This book contains articles presenting current knowledge about the formation and renewal of deep waters in the ocean. These articles were presented at an international workshop at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey in March 1990. It is the first book entirely devoted to the topic of deep water formation in which articles have been both selected and reviewed, and it is also the first time authors have addressed both surface and deep mixed layers. Highlighted are: past and recent observations (description and analysis), concepts and models, and modern techniques for future research. Thanks to spectacular advances realised in computing sciences over the last twenty years this volume includes a number of sophisticated numerical models. Observational as well as theoretical studies are presented and a clear distinction is established between open-ocean deep convection and shelf processes, both leading to deep- and bottom-water formation. The main subject addressed is the physical mechanism by which the deep water in the ocean can be renewed. Ventilation occurs at the surface in areas called
the gills, where water is mixed and oxygenated before sinking and spreading in the abyss of the deep ocean. This phenomenon is a very active area for both experimentalists and theoreticians because of its strong implications for the understanding of the world ocean circulation and Earth climate. This major theme sheds light on specific and complex processes happening in very restricted areas still controlling three quarters of the total volume of the ocean. All articles include illustrations and a bibliography. This book will be of particular interest to physical oceanographers, earth scientists, environmentalists and climatologists.