This book presents a comprehensive coverage of the role of ecological constraints in limiting the availability of natural resources for economic development. It discusses in detail the notion of sustainable development, the concept of ecological footprints, and population theory. It alsoanalyses how the development of technology, policies, and institutions can relax these constraints in the context of major resources. The analytical discussion is carried out both at the conceptual and theoretical level and also at the applied level in the context of Indian development. Addressing challenges arising from ecological limits, the book engages with the dynamics of and policies for conservation of an entire range of major resources-land and soil, water, forests, biodiversity, energy, non-energy, material, and waste absorption. It identifies the role of knowledge,values, human capital, and institutions in overcoming nature's constraints. This book has a good potential to be used as a supplementary reader in universities offering courses on environment and economics.