Developmental Regulation of Plant Gene Expression by Don GriersonDevelopmental Regulation of Plant Gene Expression by Don Grierson

Developmental Regulation of Plant Gene Expression

byDon Grierson

Paperback | August 23, 2014

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The intricacies of plant growth and development present a fascinating intellectual challenge, and yet our understanding of the subject has increased relatively slowly, despite the application of many different experimental approaches. Now, however, the introduction of molecular methods, coupled with genetic transformation technology, has provided a change in pace, and fundamental advances are occurring rapidly. This volume, the second in our Plant Biotechnology series, shows how we are beginning to understand the molecular basis of plant growth and development, and are thus moving from the descriptive to the predictive stage. The ability, discussed in chapter one, to generate a fivefold change in plant height by overexpression of a single gene for the photoreceptor phytochrome heralds not only a new phase in plant photobiology but also highlights the close relationship between fundamental knowledge and commercial application. Other chapters review progress in our understanding of the molecular basis of hormone action and processes such as tuber development, seed protein synthesis and deposition, fruit ripening, and self-recognition during pollination. The successful uses of antisense genes to alter the colour and pattern of flowers and to change the enzymic composition of ripening fruit are also discussed, together with identification and down­ regulation of a gene involved in ethylene synthesis by antisense technology. Opportunities are considered for altering the composition and quality of harvested plant organs and for using plants to synthesise novel products.
Title:Developmental Regulation of Plant Gene ExpressionFormat:PaperbackDimensions:9.02 × 5.98 × 0.01 inPublished:August 23, 2014Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:940105357X

ISBN - 13:9789401053570

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Table of Contents

1 Photoregulation of plant gene expression.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Photoregulatory responses and levels of control.- 1.2.1 Genes respond differentially to light.- 1.2.2 Transcription is the primary, but not the only, level at which gene expression is controlled by light.- 1.3 Photoreceptors.- 1.3.1 Phytochrome mediates responses in dark-grown plants.- 1.3.2 Developing plastids produce a factor that is required for maximal expression of genes encoding chloroplast proteins.- 1.3.3 In mature leaf tissue phytochrome acts in conjunction with a UV-blue photoreceptor.- 1.3.4 A UV-B photoreceptor interacts with other photoreceptors to control chalcone synthase gene expression.- 1.3.5 Expression of several photoregulated genes exhibits a circadian rhythm.- 1.3.6 The phytochrome genes are subject to autoregulation.- 1.3.7 Overexpression of phytochrome genes in transgenic plants causes morphogenetic effects.- 1.4 DNA sequence elements responsible for photoregulation.- 1.4.1 RbcS genes.- 1.4.2 Cab genes.- 1.4.3 Phytochrome genes.- 1.4.4 The ferredoxin gene.- 1.4.5 Chalcone synthase genes.- 1.5 Concluding remarks.- References.- 2 Hormonal regulation of plant gene expression.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2. Auxin: rapid effects on anonymous genes.- 2.2.1 Relating auxin-regulated gene expression to auxin growth responses.- 2.3 Gibberellin: coordinate and non-coordinate regulation of gene expression.- 2.3.1 Approaching the molecular mechanisms of GA regulation.- 2.3.2 The acquisition of GA sensitivity.- 2.4 Abscisic acid: stress and development.- 2.5 Cytokinin and ethylene.- 2.5.1 Control of gene expression by cytokinin.- 2.5.2 Control of gene expression by ethylene.- 2.6 Conclusion.- References.- 3 Gene activity during tuber formation in the potato (Solanum tuberosum).- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Development and anatomy of the tuber.- 3.3 Biochemical differentiation during tuber formation.- 3.3.1 The enzymes of starch metabolism.- 3.3.2 The regulation and function of patatin genes.- 3.3.3 The activity of other genes in potato tubers.- 3.4 Future prospects and application of genetic engineering to tubers.- References.- 4 Control of flavonoid synthesis and manipulation of flower colour.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Flavonoid biosynthesis.- 4.2.1 Flavonoids: structure and function.- 4.2.2 Flavonoids: biosynthesis route.- 4.3 Flavonoids as flower pigments.- 4.3.1 Anthocyanins.- 4.3.2 Yellow and colourless flavonoids.- 4.4 Genetic engineering of flower colour.- 4.4.1 Classical breeding.- 4.4.2 Molecular flower breeding.- References.- 5 The molecular basis for sexual incompatibility.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Angiosperm incompatibility systems.- 5.2.1 Cellular aspects of pollen-pistil interactions.- 5.2.2 Genetics of the one-locus incompatibilities.- 5.3 Molecular analysis of SI in Brassica.- 5.3.1 SLSG and its involvement in SI.- 5.3.2 Expression of SLSG in the stigma.- 5.3.3 Expression in anthers.- 5.3.4 The structure of SLSG.- 5.3.5 The S-multigene family.- 5.3.6 Comparison of the SLSG-structural gene and an S-locus related gene.- 5.3.7 S-sequences are conserved in the crucifer family.- 5.3.8 Gene interactions and the inheritance of self-compatibility.- 5.3.9 Evolution.- 5.3.10 Applications in breeding.- 5.4 Summary and prospects.- References.- 6 Control of gene expression in the developing seed.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Phases of seed development.- 6.3 Primary structure and flanking regions of some seed protein genes.- 6.3.1 2S-type genes.- 6.3.2 7S-type genes.- 6.3.3 11S-type genes.- 6.3.4 Cereal genes.- 6.4 Transcriptional control of seed storage protein genes is the major regulatory process.- 6.5 The role of post-transcriptional events in storage protein gene expression.- 6.6 Genetic lesions affecting seed protein expression.- 6.7 Role of hormones in seed protein gene expression.- 6.8 Proposed regulatory sequence elements in seed protein genes.- 6.9 Expression of seed protein genes in transgenic plants.- 6.9.1 7S vicilin-like genes.- 6.9.2 11S legumin-like genes.- 6.9.3 Cereal genes.- 6.10 Binding of nuclear proteins to 5? flanking sequences of seed protein genes.- 6.11 Conclusion.- References.- 7 Regulation of gene expression in ripening tomatoes.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The physiology and biochemistry of fruit ripening.- 7.3 Ripening mutants of tomato.- 7.4 Gene expression during fruit ripening.- 7.5 Ethylene and fruit ripening.- 7.5.1 Ethylene and gene expression.- 7.5.2 Isolation and expression of ethylene-inducible genes.- 7.5.3 Transcriptional and post-transcriptional ethylene control.- 7.5.4 Ethylene and gene expression in tomato-ripening mutants.- 7.5.5 Function of ethylene-responsive genes.- 7.5.6 Identification of ethylene regulatory sequences.- 7.6 Cell wall changes during fruit softening.- 7.6.1 Regulation of polygalacturonase gene expression.- 7.6.2 Functional analysis of polygalacturonase.- 7.6.3 Mutant complementation of rin tomato fruit.- 7.6.4 Antisense inhibition of polygalacturonase gene expression.- 7.6.5 Towards an understanding of polygalacturonase function.- 7.7 Conclusion.- References.