Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change

Paperback | February 15, 2002

byRichard P. TurcoForeword byCarl Sagan

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"We urgently need a comprehensive and comprehensible book on the dangers to the environment. That need has now been supplied in the present book by Richard Turco." --the Foreword by Carl Sagan This acclaimed book examines one of the most important problems facing our modern technological age: environmental pollution. Written to inform general readers--including future policy makers, business administrators, and political leaders--the text offers a comprehensive description ofenvironmental systems, providing a basic understanding of how the world around us works and how human activities affect it. Building on a popular course he taught at UCLA, Richard Turco clearly explains underlying environmental principles and processes including the role of evolutionary forces inshaping the environment, Earth's energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Against this background, Turco surveys local and regional problems, including indoor air pollution, smog, and acid rain, identifying the sources and fates of pollutants and examining human exposure to natural and manmadetoxins. He then addresses global issues such as stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse climate warming and describes responses to these threats in the form of "global environmental engineering." Now in its second edition, Earth Under Siege has been revised and updated to reflect advances inknowledge and progress in regulation. It offers a comprehensive overview of environmental issues for students in the physical and life sciences, geography, economics, engineering, environmental management and law, policy studies, and social and health sciences. Features * Presents information in a way that is readily accessible to nonscientists but is sufficiently detailed to hold the interest of scientists and engineers * Explains the technical principles underlying a wide range of current environmental problems * Addresses critical local, regional, and global issues and their impact on life and society * Uses common experiences and novel illustrations to familiarize students with fundamental concepts * Challenges readers to think about and approach problems objectively and creatively * Includes a helpful primer on the basic mathematics employed in the text

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"We urgently need a comprehensive and comprehensible book on the dangers to the environment. That need has now been supplied in the present book by Richard Turco." --the Foreword by Carl Sagan This acclaimed book examines one of the most important problems facing our modern technological age: en...

Richard P. Turco is Professor of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Director of UCLA's Institute of the Environment.
Format:PaperbackDimensions:552 pages, 7.4 × 9.88 × 1.1 inPublished:February 15, 2002Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195142748

ISBN - 13:9780195142747

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Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with Questions and Problems.Foreword by Carl SaganPrefacePreface to the First Edition1. Introduction1.1. The Cronus Syndrome1.2. On the Quality of Life1.3. Global Change and Preservation1.4. Methodology for StudyPart I. Fundamentals2. Air: The Medium of Change2.1. What Is Air?2.1.1. Sensing Air2.1.2. The Basic Ingredients2.1.3. The Basic Properties2.2. A Short History of Discovery2.2.1. The Air Revealed2.2.2. The Mechanics of Air2.3. The Structure of the Atmosphere2.3.1. How Much Air Is There?2.3.2. Temperature Profiles2.3.3. The Stratification of the Atmosphere2.4. Air in Motion2.4.1. Local Winds and Weather2.4.2. Global Wind Systems3. Basic Physical and Chemical Principles3.1. The Mechanical Behavior of Gases and Particles3.1.1. Gas Laws and Hydrostatics3.1.2. Particles in Suspension3.1.3. Clouds and Precipitation3.2. Radiation and Energy3.2.1. Sunlight and Heat3.2.2. Scattering and Absorption3.2.3. Common Optical Effects3.3. Chemistry and the Environment3.3.1. Symbols and Terminology3.3.2. Properties of Common Substances3.3.3. The Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions3.3.4. Basic Chemical Reactions4. The Evolution of Earth4.1. The Origin of the Earth4.1.1. Early Evolutionary Phases4.1.2. Box Models for Earth Reservoirs4.1.3. The Prebiotic Atmosphere4.2. The Coevolution of the Environment and Life4.2.1. The Evolution of Life Processes4.2.2. Ancient Organisms and Greenhouse Gases4.2.3. Photosynthesis and the Ozone Layer4.3. The Mass Extinction of Life4.3.1. Fossil History4.3.2. The Dinosaurs: A Lesson in Longevity4.3.3. Goddess Gaia and Homeostasis4.4. The Coevolution of Intelligence and Pollution4.4.1. Population and TechnologyPart II. Local and Regional Pollution Issues5. Sources and Dispersion of Pollutants5.1. The Source of the Problem5.1.1. What to Call Pollutants?5.1.2. Distributed and Point Sources5.1.3. Size Scales of Dispersion5.2. The Dispersion of Pollutants5.2.1. Diffusion and Turbulence5.2.2. Convection and Lofting5.2.3. Advection and Long-Range Transport5.3. Temperature Inversions5.3.1. Temperatures in the Lower Atmosphere5.3.2. Atmospheric Stability5.3.3. Large-Scale Inversions5.4. Plumes of Pollution5.4.1. Smokestack Plumes5.4.2. Ground Plumes5.4.3. Urban Heat Islands5.5. Regional Dispersion of Pollutants5.5.1. In Coastal Zones5.5.2. Near Mountain Barriers6. Smog: The Urban Syndrome6.1. The History of Smog6.1.1. Air Pollution and Poets6.1.2. London Smog6.1.3. Los Angeles Smog6.2. Primary and Secondary Pollutants6.2.1. The Basic Ingredients6.2.2. Clean and Dirty Air6.3. Smog Scenarios: A Typical Polluted Day6.3.1. Carbon Monoxide6.3.2. Nitrogen Dioxide6.3.3. Ozone6.4. Dissecting Smog6.4.1. The Evolution of Smoggy Air6.4.2. Trends in Air Pollution6.5. Haze and Visibility6.5.1. Total Suspended Particulate6.5.2. Seeing through Air6.5.3. Acid Particles and Fog6.6. Controlling Smog: Everyone's Job6.6.1. Reducing Emissions of Primary Pollutants6.6.2. Alternative Fuels6.6.3. Lifestyles for Health and Survival7. Effects of Exposure to Pollution7.1. How Pollutants Affect Health7.1.1. The Discovery of Toxicity7.1.2. The Physiology of Toxicity7.2. The Toxic Effects of Air Pollutants7.2.1. Common Ingredients of Smog7.2.2. Eye Irritants7.2.3. Organic Vapors7.2.4. Problem Particles7.2.5. Persistent Environmental Toxins7.3. Radioactivity7.3.1. Stability of the Elements7.3.2. Sources of Radioactivity7.3.3. The Physiological Effects of Radioactivity7.4. Assessment of Health Risks7.4.1. Defining the Threat7.4.2. Risks and Benefits of Pollution7.4.3. Box Models for Risk Assessment7.4.4. Urban Smog: A Case Study7.5. Limiting Risk8. Indoor Air Pollution8.1. What Are "Indoor" Air Pollutants?8.1.1. The Special Character of Indoor Pollution8.1.2. Indoor Pollution and the News8.2. Radon: Mother and Daughters8.2.1. Poison from the Earth8.2.2. Radon Exposure and Its Effects8.3. Formaldehyde8.3.1. Embalmers' Fluid8.3.2. Formaldehyde's Impacts on Health8.4. Tobacco Smoke8.4.1. Composition of Tobacco Smoke8.4.2. Tobacco Smoke's Effects on Health8.4.3. Smoke and Mirrors8.5. Other Indoor Pollutants8.5.1. Biogenic Pollutants8.5.2. Indoor Water Pollution8.6. Indoor Versus Outdoor Pollution8.6.1. Is It Safe to Go Indoors?8.6.2. Making Indoors Safe9. Acid Rain9.1. The Tainted Rain9.2. Acidity and pH9.2.1. The pH Scale9.2.2. Acids in Water9.2.3. Alkalinity: The Acid Buffer9.3. Sources of Environmental Acids9.3.1. How Acid Is Acid Rain?9.3.2. Sulfur Oxides and Acid Rain9.3.3. Nitrogen Oxides and Acid Rain9.4. Acid Fog9.5. The Costs of Excess Acidity9.5.1. Dying Forests and Lakes9.5.2. A Potpourri of Destruction9.5.3. Health Implications9.6. Controlling Acid Rain and FogPart III. Global-Scale Pollution IssuesCarbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse EffectOzone Depletion and the Ozone HoleClimate Change Caused by Nuclear War: Nuclear WinterThe Relationship between Population and Pollution10. Global Biogeochemical Cycles10.1. The Grand Chemical Cycles of Earth10.1.1. Reservoirs in the Earth System10.1.2. Simple Reservoir Models10.2. Biogeochemical Cycles of the Primary Elements10.2.1. Sulfur10.2.2. Nitrogen10.2.3. Oxygen10.2.4. Carbon10.3. The Hydrological Cycle10.4. A Global Garbage Dump?11. The Climate Machine11.1. Weather and Climate11.2. Energy from the Sun11.2.1. Solar Illumination11.2.2. The Four Seasons11.3. The Temperature of Earth11.3.1. Sunlight In, Earthglow Out11.3.2. An Energy Balance Model11.3.3. The Temperatures of the Planets11.4. The Greenhouse Effect11.4.1. Atmospheric Band Absorption11.4.2. Radiation Emission from the Earth11.4.3. Clouds and Radiation11.4.4. The Greenhouse Energy Balance11.5. Energy Reservoirs: The Climate Flywheel11.5.1. Reservoirs for Heat11.5.2. Ice: The Cool Reservoir11.5.3. A Coupled Climate System11.6. Causes of Climate Change11.6.1. Climate Variability11.6.2. Solar Variability: External Forcing11.6.3. Ice Ages11.6.4. Volcanic Eruptions11.6.5. The Albedo Effect11.7. The Vulnerability of Life to a Changing Climate11.7.1. Modern Society and Climate11.7.2. Do We Need Climate Insurance?12. Greenhouse Warming12.1. Greenhouse Gases12.1.1. The Greenhouse Culprits: A Rogue's Gallery12.1.2. Water Vapor: Innocent Bystander or Good Samaritan?12.2. Carbon Dioxide12.2.1. Increasing CO2: What Is the Cause?12.2.2. The Problem with Energy Addiction12.3. Other Greenhouse Gases12.3.1. Methane12.3.2. Nitrous Oxide12.3.3. Chlorofluorocarbons12.3.4. Ozone12.4. the Warming Effect of Greenhouse Gases12.4.1. Climate History and the Greenhouse Effect12.4.2. Recent Temperature Trends12.4.3. Forecasts of Greenhouse Warming12.4.4. Uncertainty Is the Future12.4. Solutions?12.5.1. Recyclable Fuels12.5.2. Alternative Energy Sources12.5.3. Climate Correction: Endangering the Environment13. The Stratospheric Ozone Layer13.1. The Ozone Shield13.2. The Formation and Destruction of Ozone13.2.1. The Photochemistry of Ozone13.2.2. The Destruction of Catalytic Ozone13.3. The Distribution of Ozone in the Atmosphere13.3.1. Dobson Units: Ozone Overhead13.3.2. How Much Ozone Is There?13.4. Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation13.4.1. Regions of the Ultraviolet Spectrum13.4.2. Health Effects of UV-B Radiation13.4.3. Environmental Effects of UV-B Radiation13.5. Threats Against Ozone13.5.1. A Litany of Threats13.5.2. Chlorine13.5.3. Nitrogen Oxides and Ozone Change13.5.4. Bromine and the Halons13.6. Forecasts of Global Ozone Depletion13.6.1. Scenarios and Projections13.6.2. Signature of the Culprit13.7. The Ozone Hole13.7.1. Discovery13.7.2. The Polar Vortex13.7.3. Polar Stratospheric Clouds13.7.4. Ozone Depletion: The Hole Story13.7.5. A Global Ozone Disaster?13.8. Solutions and Actions13.8.1. The Montreal Protocol13.8.2. Saving the Earth's Ozone Layer14. Global Environmental Engineering14.1. What Is Global Environmental Engineering?14.1.1. Living Thermostats: Natural Compensation14.1.2. Planetary Engineering14.2. Technological Traps14.2.1. Nuclear Winter14.2.2. Carbon Dioxide14.2.3. Chlorofluorocarbons14.3. Technological Cures14.3.1. Preventing Armageddon14.3.2. Cooling Down the Greenhouse14.3.3. Fixing the Ozone Shield14.4. A Rational Approach to Environmental ManagementAppendix A. Scientific Notation, Units, and ConstantsA.1. Scientific NotationApplications of Scientific NotationLarge and Small NumbersUsing Mixing RatiosA.2. The Metric System: Units and ConversionsCommon Units of MeasureManipulation of Dimensions and UnitsA.3. Physical and Mathematical ConstantsPhysical Constants (and Their Common Symbols)Mathematical ConstantsA.4. Mathematical OperationsSquares and Square RootsHigher PowersExponentials and LogarithmsAlgebraic EquationsInequalitiesAppendix B. Demonstrations of Common Natural PhenomenaDemonstration 1: Light Scattering by Small ParticlesBackgroundExperimental ProcedureDemonstration 2: Gas-to-Particle Conversion in SmogBackgroundExperimental ProcedureDemonstration 3: Atmospheric Pressure and Water Vapor CondensationBackgroundExperimental ProcedureDemonstration 4: Acid Rain FormationBackgroundExperimental ProcedureAppendix C. Radiation NomenclatureIndex: