Contemporary Topics in Analytical and Clinical Chemistry by David M. HerculesContemporary Topics in Analytical and Clinical Chemistry by David M. Hercules

Contemporary Topics in Analytical and Clinical Chemistry

byDavid M. HerculesEditorGary M. Hieftje, Lloyd R. Snyder

Paperback | April 16, 2013

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Title:Contemporary Topics in Analytical and Clinical ChemistryFormat:PaperbackDimensions:381 pages, 22.9 × 15.2 × 0.02 inPublished:April 16, 2013Publisher:Springer NatureLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1461334209

ISBN - 13:9781461334200

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Table of Contents

1. Polychromatic Analysis Using the Technicon STAC'¢ Analyzer.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The STAC Analyzer.- 2.1. Diluter/Dispenser Module.- 2.2. Analytical Module.- 2.3. Electronics Module.- 3. General Theory.- 4. Selection of Primary and Secondary Wavelengths.- 5. Classification of Polychromatic Analysis.- 5.1. Correction for Nonreactive (Static or Time Invariant Interferences).- 5.2. Correction for Reactive (Kinetic) Interferences.- 5.3. Correction for a Combination of Both Reactive and Nonreactive Interferences.- 5.4. Detection of Substrate Depletion.- 6. STAC Assays.- 7. Examples of Polychromatic Analysis.- 7.1. Calcium.- 7.2. Total Bilirubin.- 7.3. Uric Acid.- 7.4. Triglycerides.- 7.5. AST.- 8. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Introduction to Multiple-Wavelength Spectrophotometric Measurements in Analytical and Clinical Chemistry.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Definitions.- 3. Applications in Analytical Chemistry.- 4. Applications in Clinical Chemistry.- 5. Epilogue.- References.- 3. Bichromatic Analysis: The Design and Function of the ABA-100.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Design Principles.- 3. Performance of Individual Instrument Functions.- 3.1. Photometric Uncertainty and Linearity.- 3.2. Control of Reaction Temperature.- 3.3. Sample Evaporation.- 3.4. Volume Measurement.- 3.5. Performance Characteristics Unique to Bichromatic Measurements.- 4. Automation of a Specific Method with the ABA.- 5. Quality Control.- 6. Special Applications.- 7. Epilogue.- References.- 4. Bichromatic Analysis as Performed in the Du Pont Automatic Clinical Analyzer ('aca').- 1. Introduction.- 2. Analytical Test Pack.- 2.1. Header.- 2.2. Pack Envelope.- 3. Instrument.- 3.1. Sample Handling/Pack Filling.- 3.2. Timing, Temperature, Reagent Addition/Mixing, and Incubation.- 4. Measurement System.- 4.1. Measurement Techniques.- 4.2. Electro-Optical System Description.- 4.3. Zero Absorbance Requirement.- 4.4. Output Result Performance and Calibration.- 5. Measurement Principles.- 5.1. Implementation.- 5.2. Representative Examples.- 5.3. Reaction Time Courses.- 5.4. Chromophore Spectra.- 5.5. Performance.- 6. Advantages.- 6.1. Disadvantages.- 6.2. Future Applications.- References.- 5. The Analysis of Matrix Formatted Multicomponent Data.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Data Reduction Strategies in Analytical Chemistry.- 1.2. Description of MFMDT.- 2. Linear Algebra Review.- 2.1. Vectors and Matrices.- 2.2. Arithmetic of Matrices.- 2.3. Matrix Solution of a System of Linear Equations.- 2.4. Basis and Rank.- 2.5. Identity and Inverse Matrices.- 2.6. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.- 2.7. Glossary.- 3. Theory and Application of MFMDT in Qualitative Analysis of the Fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (FEEM).- 3.1. Properties of Fluorescence Emission.- 3.2. Principles of Qualitative Analysis of the FEEM by MFMDT.- 3.3. Qualitative Analysis of Simulated Fluorescence Data.- 3.4. Qualitative Analysis of Experimental Fluorescence Data.- 4. Theory and Application of MFMDT in Quantitative Analysis of the FEEM.- 4.1. Theory of Least Squares Analysis of the FEEM.- 4.2. Theory of Linear Programming Analyses (Simplex Method) of the FEEM.- 4.3. Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Fluorescence Data.- 4.4. Quantitative Analysis of Experimental Fluorescence Data.- 5. Summary and Conclusion.- 5.1. Effectiveness of MFMDT for Analysis of Multicomponent Fluorescence Data.- 5.2. Expansion and Future Applications of MFMDT.- 6. Appendices.- 6.1. Fortran Subroutines for Qualitative Analysis.- 6.2. Fortran Subroutines for Quantitative Analysis.- References.- 6. Nonlinear Parameter Estimation of Convolved Excitation and Multiple Emission Response Functions.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Luminescence Processes.- 1.2. Modern Instrumentation.- 1.3. Algorithms for Nonlinear Data Analysis.- 2. Instrumentation and Analytical Parameters.- 2.1. Time Correlated Single-Photon Method.- 2.2. Theory.- 2.3. Pile-Up.- 2.4. Time-to-Amplitude Converter.- 2.5. Excitation Source.- 2.6. Optics.- 2.7. Photomultiplier Tube.- 2.8. Start and Stop Lines.- 2.9. Timing Filter Amplifier (TFA).- 2.10. Analytical Considerations- Intensity versus Concentration.- 2.11. Scattered Excitation Radiation.- 2.12. Analytical Wavelength and Bandpass Selection.- 2.13. Linearity versus Concentration.- 3. Data Handling.- 3.1. Theory and Description of the Algorithms.- 3.2. Grid Search Algorithms (GSA).- 3.3. Moments Algorithm (MA).- 3.4. Marquardt's Algorithm (MQA).- 4. Experimental.- 4.1. Data Sources.- 5. Results and Discussion.- 5.1. Simulated Data-GSA.- 5.2. Simulated Data-MA.- 5.3. Simulated Data-MQA.- 5.4. Comparison of Convergence Characteristics for MQA and MA.- 5.5. Convergence Rate and Efficiency.- 5.6. Fluorescence Data.- 6. Summary.- References.- 7. ESCA Studies of Electrode Surfaces.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Electrode Transfer.- 2.1. The Possibilities for Film Change and Decomposition During Transfer.- 2.2. The Anaerobic Transfer Electrochemical Cell.- 3. Data Analysis.- 4. Carbon and Related Electrodes.- 5. Electrodes Involving Magnesium and Aluminum.- 5.1. Detection of Precipitation of Magnesium Hydroxide.- 5.2. Effect of Ions on the Anodic Oxide Films on Aluminum.- 5.3. Anodization of Aluminum in Liquid Hydrogen Fluoride.- 6. Electrodes Involving Titanium.- 6.1. Titanium Metal and Alloys.- 6.2. Titanium Dioxide and Related Electrodes.- 7. Vanadium Pentoxide Electrodes in Reserve Cells.- 8. Electrodes Involving Chromium.- 9. The Manganese Dioxide Electrode.- 10. Electrodes Involving Iron.- 10.1. Studies of Metallic Iron.- 10.2. Studies of Iron Alloys.- 10.3. Studies of Stainless Steel.- 11. Electrodes Involving Nickel.- 11.1. Studies of Nickel Metal.- 11.2. Studies of Molten Salt Systems.- 11.3. Studies of Nickel Alloys.- 12. Electrodes Involving Copper.- 12.1. Cu(I) Oxide Solar Cells.- 12.2. Corrosion Inhibition of Copper.- 12.3. Studies of Copper Alloys.- 13. Electrodes Involving Zinc.- 14. The Niobium Electrode.- 15. The Molybdenum Electrode.- 16. Ruthenium Dioxide-Based Film Electrodes.- 17. Electrodes Involving Tantalum.- 18. Electrodes Involving Tungsten.- 19. Electrodes Involving Tin.- 19.1. Studies of Oxidized Tin Surfaces.- 19.2. Studies of the Anodic Polarization of Metallic Tin.- 19.3. Studies of Tinplate.- 19.4. Studies of Tin Alloys.- 20. The Study of Anodic Oxide Films on Gallium Arsenide and Related Compounds.- 21. Chemically Modified Electrodes.- 21.1. Modified Electrodes.- 21.2. Modified Electrodes with Covalently Bonded Species.- 22. Studies of Solid Electrolytes.- 23. Ion-Selective Electrodes.- 24. Noble Metal Electrodes.- 24.1. Studies of Oxide Films on Platinum Electrodes.- 24.2. Studies of Sulfide Films on Platinum Electrodes.- 24.3. Studies of Platinum Electrodes in Molten Salt Systems.- 24.4. Electro-Oxidation in Platinum Systems.- 24.5. Underpotential Deposition on Platinum Electrodes.- 24.6. Studies of Lead Oxidation on a Platinum Electrode.- 24.7. Studies of Oxide Films on Gold Electrodes.- 24.8. Studies of Oxide Films on Palladium Electrodes.- 24.9. Studies of Oxide Films on Iridium Electrodes.- 24.10. Studies of Mixed Noble Metal Systems.- 25. Trace Metal Analysis.- 26. Studies of Paint Films.- 27. AES Studies of Electrode Surfaces.- 28. Conclusion.- References.- 8. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications of the Abel Inversion.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Fundamentals.- 3. Computation of Area Matrices.- 4. Abel Inversion of Strictly Emitting Profiles.- 5. Self-Absorption and the Abel Inversion-Theory.- 6. Self-Absorption and the Abel Inversion-Examples.- 7. Background Correction in the Presence of Self-Absorption.- 8. Instrumental Misalignment and Spark Wander.- 9. Summary on Wander.- 10. True Measurement Noise.- 11. Spatially Unseparated Emission and Absorption.- 12. Conclusion.- 13. Appendix.- References.