The most immediate threats to humankind are military devastation and environmental exhaustion, both on a global scale. SIPRI, in co-operation with the United Nations Environment Programme, presents with this book the fifth major study in a series that examines linkages between these twothreats. In the study specialists from several disciplines examine the ways in which cultural norms concerning the environment have inhibited the conduct of war and preparations for it, and suggest how such norms could be strengthened and developed. The subject is approached from the followingperspectives: historical evolution of cultural norms concerning war and the environment; differing approaches of men and women; the special challenge of the nuclear age; roles of government and law; influence of education and the mass media; and philosophical and aesthetic influences. This series addresses the problems of constraining war and of maintaining an environment that can promote human life and welfare by examining the issues of warfare and security in relation to environmental and ecological concerns and then formulating policy recommendations. It should prove ofinterest, therefore, to everyone who has a personal interest in these subjects.