Digital Communication: Theory, Techniques and Applications by R. N. Mutagi

Digital Communication: Theory, Techniques and Applications

byR. N. Mutagi

Paperback | February 28, 2013

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Digital Communication: Theory, Techniques, and Applications 2e has been written for the undergraduate students of engineering for a course on digital communication. The second edition of this book treats spread spectrum communication techniques as an exclusive chapter. The book starts from the basics of signals and systems, builds the preliminary concepts through the chapters on probability and random process, and information theory, and then describes the core concepts such as digital coding, multiplexing and multiple access, modulation techniques, demodulation,error control coding and spread spectrum communication. The last chapter illustrates the concepts learnt in the earlier chapters through certain applications in optical, satellite, and wireless communication domains.

About The Author

R. N. Mutagi is currently Professor and Head of the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at the Indus Institute of Technology and Engineering, Ahmedabad. He is a Senior Member of IEEE (Communication Society and Signal Processing Society), Fellow of Broadcast Engineering Society (BES) and Fellow of the Institute of El...

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Title:Digital Communication: Theory, Techniques and ApplicationsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:772 pages, 9.84 × 5.91 × 0 inPublished:February 28, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0198087225

ISBN - 13:9780198087229

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction1.1 Introduction1.2 Typical Digital Communication System1.3 Advantages of Digital Communication1.3.1 Regeneration of digital signals1.3.2 Power efficiency of digital modulators1.3.3 Bandwidth compression1.3.4 Multimedia: unification of signals1.3.5 Performance1.3.6 Technology2. Communication Signals and Systems2.1 Introduction2.2 Time and Frequency Representation2.2.1 Fourier Series2.2.2 Fourier Transform2.2.3 Discrete-Time Fourier Transform2.2.4 Discrete Fourier Transform2.3 Convolution2.4 Correlation2.5 Hilbert Transform2.6 Bandpass and Lowpass Representations2.6.1 Bandpass Signals and Systems2.6.2 Analytic Signal2.6.3 Lowpass Equivalent Signals2.7 Signal Space Representations2.7.1 Vector Space2.7.2 Signal Space2.7.3 Orthonormal Representation of Signals2.7.4 Gram-Schmidt ProcedureSummaryReview QuestionsProblems3. Probability and Random Processes3.1 Introduction3.2 Probability3.2.1 Set Theory3.2.2 Probability space3.2.3 Properties of probability3.2.4 Probability of joint events3.2.5 Conditional probability3.2.6 Bayes' Rule3.2.7 Independence3.3 Random Variables3.3.1 Probability Distribution Function3.3.2 Probability Density Function3.3.3 Probability Mass Function3.3.4 Mean and Variance3.3.5 Some common distributions3.3.6 Functions of Random Variables3.3.7 Multiple Random Variables3.3.8 Sum of Random Variables3.3.9 Central Limit Theorem3.3.10 Linear Mean Square Estimation3.4 Random Processes3.4.1 Properties of Random Processes3.4.2 Some examples of Random ProcessesSummaryReview QuestionsProblems4. Information Theory4.1 Introduction4.2 Information Measure4.2.1 Self-Information4.2.2 Entropy4.2.3 Discrete Memoryless Source (DMS)4.2.4 Joint and Conditional Entropy4.2.5 Mutual Information4.3 Discrete Channel4.3.1 Statistics of the Discrete Channel4.3.2 Channel Capacity4.4 Continuous Random Variable4.4.1 Differential Entropy4.4.2 Capacity of Continuous Channel4.5 Source Coding4.5.1 Source Efficiency and Redundancy4.5.2 Kraft inequality4.5.3 Source coding theorem4.5.4 Shannon-Fano Encoding4.5.5 Huffman Coding4.5.6 Non-binary Huffman codingSummaryReview QuestionsProblems5. Digital Coding5.1 Introduction5.2 Digitizing Analog Signals5.2.1 Sampling5.2.1.1 Sampling with ideal impulses5.2.1.2 Spectra of sampled waveform5.2.1.3 Sampling rate and aliasing noise5.2.1.4 Sampling of bandpass signals5.2.1.5 Sample and Hold5.2.1.6 Spectral distortion due to Sample and Hold5.2.2 Quantization5.2.2.1 Quantizer characteristics5.2.2.2 Quantization error5.2.3 Encoding5.2.3.1 Analog to Digital Conversion5.2.3.2 Sigma-Delta A-D Converter5.2.3.3 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)5.3 Signal Compression5.3.1 Signal Statistics and Redundancy5.3.2 Companded PCM5.3.2.1 A-Law Companding5.3.2.2 u-Law Companding5.3.2.3 Segmented companders5.3.2.4 Performance of a PCM system5.3.3 Predictive Coding5.3.3.1 Delta Modulation (DM) Adaptive Differential PCM (ADPCM)5.3.4 Transform Coding5.3.4.1 Discrete Cosine Transform5.3.4.2 2-D DCT5.3.4.3 Discrete Wavelet Transform5.3.5 Parametric Coders5.3.5.1 Analysis-by-synthesis coder5.3.6 Perceptual coding5.3.6.1 Psychoacoustics5.3.6.2 Perceptual coder5.4 Application of Digital Coding5.4.1 Digital Speech5.4.1.1 Voice Codecs and Combo Chips5.4.2 Digital Audio5.4.2.1 MP3 Coding5.4.2.2 AC-3 Coding5.4.2.3 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC)5.4.3 Digital Video5.4.3.1 Run-Length Coding (RLC) Variable Length Coding5.4.3.3 MPEG- MPEG- MPEG45.4.3.6 H.264SummaryReview QuestionsProblems6. Multiplexing and Multiple Access6.1 Introduction6.2 Multiplexing6.2.1 Frequency Division Multiplexing6.2.2 Concept of Time Division Multiplexing6.2.3 Frame Synchronization6.2.4 Primary Multiplexing in Digital Telephony6.2.4.1 E-1 carrier multiplex system6.2.4.2 Signaling in E-1 carrier6.2.4.3 Frame Synchronization in E-1 carrier6.2.4.4 T-1 carrier multiplex system6.2.4.5 Signaling and frame synchronization in T-1 carrier6.2.4.6 Comparison of the primary multiplex standards6.2.5 Higher Order Multiplexing6.2.5.1 CEPT Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy6.2.5.2 North American Digital Hierarchy6.3 Multiple Access6.3.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) SCPC and MCPC systems6.3.1.2 Capacity in FDMA6.3.1.3 Advantages and disadvantages of FDMA6.3.1.4 Applications of FDMA6.3.2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) TDMA Concept6.3.2.2 TDMA Frame6.3.2.3 Frame Efficiency6.3.2.4 Burst Synchronization6.3.3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) PN Sequences6.3.3.2 Processing Gain and Capacity in CDMA6.3.4 Random Access6.3.4.1 Pure Aloha6.3.4.2 Slotted Aloha (S-Aloha) Reservation Aloha (R-Aloha)6.3.5 Carrier Sense Multiple Access-Collision Detection (CSMA-CD)6.3.6 Fixed Assignment and Demand Assignment Multiple AccessSummaryReview QuestionsProblems7. Digital Modulation7.1 Introduction7.2 Baseband Modulation7.2.1 Pulse Modulation Systems7.2.1.1 Pulse Amplitude Modulation7.2.1.2 Pulse Width Modulation7.2.1.3 Pulse Position Modulation7.2.2 Baseband Signaling7.2.2.1 Line Codes7.2.2.2 Line Codes for PCM transmission7.2.3 Correlative Coding7.2.3.1 Inter-symbol interference (ISI) Raised-cosine filter7.2.3.3 Correlative Coding7.2.3.4 Duo-binary coding7.2.3.5 Modified duo-binary coding7.3 Bandpass Modulation7.3.1 Bandpass PAM7.3.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)7.3.3 Digital Phase Modulation (Phase Shift Keying) BPSK Modulation7.3.3.2 QPSK and Offset QPSK (OQPSK)7.3.4 Digital Frequency Modulation (Frequency Shift Keying) FSK Generation7.3.4.2 Continuous Phase FSK (CPFSK)7.3.5 Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) MSK modulator7.3.5.2 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM)7.4 Power Spectral Density7.4.1 Power Spectral Density of Baseband Signals7.4.1.1 Method I: Finding mpsdf from the definition7.4.1.2 Method II: Finding mpsdf by stationarizing the signal7.4.2 Power spectral Density of Bandpass Signals7.4.2.1 PSD of PAM signal7.4.2.2 PSD of a Correlative Coded Signal7.4.2.3 PSD of BPSK signal7.4.2.4 Bandwidth of QPSK signalComparison of Basic Modulations7.6 Some Special Modulation Techniques7.6.1 OFDM7.6.1.1 OFDM Concept7.6.1.2 FFT implementation of OFDM7.6.1.3 Applications of OFDM7.6.2 Trellis Coded Modulation7.6.2.1 Partitioning of Signal Space7.6.2.2 Performance of TCMSummaryReview QuestionsProblems8. Demodulation and Detection8.1 Introduction8.2 Optimum Receiver8.2.1 Correlation Demodulator8.2.2 Matched Filter8.2.3 Matched Filter Demodulator8.3 Binary Detection8.3.1 Probability of error8.3.2 Decision Rules8.3.3 Sufficient Statistics8.3.4 Performance of an optimal receiver8.4 General Binary Detection8.4.1 Implementation of a general binary receiver8.4.2 Performance of a general binary receiver8.4.3 Signals with equal energy8.4.4 Detection of Bandpass Signals8.5 M-ARY Detection8.5.1 4-PAM signal8.5.2 Gray Coding8.5.3 QPSK signals8.5.4 M-ary PAM signals8.5.5 Performance Bounds8.6 Non Coherent Detection8.6.1 Non-coherent detection of binary signals8.6.2 Performance of Non-coherent Receiver8.6.3 Differential PSK8.7 Equalization8.7.1 Linear Transversal Filter Equalizer8.7.2 Non-linear EqualizersSummaryReview QuestionsProblems9. Error Control Coding9.1 Introduction9.1.1 Types and Measures of Error9.1.2 Shannon-Hartley Capacity Theorem9.1.3 Concepts behind Error Detection and Correction - A bigger picture9.1.4 Methods of Error Control9.1.5 Classification of Error Correcting Codes9.2 Linear Block Codes9.2.1 Hamming Distance9.2.2 Hamming Weight9.2.3 Error Detection and Correction Capabilities of a Code9.2.4 Codeword Error Probability Computation9.2.5 Generator Matrix9.2.6 Systematic Codes9.2.7 Parity Check Matrix9.2.8 Syndrome9.2.9 Standard Array9.2.10 Implementing the Decoder9.3 Cyclic Codes9.3.1 Generator Polynomial for Cyclic Code9.3.2 Systematic Cyclic Code9.3.3 Polynomial Multiplication and Division9.4 Important Block Codes9.4.1 Hamming Codes9.4.2 BCH Codes9.4.3 Golay Codes9.4.4 Reed-Solomon Codes9.5 Convolutional Codes9.5.1 Convolutional Encoder9.6 Convolutional Decoding9.6.1 Maximum Likelihood Decoding and Viterbi Algorithm9.6.2 Sequential Decoding and Fano Algorithm9.7 Turbo Coding9.7.1 Turbo Coder9.7.2 Turbo Decoder9.8 LDPC9.9 Practical Application of Error Correcting Codes9.9.1 Deep Space Communication9.9.2 Satellite Communication9.9.3 Data Transmission9.9.4 Data Storage9.9.5 DAB/DVB9.9.6 Mobile and Wireless SystemsSummaryReview QuestionsProblems10. Spread Spectrum Communication10.1 Introduction10.2 Pseudo Noise Sequence10.2.1 Properties of PN Sequences10.2.2 Gold Sequences10.3 Processing Gain and Capacity in CDMA10.4 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum10.4.1 DSSS Transmitter and Receiver10.4.2 Interference Rejection10.4.3 Short and Long Codes10.5 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum10.5.1 FHSS Transmitter and Receiver10.5.2 Slow and Fast Hopping10.6 Acquisition and Synchronization10.6.1 Parallel Acquisition10.6.2 Sequential Acquisition10.6.3 Sequential Acquisition with Seeding10.7 Spread Spectrum Applications10.7.1 Mobile Communication10.7.2 Low Power Communication10.7.3 Ranging10.7.4 Multiuser CommunicationSummaryReview QuestionsProblems11. Applications of Digital Communication11.1 Introduction11.2 Cellular Communication11.2.1 Cellular Concept Cochannel Interference11.2.2 Cellular Standards11.2.2.1 Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) IS-9511.2.2.3 IMT-200011.3 Digital Satellite Communications11.3.1 Elements of a Satellite Communication System11.3.2 Link analysis11.3.2.1 Link Equation11.3.2.2 Receiver Noise Temperature11.3.2.3 G/T Ratio for Earth Stations11.3.3 Multiple Access11.3.3.1 FDMA11.3.3.2 SPADE11.3.3.3 Satellite TDMA11.3.4 Special Techniques in Satellite Communication11.3.4.1 Digital Speech Interpolation11.3.4.2 Echo cancellation11.3.5 Digital Satellite systems11.3.5.1 VSAT Systems11.3.5.2 DTH Systems11.3.5.3 DAB Systems11.3.5.4 Mobile Communication Systems11.3.5.5 Search and Rescue System11.3.5.6 Global Positioning System11.4 Optical Communication11.4.1 Advantages of Optical Communication11.4.2 Signal Transmission in an Optical Fiber11.4.2.1 Propagation by total internal reflection11.4.2.2 Step-index and Graded-index Fibers11.4.2.3 Numerical Aperture11.4.2.4 Multipath Dispersion11.4.2.5 Information Rate11.4.3 Optical Transmission Systems11.4.3.1 Modulation11.3.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)11.4.4 Optical Telecommunication Networks11.4.4.1 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)11.4.5 Applications of Optical Fibers11.5 WIFI AND WIMAXReview QuestionsProblemsAppendix A Useful trigonometrical identitiesAppendix B Table of Q functionsAppendix C MATLAB codesAppendix D Laboratory manualAppendix E Random error generatorAppendix F Model question papersAppendix G Hints (final answers) to select exercise problems