Early Childhood Education: Learning Together: Learning Together by Virginia CasperEarly Childhood Education: Learning Together: Learning Together by Virginia Casper

Early Childhood Education: Learning Together: Learning Together

byVirginia Casper, Rachel Theilheimer

Paperback | November 11, 2009

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Early Childhood Education: Learning Together provides a comprehensive overview of early childhood education. This exciting new text encourages students to understand the need for flexible approaches in their work with children. Early childhood education is not a “one size fits all” proposition, so this text encourages students in multiple ways to reflect upon why they are doing what they are doing. With connections to NAEYC standards, case studies, and essays from real people on the front lines of early childhood education, students will leave the course with a superior foundation in both the theoretical aspects of ECE and the real world applications of those theories.

In developing Early Childhood Education: Learning Together, we bring together the best research and the most effective practices in Early Childhood.

We have heard that many students are using their first Early Childhood course to explore their interest in the field - perhaps to discover a new profession or a second career. These comments shaped every aspect of Early Childhood Education: Learning Together. The resulting textbook is infused with real cases, NAEYC standards, and graphs and tables for easy reference and student review.

We also understand that college can be a financial challenge for students. Because of this, Early Childhood Education: Learning Together is half the price of comparable introductory texts.

Title:Early Childhood Education: Learning Together: Learning TogetherFormat:PaperbackDimensions:544 pages, 10.8 × 8.5 × 0.9 inPublished:November 11, 2009Publisher:McGraw-Hill EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0073378488

ISBN - 13:9780073378480

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Table of Contents

PART ONE An Introduction to Early Childhood

1 Working with Young Children 1

Early Care and Education 2

What Is Care? 2
What Is Education? 3
Some Purposes of Early Care and Education 4

Quality of Early Care and Education 4

Applying Child Development Principles 5
Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education 8

Early Childhood Educators 8

Diverse Biographies and Cultural Identities 9
Real Voice: Efrén Michael Léon, Las Cruces, New Mexico 12
Thoughtful Individuals 14
Professional Development 18

Educator Relationships with Other Adults 24

Working as Part of a Classroom Team 25
Working with Supervisors 27
Working with Others to Support Inclusion 28
Collaborating with Family Members 29

Summary 30

Further Activities 31

2 Children and the Worlds They Inhabit 32

Our Rapidly Changing World 33

Globalization and Education 34
Culture 35
Ecological Theories 36
What Children Know and How 38

What Can We Provide for Young Children? 39

Consistency and Predictability 40
Practice That Supports Health 42
Respect and Equal Access 45
Real Voice: Joan Bibeau, Grand Rapids, Minnesota 46
Inclusion of Those with Disabilities and Special Needs 53
Work Against Poverty and Racism 55

Social Justice 56

The Developmental-Interaction Approach 57
Having a Voice 60
Joining with Others 60
Speaking Out for Children and Families 61

Summary 62

Further Activities 63

3 Children Learning about the World through Relationships 64

Early Experience 65

Brain Development: The Neuroscience of Experience 65
Yin's and Brad's Early Experiences 67

Attachment, Relationships, and Experience 69

An Evolutionary Theory in Cultural Context 69
Relationship History = Attachment Quality 70
Classifying Attachment 71
Being Known 72
Real Voice: Meg Gillette, Birmingham, Alabama 74

Emotions and Self-Regulation 75

The Development of Emotions 75
Regulating Emotions 76
Theory of Mind 78

Applications to Classroom Practice 79

Self-Regulation in Classrooms 80
Social and Emotional Development in Classrooms 84
Electronic Screens: A Relationship? 88

Difficult Experiences and Challenging Conversations 90

4 Children Understanding the World through Play 95

The Integrative Role of Play 96

Imagination 96
Communication of Meaning 97
Transformation of Thought 97
Problem Solving 98

Play in the Lives of Children 98

The Roots of Play 98
Play in the Preschool Years 99
Play in the Primary Grades 100

Qualities of Play 101

Intrinsic Motivation 101
Attention to Means over End 101
Freedom from Externally Imposed Rules 102
Self-Expression through Symbol and Metaphor 103

Categories of Play 104

Functional Play 105
Constructive Play 105
Dramatic Play 106
Games with Rules 108

Affective Components 109

Communicating and Integrating Emotions 109
Identity and Mastery 110
Playing for and about Power 112

Play and Difference 113

Play and Gender 113
Play and Culture 114
Play and Special Needs 115

Play Relationships in the Classroom 116

Play and Peer Relationships 116
Play and Teacher-Child Relationships 116

The Role of Play in a Democratic Society 120

Play, Imagination, and Social Change 121
Debates about Play 121
Real Voice: Melissa Dubick, Austin, Texas 122

Summary 123

Further Activities 125

PART TWO Foundations of Early Childhood Education

5 Early Childhood Perspectives: Then and Now, Near and Far 126

Early Childhood around the World 127

Early Education in South Africa 128
Early Education in India 130
Early Education in the People's Republic of China 131

Views of Childhood in Western History 133

Ancient Greece and Rome 133
Europe in Medieval Times 134
Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Europe 135
Nineteenth-Century Europe and the United States 137
Twentieth-Century Europe and the United States 141
The Progressive Movement, 1890-1930 143
Real Voice: Steve Vande Zande, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 146

Mid-Twentieth-Century America to Present Times 151

The Great Society and Head Start 151
Special Education: From Mainstreaming to Inclusion to
Continuum of Services 152
Standardization, Accountability, and Testing 153

Summary 154

Further Activities 155

6 Theories of Early Childhood: Explanations, Applications, and Critiques 156

What Is a Theory? 157

Real Voice: Amy Bolotin, Ridgefield, Connecticut 158
Michael's Story 159
Theories Arise in Context 159

Psychoanalytic and Psychoanalytically Informed Theories 163

Freudian Theory 163
Freud's Immediate Successors 164
Contemporary Psychoanalytically Informed Theories of Early Childhood 165
Evaluation of the Psychoanalytic Viewpoint 167
Revisiting Michael's Head Start Using Psychoanalytic and Psychoanalytically Informed Theories 167

Behaviorist Theories 168

Social Learning Theory 168
Cognitive Behavioral Theory 169
Evaluation of Behaviorist Theory 170
Revisiting Michael's Head Start Using Behaviorist Theories 170

Maturational Theories 171

Evaluation of Maturational Theories 171
Revisiting Michael's Head Start Using
Maturational Theories 171

Constructivist Theories 172

Neo-Piagetian Theories 173
Evaluation of Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Theory 173
Revisiting Michael's Head Start Using Constructivist Theory 174

Contextualist Theories 174

Contemporary Contextualist Theories 176
Contextualist Theories and Early Childhood Education 177
Evaluation of Contextualist Theory 177
Revisiting Michael's Head Start Using Contextualist Theory 177

Humanist Theories 178

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 178
Humanist Theory and the Early Childhood Educator 178
Evaluation of Humanist Theory 178
Revisiting Michael's Head Start Using Humanist Theory 179

Developmental Systems Theories 179

Transactional Model of Development 179
Dynamic Systems Theory 180

Identity Theories 181

Theories about Gender Identity and Gender Roles 181
Postmodern and Feminist Poststructuralist Theories 183
Theories of Racial and Ethnic Identity 184

Theories about Intelligence 186

Intelligence in the Psychological Literature 186
Multiple Intelligences 186

Summary 187

Further Activities 189

7 Early Childhood Programming 190

Care and Education 191

The Role of Continuity 192
A Continuum of Care 193

Care and Education in the Home 194

Family, Friend, and Neighbor Care 194
Family Child Care 195
Nannies 195
Real Voice: Alexis Harper, Bellingham, Washington 196

Funding 197

Public Funding 197
Private Child Care 199

Full-Day Child Care 200

Center-Based Infant/Toddler Programs 200
Faith-Based Programs 201
Employer Involvement 201
Campus Child Care 202
Short-Term Child Care 202

Elementary Schools 204

Kindergarten 204
PK-3 Schools 205
Charter Schools and Vouchers 205
Homeschooling 205
Out-of-School Programs 206

Specialized Programs for Infants and Toddlers 207

Early Intervention 207
Infant Mental Health Services 208

Programs for Families 209

Parent-Child Programs 209
Home Visiting 209
Family Literacy Programs 210
Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies 211

Approaches: Explanation, Application, and Critiques 211

Some Early Approaches and Methods 212
More Recent Approaches 216
Making Approaches Your Own 217

Summary 218

Further Activities 221

PART THREE Knowing All Children "From the Inside Out": The Observation, Assessment and Teaching Cycle

8 Children, Development, and Culture 222

Understanding and Applying Child Development Principles 224

Basic Principles of Development 224
Influences on Development 226

Domains of Development 233

Physical Growth and Motor Development 235
Social-Emotional Development 238
Cognitive Development 239
Language and Literacy 242

Children with Special Needs 247

When Difference Requires Diagnosis 248
Universal Design 248
Real Voice: Sabrina Rotonda Irvin, San Jose, California 249

Summary 251

Further Activities 252

9 Observation: The Roots of Practice 253

Observing and Recording 254

Noticing and Describing Details 255
Watching, Listening, and Analyzing 256
Describing, Not Deciding 258
Teaching Reflectively 259

Reasons to Observe and Record 260

To Become a Skillful Learning Partner 261
To Frame Experiences and Interactions 262
To Communicate with Families and Colleagues 265
To Develop Professionally 268

The How of Observing and Recording 269

What to Observe and Record 269
Respecting Confidentiality 270
Being Aware of and Examining Biases 271
Real Voice: Elaine Chu, New York, New York 272
Observing Continuously over Time 273

The Practicalities of Observing and Recording 274

Selecting Methods 274
Analyzing Data 279
Synthesizing Findings 280
Making Observation and Recording Work 281

Summary 283

Further Activities 284

10 Early Childhood Assessment 285

The Roots of Assessment 286

Assessment and Evaluation 287
Formative and Summative Assessment 287

The Assessment Cycle 287

Building Relationships 288
Gathering Information 289
Interpreting Information and Deciding What to Do 290
Taking Action 291

The Purposes of Assessment 292

Evaluative Decisions 292
Curricular Decisions 293
Goals and Objectives 294

Assessment in a School Context 295

Keeping the Focus on Children 295
Observation Is the Foundation of Assessment 296

Assessment Tools 299

Assessing Children from Birth to Three 299
Evaluating Three- to Eight-Year-Old Children's Performance and Progress 300
Creating Portfolios of Children's Work 302

Externally Imposed Assessments 306

Historical Context 307
Early Learning Standards 307
Accountability and Power 309
Tests and Young Children 309

Communicating Assessment Results 312

Reports to Families 312
Reports to Colleagues 312
Real Voice: Joanne Frantz, Columbus, Ohio 315
Feedback to Children 316

Summary 317

Further Activities 319

PART FOUR Working with Children and Their Families: Applying What We Know

11 Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds 320

Life with Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds 321

A Dynamic Period 321
Development Is Bumpy 322
Influences on Development 323

Attachment and Separation All Day Long 326

Program Support for Attachment 326
Real Voice: Jonnia R. Jackson, Chicago, Illinois 328
Separation in the First Few Weeks-and Beyond 329
How the Environment Supports Attachment 332

The Day with Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds 333

Playing and Learning 333
Play, Friendship, and Interaction 338
Planned Experiences 341

Planning Space for Infants, Toddlers, and Two-Year-Olds 344

Keeping Children Safe 344
Features of Space 345

Summary 348

Further Activities 349

12 Preschoolers and Kindergartners 350

Life with Preschoolers and Kindergartners 351

Physical Development 351
Social-Emotional Development 352
Cognition 354

What Preschoolers and Kindergartners Learn and How 355

Social Studies as Core Curriculum 356
Language and Literacy 357
Real Voice: Rafael Peña, Las Vegas, Nevada 358
Activities and Materials 360
Technology 366

Classrooms for Preschoolers and Kindergartners 368

Planning Authentic Experiences 368
Scheduling and Predictability 373
The Space 376

Summary 380

Further Activities 383

13 First, Second, and Third Graders 384

Life with First, Second, and Third Graders 385

Physical and Cognitive Changes 386
Social-Emotional Changes 388

What Children Learn in the Early Grades 389

Social Studies 390
Real Voice: Sal Vascellero, New York, New York 391
Language and Literacy 393
Math and Science 398

Planning Curriculum 402

Ways to Plan 403
Planning the Schedule 405
Using Space 408
Print Rich, Not Print Noisy 411

Summary 412

Further Activities 413

PART FIVE Linking to Home and Community

14 Partnering with Twenty-First-Century Families 414

Some Background and Definitions 415

Historical Roots of Family Involvement 415
Defining the Terms: Family Involvement, Partnerships, and Parent Education 415
Parent Education and Family Support Programs 416

Benefits and Challenges of Teacher-Family Partnerships 419

Benefits for Children 419
Real Voice: Melisa McNery, Blytheville, Arkansas 420
Benefits and Challenges for Families 421
Benefits and Challenges for Teachers 421

Family Diversities 422

Ethnicity, "Race," and Socioeconomic Class 423
Linguistic Diversity and Culture 424
Fathers 425
Family Configurations 426

Knowing about Families 430

Will This Information Help My Work with Children? 430
Finding Optimal Distance 430
Recognizing and Building on Family Strengths 431

Establishing Relationships with Families 431

Building Trust 431
Approaches to Working with Families 432

Interactions with Families 434

Beginning the School Year 434
Back-to-School Nights 435
Parent-Teacher Conferences 436
Community Gatherings 437
Encouraging Families to Volunteer 437

Information Sharing between Teachers and Families 438

Teacher-Initiated Information Exchange 438
Parent-Initiated Information Exchange 439
Sharing Information with the Whole Group of Parents 440

Addressing Serious Issues 440

Collaborating with Other Professionals 440
Referrals to Community Agencies and Other Helping
Professionals 441

Summary 441

Further Activities 443

15 Policy Issues and Early Childhood Practice 444

Policy 445

History of Early Childhood Education Policy 446

Attitudes about the Role of the Family in the Early Years 447
Early Care versus Education/Targeted versus Universal 448
Social, Economic, and Health Status of Children 449

Why Policy Makers Are Interested in Early Childhood

Education 449
The Power of Brain Research 451
Changing Families 451
The Achievement Gap and School Readiness 452

Why Early Childhood Professionals Should Be Involved in Policy 455

Quality of Early Childhood Programs 456
Credentials of Early Childhood Professionals 458
Compensation of Early Childhood Professionals 459
Access to Professional Development 460
What Happens in the Early Childhood Classroom 461

Working for Change on the State Level 462

Early Learning Systems Initiatives 462
School Readiness Initiatives 464
State Prekindergarten Initiatives 466
Professional Development and Compensation Initiatives 466

Professional and National Organizations and Agencies 467Real Voice: Eva Hansen, Fayetteville, North Carolina 468

Summary 469

Further Activities 471

Appendix A NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct 472
Appendix B Convention on the Rights of the Child 479
References 488
Glossary 501
Credits 508
Index 511