Constantin Caratheodory: Mathematics And Politics In Turbulent Times by Maria GeorgiadouConstantin Caratheodory: Mathematics And Politics In Turbulent Times by Maria Georgiadou

Constantin Caratheodory: Mathematics And Politics In Turbulent Times

byMaria Georgiadou

Paperback | July 2, 2004

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Constantin Carathéodory (Berlin 1873-1950 Munich) - Mathematics and Politics in Turbulent Timesis a biography of a mathematician who became famous during his life, but has hitherto been ignored by historians for half a century after his death.

In a thought-provoking approach, Maria Georgiadou devotes to Constantin Carathéodory all the attention such a personality deserves. With breathtaking detail and the appropriate scrutiny she elucidates his oeuvre, life and turbulent political/historical surroundings: descending from the Greek élite of Constantinople, Carathéodory graduated from the military school of Brussels, became engineer at the Assiout dam in Egypt and finally dedicated a life of effort to mathematics and education. He studied and embarked on an international academic career, haunted by wars, catastrophes and personal tragedies. Over the last years of his life, he stayed in Munich despite World War II, an ambiguous decision upon which the author sheds unprecedented light.

Carathéodory's most significant mathematical contributions were to the calculus of variations, the theory of point set measure, and the theory of functions of a real variable, pdes, also to complex function theory.

The interdisciplinarity of the text allows easy access for both scholars and readers with a general interest in mathematics, politics and history. The thoroughness of the author's research and evaluations is certain to leave everyone impressed and more knowledgeable.

Title:Constantin Caratheodory: Mathematics And Politics In Turbulent TimesFormat:PaperbackDimensions:651 pages, 23.5 × 15.5 × 0.01 inPublished:July 2, 2004Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3540203524

ISBN - 13:9783540203520


Table of Contents

1 Origin and Formative Years.- 1.1 From Chios to Livorno and Marseille.- 1.2 The Carathèodorys in the Ottoman Empire.- 1.3 Stephanos Carathéodory, the Father.- 1.4 Early Years in Belgium.- 1.5 The Graeco-Turkish War of 1897.- 1.6 With the British Colonial Service in Egypt.- 1.7 Studies in Berlin.- 1.8 The German University.- 1.9 Friends in Göttingen.- 1.10 Connections with Klein and Hilbert.- 1.11 Doctorate: Discontinuous Solutions in the Calculus of Variations.- 1.12 The Third International Congress of Mathematicians.- 1.13 A Visit to Edinburgh.- 1.14 Habilitation in Göttingen.- 1.15 Lecturer in Göttingen.- Chapterchapter 2 Academic Career in Germany.- 2.1 Habilitation (again) in Bonn.- 2.2 Axiomatic Foundation of Thermodynamics.- 2.3 Marriage, a Family Affair.- 2.4 First Professorship in Hannover.- 2.5 Professor at the Royal Technical University of Breslau.- 2.6 Theory of Functions.- 2.6.1 The Picard Theorem.- 2.6.2 Coefficient Problems.- 2.6.3 The Schwarz Lemma.- 2.6.4 Conformal Mapping.- Existence Theorems.- Variable Domains.- Mapping of the Boundary.- 2.6.5 Normal Families.- 2.6.6 Functions of Several Variables.- 2.7 Elementary Radiation Theory.- 2.8 Venizelos Calls Carathéodory to Greece.- 2.9 Carathéodory Succeeds Klein in Göttingen.- 2.10 On the Editorial Board of the Mathematische Annalen.- 2.11 War.- 2.12 Famine.- 2.13 Insipid Mathematics.- 2.14 "German Science and its Importance".- 2.15 Einstein Contacts Carathéodory.- 2.16 The Theory of Relativity in its Historical Context.- 2.17 Functions of Real Variables.- 2.17.1 Theory of Measure.- 2.17.2 One-to-One Mapping.- 2.17.3 Carathéodory's Books on Real Functions.- 2.17.4 The Book on Algebraic Theory of Measure and Integration.- 2.17.5 Correspondence with Radó on Area Theory.- 2.18 Doctoral Students in Göttingen.- 2.19 Succeeded by Erich Hecke in Göttingen.- 2.20 Professor in Berlin.- 2.21 Geometry.- 2.22 Supervision of Students.- 2.23 Applied Mathematics as a Consequence of War.- 2.24 Collapse of Former Politics.- 2.25 Member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.- 2.26 Supporting Brouwer's Candidacy.- 2.27 Carathéodory's Successor in Berlin.- 2.28 The "Nelson Affair".- 3 The Asia-Minor Project.- 3.1 Preliminaries to the Greek National Adventure.- 3.2 The Greek Landing in Smyrna and the Peace Treaty of Sèvres.- 3.3 Smyrna, a Cosmopolitan City.- 3.4 "Projet d'une nouvelle Université en Grèce".- 3.5 Founding the Ionian University.- 3.6 The High Commissioner's Decree.- 3.7 The Development of the Ionian University.- 3.8 "A Castle in the Air".- 3.9 The Asia-Minor Disaster and the End of the Ionian University.- 3.10 Fleeing from Smyrna to Athens.- 3.11 Professor in Athens.- 3.12 The Lausanne Treaty: Defeat of the Great Idea.- 3.13 The Refugees.- 3.14 Carathéodory';s Report to Henry Morgenthau.- 3.15 In the Hope of Venizelos's Return.- 4 A Scholar of World Reputation.- 4.1 Appointment to Munich University.- 4.2 Life in Munich.- 4.3 Planning an Institute of Physics at Athens University with Millikan.- 4.4 Reichenbach and the Berlin Circle.- 4.5 Suggestions to Hilbert on Quantum Mechanics.- 4.6 Calculus of Variations.- 4.6.1 General Theory.- 4.6.2 Multiple Integrals.- 4.6.3 Carathéodory's Book on the Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations.- 4.6.4 Control Theory, Dynamic Programming and Pontryagin's Principle.- 4.6.5 Viscosity Solutions to Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs.- 4.7 Member of the Academy of Athens.- 4.8 Caring for Munich's Scientific Life.- 4.9 First Visiting Lecturer of the American Mathematical Society.- 4.10 Hindered by the Bavarian Ministry of Finances.- 4.11 At the University of Pennsylvania.- 4.12 At Harvard.- 4.13 At Princeton.- 4.14 An "Excellent Man" but not to be Appointed.- 4.15 The "Bochner Case".- 4.16 At Austin and San Antonio.- 4.17 Impressions of America.- 4.18 "A Great Catch": Appointment to a Full Professorship of Mathematics at Stanford University.- 4.19 Carathéodory Negotiates to Remain in Munich.- 4.20 Carathéodory and Radó.- 4.21 A "Pack of Wolves".- 4.22 Carathéodory's View of Rosenthal.- 4.23 Works of Art for Delta.- 4.24 Honour to Schmidt-Ott.- 4.25 Expecting a New Mission in Greece.- 4.26 Venizelos Calls Carathéodory to Rescue the Greek Universities.- 4.27 Carathéodory's Report.- 4.28 In Thessaloniki.- 4.29 "The Crown of Thorns".- 4.30 Commissioner of the Greek Government.- 4.31 Undesirable Reform.- 4.32 Academic Contacts in Greece.- 4.33 Goethe: A Graeco-German Bridge.- 4.34 A Timely Overview of Mathematics.- 4.35 Neugebauer, Courant, Springer.- 4.36 At the International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich.- 4.37 Mechanics.- 5 National Socialism and War.- 5.1 "Gleichschaltung".- 5.2 Carathéodory's Friends: Victims of the 1933 Racial Laws.- 5.3 Member of the "Reform Committee".- 5.4 Three "Incorrigible" Opponents.- 5.5 Recommending Ernst Mohr.- 5.6 The Reich Ministry of Education and the Lecturers' Corporation.- 5.7 Persecutions and Resignations in 1934.- 5.8 Under Observation and Judgement.- 5.9 A Catholic or an Orthodox?.- 5.10 In Pisa.- 5.11 Honorary President of the Inter-Balkan Congress of Mathematicians.- 5.12 Nuremberg Laws and New Measures.- 5.13 In Bern and Brussels.- 5.14 Member of the International Commission of Mathematicians.- 5.15 Protest.- 5.16 Carathéodory's View of Damköhler.- 5.17 Despina Leaves Munich for Athens.- 5.18 "On the Present State of the German Universities".- 5.19 Carathéodory Meets Tsaldaris at Tegernsee.- 5.20 Corresponding Member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.- 5.21 Expecting the War - On the Political Situation in Europe and Greece.- 5.22 4 August 1936: Dictatorship in Greece.- 5.23 The Oslo Congress: awarding the First Fields Medals.- 5.24 Against an International Congress of Mathematicians in Athens.- 5.25 Invitation to the University of Wisconsin.- 5.26 Carl Schurz Professor at the University of Wisconsin.- 5.27 Support for Blumenthal.- 5.28 Pontifical Academician.- 5.29 Geometric Optics.- 5.29.1 The Book.- 5.29.2 The Schmidt Mirror Telescope.- 5.29.3 Correspondence with the Imperial Chemical Industries on the Schmidt Mirror Systems.- 5.30 Nazi Measures and Laws in 1937.- 5.31 "The Wandering Jew".- 5.32 Graeco-German Relations Before the War.- 5.33 Archaeological Interest.- 5.34 A "Symbol" of German-Greek Contact.- 5.35 Release from Civil Service - Flexible in Surviving.- 5.36 Honorary Professor of the University of Athens.- 5.37 The Fate of the Last Remaining Friends.- 5.38 Dispute about Carathéodory's Successor.- 5.38.1 The Persons Involved.- 5.38.2 The Lists Submitted.- 5.38.3 The Successful Candidate.- 5.39 Despina's Wedding.- 5.40 Two Trips Cancelled Because of the War.- 5.41 Decline in Quality.- 5.42 Carathéodory and the Cartan Family - Germany Occupies France.- 5.43 Favouring Weizsäcker's Appointment in Munich.- 5.44 Sommerfeld's Successor.- 5.45 Greece under German Occupation (1941-1944).- 5.46 International Science Restructuring.- 5.47 Mediating for Saltykow's Release.- 5.48 Unable to Rescue Schauder.- 5.49 Papal Audience in Rome.- 5.50 Why Should Every Philistine Know who Hilbert was?.- 5.51 Summer Vacations in the Black Forest.- 5.52 An Unrealised Plan to Visit Finland and the Rosenberg Report on Carathéodory.- 5.53 Munich in Wartime - Contact with Leipzig and Freiburg.- 5.54 Endeavours to Save "German Science".- 5.54.1 In Favour of van der Waerden's Stay in Germany.- 5.54.2 Von Laue's Acknowledgement.- 5.54.3 Steck's Exclusion from Lambert's Edition.- 5.54.4 In the Jury for a Prize in Geometry.- 5.55 Bombardments of Munich.- 5.56 Denunciations.- 5.56.1 Mohr.- 5.56.2 The Hopf Family.- 5.57 A Reich Institute for Mathematics.- 5.58 Munich in the Autumn of 1944.- 5.59 "In the Interest of the Union".- 5.60 An Unlikely Captive.- 5.61 Euphrosyne's Illness and Air Raids.- 5.62 Collected Mathematical Writings.- 5.63 Denazification.- 5.64 A "Reasonable" Compromise.- 6 The Final Years.- 6.1 Consequences of War.- 6.2 Carathéodory and the Mathematical Institute in Oberwolfach: Reconstruction.- 6.3 In Zurich: Family and Friends.- 6.4 Attempts to Leave Germany for Greece.- 6.5 Contacts with Americans.- 6.6 Widowed and Fatally Diseased.- 6.7 Theory of Functions and Carathéodory's Last Doctoral Student.- 6.8 Born's Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance.- 6.9 The First Post-War International Congress of Mathematicians.- 6.10 Death.- 6.11 Carathéodory's Library.- Epilogue.- Appendix I Some Explanations concerning the Text.- Appendix II A Short Biographical Sketch of the Carathéodory Family.- Appendix III Chronology.- Appendix IV Carathéodory's Fields of Study and Contributions bearing his Name.- Appendix V A List of Carathéodory's Students.- Notes.- Bibliography 601.- Name Index.- Geographic Index.- Index of Mathematical and Physical Subjects.- Index of Academic Organisations and Institutions.- Some Views of Munich and Ludwig-Maximilian University.

Editorial Reviews

From the reviews:"This book is an immense labour of love. It a monument to the greatest of modern Greek mathematicians and one of the greatest mathematicians of the first half of the twentieth century. . Speaking for myself, I am glad to have read this book. It helped me understand the depth and influence of Carathéodory's mathematics and provided a window onto the German mathematical establishment in the Indian summer of its greatness." (Tom Körner, British Society of the History of Mathematics Bulletin, Issue no. 4, 2005)"The author devotes Constantin Carathéodory all the attention such a personality deserves. With detail and scrutiny she elucidates his oeuvre, life and turbulent political and historical surroundings. . The interdisciplinary nature of the text allows access for both scholars and readers with interest in mathematics, politics and history." (Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik, January, 2005)"With amazing breadth and depth, Georgiadou provides both an excellent historical reference and a compelling account of one of the foremost mathematicians of the twentieth century. . Maria Georgiadou has put a significant effort . that illuminate aspects of Caratheodory's life. Her well-organized and detail-oriented book presents his personal and mathematical life within a broader historical and cultural context that is needed to understand many striking details." (Loukas Grafakos, American Mathematical Monthly, June/July, 2004)"Maria Georgiadou has produced a remarkable account of Carathéodory's life and times. Her narrative is woven from original sources . . Everything is meticulously documented with hundreds of footnotes. There are facsimiles of original documents and many interesting photographs. . The book contains a wealth of information . paints a fascinating portrait of Constantin Carathéodory and the vanished world in which he lived. It will be considered the definitive biography for many years to come." (P.L. Duren, Mathematical Reviews, 2005h)