Contemporary Moral Arguments: Readings in Ethical Issues

Paperback | November 7, 2012

byLewis Vaughn

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Taking a unique approach that emphasizes careful reasoning, this cutting-edge reader is structured around twenty-seven landmark arguments that have provoked heated debates on current ethical issues. Contemporary Moral Arguments: Readings in Ethical Issues, Second Edition, opens with anextensive two-chapter introduction to moral reasoning and moral theories that provides students with the background necessary to analyze the arguments in the following chapters. Chapters 3-12 present seventy-six readings that are organized - in the conventional way - into ten topical areas:abortion; drugs and autonomy (new to this edition); euthanasia and assisted suicide; genetic engineering and cloning; the death penalty; war, terrorism, and torture; pornography; economic justice and health care; animal rights and environmental duties; and global obligations to the poor.Offering a special feature not found in other anthologies, the selections are also organized in an unconventional way, by argument, so that students can more easily see how philosophers have debated each other on these critical issues. Each argument opens with an introduction that outlines theargument's key points, provides context for it, and reviews some of the main responses to it. Each introduction is followed by two to four essays that present the argument's classic statement, critiques and defenses of it, and related debates.Contemporary Moral Arguments incorporates more pedagogical features than any other reader, including:* Essay questions - ideal for writing assignments - after each of the twenty-seven argument sections* Four types of boxes throughout: Facts and Figures, Public Opinion, Legalities, and Time Lines* A list of key terms at the end of each chapter, all defined in the glossary, and suggestions for further reading* An Instructor's Manual and Testbank on CD featuring chapter and reading summaries, lecture outlines in PowerPoint format, and essay and objective questions with an answer key* A Companion Website at containing the same material as the Instructor's Manual along with such student resources as self-quizzes and flash cardsNEW TO THIS EDITION:* An expanded introductory chapter on moral reasoning that dissects a sample essay step by step and includes exercises on arguments* A new chapter (4) on drugs and autonomy, including four classic articles* A new section on ethical egoism (in Chapter 2) and three additional readings in other chapters* Numerous updated text boxes that reflect the latest information on abortion, euthanasia and assisted suicide, genetic engineering, capital punishment, war and terrorism, and economic and global justice

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Taking a unique approach that emphasizes careful reasoning, this cutting-edge reader is structured around twenty-seven landmark arguments that have provoked heated debates on current ethical issues. Contemporary Moral Arguments: Readings in Ethical Issues, Second Edition, opens with anextensive two-chapter introduction to moral reasoni...

Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books, including Philosophy Here and Now (2012), Bioethics, Second Edition (2012), The Power of Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition (2012), and Great Philosophical Arguments (2011), all published by Oxford University Press.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:736 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.68 inPublished:November 7, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199922268

ISBN - 13:9780199922260

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Table of Contents

*=New to this EditionChapters 3-12 open with an Introduction, Key Terms, and Arguments and Readings.Each chapter ends with Suggestions for Further Reading.Preface: Preface1. Moral ReasoningEthics and the Moral DomainEthics, Law, and ReligionMoral RelativismMoral ArgumentsArgument BasicsThe Structure of Moral ArgumentsEvaluating Moral Premises* Reading and Evaluating Arguments* Argument ExercisesKey WordsSummaryPlato: The Ring of GygesLouis P. Pojman: The Case Against Moral RelativismJames Rachels: Can Ethics Provide Answers?2. Moral TheoriesWhy Moral Theories?Important Moral TheoriesUtilitarianismKantian EthicsEthical EgoismNatural Law TheoryRawls's ContractarianismVirtue EthicsThe Ethics of CareFeminist EthicsJudging Moral TheoriesThe Moral Criteria of AdequacyApplying the Criteria: Utilitarianism; Kant's TheoryKey WordsSummaryJohn Stuart Mill: UtilitarianismImmannuel Kant: Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of MoralsAristotle: Nicomachean EthicsJohn Rawls: A Theory of JusticeAnnette C. Baier: The Need for More than Justice3. Abortion1. Warren's Personhood Argument for AbortionMary Anne Warren: On the Moral and Legal Status of AbortionStephen Schwarz: The Being in the Womb Is a PersonLouis P. Pojman: Abortion: A Defense of the Personhood ArgumentDon Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral2. Noonan's Personhood-at-Conception Argument Against AbortionJohn T. Noonan, Jr.: An Almost Absolute Value in HistoryMichael Tooley: In Defense of Abortion and InfanticidePhilip Devine: The Scope of the Prohibition Against Killing3. Thomson's Self-Defense Argument for AbortionJudith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of AbortionFrancis J. Beckwith: Arguments from Bodily Rights: A Critical AnalysisRosalind Hursthouse: * Virtue Theory and Abortion4. Drugs and Autonomy ** 4. The Harm Argument Against Drug UseJames Q. Wilson: * Against the Legalization of DrugsDouglas N. Husak: * A Moral Right to Use Drugs* 5. The Argument Against PaternalismGerald Dworkin: * PaternalismJohn Hospers: * What Libertarianism Is5. Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide6. The Autonomy Argument for EuthanasiaRonald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, et al.: The Philosophers' BriefDaniel Callahan: When Self-Determination Runs AmokJohn Lachs: When Abstract Moralizing Runs Amok7. The Killing/Letting Die ArgumentJames Rachels: Active and Passive EuthanasiaWinston Nesbitt: Is Killing No Worse Than Letting Die?8. The Slippery-Slope Argument Against EuthanasiaLeon R. Kass: Why Doctors Must Not KillDan W. Brock: Voluntary Active Euthanasia6. Genetic Engineering and CloningGene TherapyReproductive Cloning9. The Beneficence Argument for Genetic EnhancementJohn Harris: Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?Walter Glannon: Genetic Enhancement10. The Open-Future Argument Against CloningDan W. Brock: Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and ConSoren Holm: A Life in the Shadow: One Reason Why We Should Not Clone Humans7. The Death Penalty11. Kant's Retributivism Argument for the Death PenaltyImmanuel Kant: The Right of PunishingIgor Primoratz: A Life for a LifeStephen Nathanson: An Eye for an Eye?James S. Liebman, et al.: Capital Attrition: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973-199512. The Discrimination Argument Against the Death PenaltyPaul G. Cassell: Administrative ObjectionsBryan Stevenson: Capital Punishment and The Legacy of Racial Bias in America13. The Deterrence Argument for the Death PenaltyErnest van den Haag: On Deterrence and the Death PenaltyHugo Adam Bedau: Capital Punishment and Social Defense8. War, Terrorism, and TortureWarTerrorismTorture14. The Pacifist Argument Against WarDouglas P. Lackey: PacifismJan Narveson: Pacifism: A Philosophical Analysis15. The Self-Defense Argument for WarMichael Walzer: The Legalist ParadigmJohn Howard Yoder: When War Is Unjust: Being Honest in Just-War Thinking16. The Just War Argument Against TerrorismHaig Khatchadourian: The Morality of TerrorismMichael Walzer: Terrorism: A Critique of ExcusesAndrew Valls: Can Terrorism Be Justified?17. The Ticking Bomb Argument for TortureAlan M. Dershowitz: The Case for Torturing the Ticking Bomb Terrorist9. Pornography and Free Speech18. The Liberty Argument Against CensorshipJohn Stuart Mill: On LibertyNadine Strossen: Hate Speech and Pornography: Do We Have to Choose Between Freedom of Speech and Equality?Helen E. Longino: Pornography, Oppression, and FreedomJohn Arthur: Sticks and Stones19. MacKinnon's Harm-to-Women Argument for CensorshipCatherine A. MacKinnon: Pornography, Civil Rights, and SpeechRonald Dworkin: Women and PornographyWendy Kaminer: Feminists Against the First Amendment10. Economic Justice: Health Care20. Daniels's Argument for a Right to Health CareNorman Daniels: Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What Does It Encompass?Allen E. Buchanan: The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care21. The Argument for Rationing by Moral WorthinessBrian Smart: Fault and the Allocation of Spare OrgansCarl Cohen et al.: Alcoholics and Liver Transplantation11. Animal Rights and Environmental Duty22. Singer's "All Animals Are Equal" ArgumentPeter Singer: All Animals Are EqualCarl Cohen: The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical ResearchImmanuel Kant: Our Duties to Animals23. Regan's Argument for Animal RightsTom Regan: The Case for Animal RightsMary Anne Warren: The Rights of the Nonhuman WorldRoger Scruton: The Moral Status of Animals24. The Suffering Argument for VegetarianismJames Rachels: The Moral Argument for VegetarianismR. G. Frey: Moral Vegetarianism and the Argument from Pain and Suffering25. Taylor's Argument for the Equality of All LifePaul W. Taylor: The Ethics of Respect for NatureDavid Schmidtz: Are All Species Equal?Albert Schweitzer: Reverence for LifeWilliam F. Baxter: * People or Penguins?12. Economic Justice and Global Obligations26. Hardin's Lifeboat Argument Against Aiding the PoorGarrett Hardin: Living on a LifeboatWilliam W. Murdoch and Allan Oaten: A Critique of Lifeboat Ethics27. Singer's Utilitarian Argument for Aiding the PoorPeter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and MoralityLouis P. Pojman: World Hunger and PopulationGlossaryIndex