The subject of geomathematics focuses on the interpretation and classification of data from geoscientific and satellite sources, reducing information to a comprehensible form and allowing the testing of concepts. Sphere oriented mathematics plays an important part in this study and this bookprovides the necessary foundation for graduate students and researchers interested in any of the diverse topics of constructive approximation in this area.This book bridges the existing gap between monographs on special functions of mathematical physics and constructive approximation in Euclidean spaces. The primary objective is to provide readers with an understanding of aspects of approximation by spherical harmonics, such as spherical splines andwavelets, as well as indicating future directions of research. Scalar, vectorial, and tensorial methods are each considered in turn. The concentration on spherical splines and wavelets allows a double simplification; not only is the number of independent variables reduced resulting in a lower dimensional problem, but also radial basis function techniques become applicable. When applied to geomathematics this leads to newstructures and methods by which sophisticated measurements and observations can be handled more efficiently, thus reducing time and costs.