fund-Service Resources. 13.1.3 Non-excludable and Non-rival Goods. 13.2 Market-based Solutions to Conservation Conflicts. 13.2.1 The Role of Property Rights in Conservation. 13.2.2 Biodiversity Conservation Through Market Incentive and Local Control. 13.2.3 Government-Market Coordination - Conservation and Paddlefish Caviar. 13.2.4 Integration of Conservation Assets in Private Property Value. 13.2.4.1 Zoning Laws and Conservation Easements. 13.2.4.2 Hedonic Valuation Models for Private Property. 13.2.5 Can Property Rights Enhance Conservation in Wildlife Refuges? The Case Histories of Rainey and Big Marsh Wildlife Sanctuaries. 13.2.6 User Fees on Public and Private Lands - Pricing the Value of Conservation. 13.2.7 The Travel Cost Method - Estimating the Value of a Costa Rican National Park. 13.3 Ecological Economics. 13.3.1 General Considerations. 13.3.2 Characteristics of Ecological Economics. 13.3.3 Methods of Valuing Environmental Goods and Services. 13.3.3.1 General Strategies. 13.3.3.2 Government Regulation. 13.3.3.3 Taxation and Subsidies. 13.3.3.4 Environmental Property Rights. 13.3.3.5 Insurance Against Environmental Damage. 13.3.3.6 Empowering Stakeholder Interests. 13.4 Protecting and Valuing Biodiversity in the Economy: Current Conditions. 13.4.1 The Convention on Biological Diversity. 13.4.2 Integrated Conservation and Development Projects as Government Strategies to Encourage Just Protection of National and Indigenous Biodiversity. 13.4.2.1 General Considerations. 13.4.2.2 Serengeti National Park and Wildlife Harvests for Local Communities. 13.4.2.3 Ecotourism as an Integration of Conservation and Development. 13.4.3 The Broader Debate: Integrated Development or Direct Conservation Payments? 13.5 Synthesis.- 14. On Becoming a Conservation Biologist: The Things Textbooks Never Tell You. 14.1 People as Agents of Conservation. 14.2 Conservation Biology as Vocation. 14.2.1 Articulating Your Personal Mission in Conservation. 14.2.2 Pursuing Your Mission through Education. 14.2.3 Making the Transition from Student to Colleague. 14.2.3.1 The Hidden Hurdle of Higher Education: Attaining the Status of a Colleague. 14.2.3.2 The Role of Vocational Experience. 14.2.3.3 Putting Principles into Practice - Two Examples of Student-to- Colleague Transitions. 14.2.3.4 Common Threads in Different Cases - Successful Transition from Conservation Students to Conservation Professionals. 14.3 Reaching a Wider Audience. 14.3.1 Building a Professional Network of Contacts and References. 14.3.2 Conservation as a Social Process: Involvement in Professional Societies. 14.3.3 Integrating Education and Experience into Social Conservation Outreach. 14.4 Graduate Education in Conservation Biology. 14.4.1 Independent Evaluation for Graduate School -The Graduate Record Exam. 14.4.2 Choosing a Program 14.4.3 Choosing a Project, Graduate Professor, and Mentor. 14.4.4. Hidden Hurdles: The Problem of Traditional Approaches. 14.4.5 Taking Interdisciplinary Study Seriously - Program Level Innovation in the University of Florida's Tropical Conservation and Development Program. 14.4.6 Shifting the Scale: Innovative Approaches to Graduate Education in the Classroom. 14.4.6.1 Legal Ecology 101: Integrating Conservation Management and Law. 14.4.6.2 Relational Skills in Conservation: Handling Humans, Learning Leadership. 14.4.6.3 Creating Your Own Path to Innovative Professional Development. 14.5 Choosing a Vocational Setting. 14.5.1 Should I Take this Job? 14.5.2 How Can I Excel? 14.5.3 Nurturing Professional Relationships. 14.6 Becoming an Effective Advocate for Conservation. 14.6.1 Professional Expressions of Advocacy. 14.6.2 An Alternative View of Advocacy. 14.6.3 Examining Outcomes: Implications of Alternative Views of Advocacy. 14.6.4 Avoiding Conflicts of Interest in Advocacy. 14.7 Synthesis.-

Editorial Reviews

From the reviews of the second edition:"This book . give a unified approach to an interdisciplinary subject, discussing the historical, ethical, economical, and ecological basis of conservation biology. . The overall mission of the textbook to provide undergraduates with a stimulating and accessible text is executed with great success. . it finds a wide readership and is present in libraries of colleges and research institutes." (Mark Young, British Ecological Society, Vol. 39 (4), 2008)