Smoking and tobacco have received much attention in the literature throughout this century, particularly in the last 30 years. The causal role of smoking in a large number of fatal diseases has been established. Concern about the ill effects of smoking has led to anti-smoking campaigns revolving around primary prevention and smoking cessation. This book focuses on the literature directed to those who cannot or will not quit smoking and offers an informed risk reduction approach aimed directly at the chronic smoker. A large number of smoking interventions are represented as well as the characteristics of smokers and the outcome of the respective interventions. The importance of continued research on controlled or reduced smoking as opposed to that of smoking cessation is outlined and methodological flaws are offered to alert future researchers. This literature will be an invaluable resource to health professionals, therapists, and others involved in the issue of health and the hazards of continued smoking.