Creative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The Role of Imagery, Analogy, and Mental Simulation by John ClementCreative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The Role of Imagery, Analogy, and Mental Simulation by John Clement

Creative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The Role of Imagery, Analogy, and Mental…

byJohn Clement

Paperback | August 5, 2009

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How do scientists use analogies and other processes to break away from old theories and generate new ones? This book documents such methods through the analysis of video tapes of scientifically trained experts thinking aloud while working on unfamiliar problems. Some aspects of creative scientific thinking are difficult to explain, such as the power of analogies, and the enigmatic ability to learn from thought experiments. This book is a window on that world.
Title:Creative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The Role of Imagery, Analogy, and Mental…Format:PaperbackDimensions:632 pagesPublished:August 5, 2009Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9048130239

ISBN - 13:9789048130238

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Table of Contents

Introduction: A "Hidden World" Of Nonformal Expert Reasoning1.1 Why Study Nonformal Reasoning?1.2 The Background From Which I Approached This Work1.3 Methodology: Qualitative Nature Of The Study 1.4 General Features Of The Descriptive Methodology Used1.5 General Theoretical Framework1.6 Section Summaries And Approaches To Reading This BookPART ONE: ANALOGIES, MODELS AND CREATIVE LEARNING IN EXPERTS AND STUDENTSSECTION I: EXPERT REASONING AND LEARNING VIA ANALOGY2 Major Subprocesses Involved in Spontaneous Analogical Reasoning2.1 Some Major Issues in Analogical Reasoning2.2 Method of Study2.3 Initial Observations from Transcripts2.4 Major processes used in analogical reasoning 2.5 Conclusion3 Methods Experts Use to Generate Analogies3.1 Introduction3.2 Definitions of Basic Concepts and Observations3.3 Discussion4 Methods Experts Use to Evaluate an Analogy Relation4.1 The Importance of Establishing the Validity of an Analogy Relation4.2 Examples from Case Studies4.3 Analogy Evaluation in the Doughnut Problem4.4 Discussion of Findings and Connections to History of Science4.5 Summary5 Expert Methods for Developing an Understanding of the Analogous Case and Transferring Findings 5.1 Evaluating and Developing Understanding of the Analogous Case.5.2 Transferring Findings5.3 Summary on Creative Analogy GenerationSECTION II: MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND SCIENTIFIC INSIGHT IN EXPERTS6 Case Study of Model Construction Cycles in Expert Reasoning 6.1 Introduction6.2 Background Questions from Philosophy of Science6.3 How Are Theoretical Hypotheses Formed in the Individual Scientist?6.4 Protocol Evidence on Construction Cycles That Use Analogies6.5 Summary of Evidence For A Model Construction Cycle as A Non-Inductive Source for Hypotheses6.6 Major Nonformal Reasoning Patterns in the Preceding Chapters7 Creativity and Scientific Insight in the Case Study for S27.1 Eureka or Accretion? The Presence of Insight in S2's Protocol7.2 Creative Mental Processes 7.3 Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection7.4 Initial List of Features of Creative Thinking from this Case Study and Remaining ChallengesSECTION III: NONFORMAL REASONING IN STUDENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION8 Spontaneous Analogies Generated by Students Solving Science Problems8.1 Use of Analogies by Students8.2 Conclusion8.3 Appendix: Examples of Problems and Spontaneous Analogies9 Case Study of a Student who Counters and Improves his own Misconception by Generating a Chain of Analogies9.1 Spontaneous Analogies in a Student's Problem Solution9.2 Conclusion10 Using Analogies and Models in Instruction to Deal with Students Preconceptions10.1 Introduction10.2 Teaching Strategy10.3 Teaching Interviews10.4 Applications to Classroom Teaching10.5 Conclusion10.5.2 Explanatory Models vs. Specific Analogous Cases PART TWO: ADVANCED USES OF IMAGERY AND PLAUSIBLE REASONING IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICSSECTION IV: IMAGERY AND PHYSICAL INTUITION IN EXPERTS AND STUDENTS11 Analogy, Extreme Cases, and Spatial Transformations in Mathematical Problem Solving by Experts 11.1 Introduction11.2 Case Study of Analogical Reasoning in a Mathematics Problem11.3 Results on the Use of Analogies for Eight Subjects11.4 Other Creative Non-formal Reasoning Processes11.5 Discussion11.6 Conclusion12 Depictive Gestures and Other Case Study Evidence for Mental Simulation in Experts and Students12.1 Introduction12.2 Constructing Observational and Theoretical Descriptors12.3 Case Studies12.4 Discussion12.4.1 Types of Processes Associated with Motioning12.4.2 Can Depictive Hand Motions Be a Direct Product of Imagery?12.4.3 Summary of Relations between Observations and Hypotheses12.5 Relationship of These Findings to Others in the Literature12.5.1 The Existence of Kinesthetic Imagery12.5.2 Depictive Motions Are Not Simply Translated from Sentences12.5.3 Movements are a Partial Reflection of Core Meaning or Reasoning12.5.4 Gestures Can Reflect Imagery12.6 Conclusion12.6.1 Hand Motions as a Source of Information about Imagery and Mental Simulations12.6.2 Limitations12.7 Appendix to Chapter 12 - Detailed Analysis of Evidence for Imagery from Hand Motions in S15's Protocol12.7.1 Motions Can Be a Direct Product of Solution Process12.7.2 Motions are not Translated from Verbal Sentences12.7.3 Evidence for Imagery13 Physical Intuition, Imagistic Simulation and Implicit Knowledge13.1 Introduction: Issues in the Area of Imagery, Simulation and Physical Intuition 13.2 Initial Examples of Physical Intuition 13.3 Imagery Reports and Imagistic Simulation13.4 Implicit Knowledge13.5 Knowledge Can Be Dynamic 13.6 Conclusion: The Role of Concrete Physical Intuitions and Simulations in Expert ThinkingSECTION V: ADVANCED USES OF IMAGERY IN ANALOGIES, THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS, AND MODEL CONSTRUCTION14 The Use of Analogies, Imagery, and Thought Experiments in both Qualitative and Quantitative Model Construction14.1 Introduction14.2 Monologue14.3 Stages in the Solution14.4 Explanatory Models vs. Expedient Analogies14.5 Conclusion15 Thought Experiments and Imagistic Simulation in Plausible Reasoning15.1 Nature of Thought Experiments15.2 Addressing the Thought Experiment Paradox: How Can an Untested Thought Experiment Generate Findings with Conviction?15.3 Imagery Enhancement Phenomena Support The Proposed Answer To the Paradox15.4 How Are Thought Experiments Used Within More Complex Reasoning Modes? 15.5 Are Imagistic Simulations Operating in the Mathematical Part of the Solution?15.6 How Thought Experiments Contribute to Model Evaluation15.7 Chapter Summary16 An Evolutionary Model of Investigation and Model Construction Processes16.1 Abductive Processes for Generating and Modifying Models16.2 Investigation Processes16.3 Quantitative Modeling16.4 Abduction II: How Evaluation Processes Complement Generative Abduction.16.5 Seeking an Optimal Level of Divergence 16.6 Chapter Summary 17 Imagistic Processes in Analogical Reasoning: Transformations and Dual Simulations17.1 Two Precedents from the Literature17.2 Conserving Transformations17.3 Conserving Transformations In Science17.4 Dual Simulation17.5 Overlay Simulation17.6 Summary and Discussion of Types of Evaluation Methods and Evaluation Process: Contrasting Mechanisms for Determining Similarity17.7 Use of Imagistic Transformations During the Generation of Partitions, Analogies, Extreme Cases, and Explanatory Models17.8 Conclusion18 How Grounding in Runnable Schemas Contributes to Producing Flexible Scientific Models in Experts and Students18.1 Introduction: Does Intuitive Anchoring Lead to Any Real Advantages?18.2 Cognitive Benefits of Anchoring and Runnability for Models18.4 ConclusionSECTION VI: CONCLUSIONS\19 Summary of Findings on Plausible Reasoning and Learning in Experts I: Basic Findings19.1 Overview of the Book19.2 Analogy Findings Part I19.3 Model Construction Findings Part I and Initial Connections to General Issues in History/Philosophy of Science19.4 Imagistic Simulation Findings Part I19.4.4 Connection to Experiments and Situated Action20 Summary of Findings on Plausible Reasoning and Learning in Experts* II: Advanced Topics20.1 Analogy Findings, Part II20.2 Imagistic Simulation Findings Part II: Thought Experiments and their Uses in Plausible Reasoning20.3 Model Construction Findings Part II: An Evolutionary Model of Investigation Processes20.4 The Important Role of Imagery in the Expert Investigations20.5 Transfer of Runnability Leads to Outcomes of Flexible Model Application and Generativity20.6 Comments On Methodology 21 Creativity in Experts, Nonformal Reasoning, and Educational Applications21.1 Summary Of The Overall Framework21.2 How Experts Used Creativity Effectively21.3 Educational Applications: Needed Additions to the Classical Theory of Conceptual Change in Education 21.4 Expert-Novice Similarities in Non-Formal Reasoning and Learning21.5 Implications For Instructional Strategies And Theory21.6 Are Creative Processes in Experts a Natural Extension of Everyday Thinking? 21.7 Assessing The Potential For a Model of Creative Theory Construction in Science21.8 Conclusion