Ecology of Highlands by M.S. ManiEcology of Highlands by M.S. Mani

Ecology of Highlands

byM.S. Mani, L.E. Giddings

Paperback | January 11, 2012

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High altitude research is comparatively a recent development. With the notable exceptions of entomology, botany and perhaps some aspects of human acclimatization, our knowledge of high altitude environment is extremely scanty. There is at present no comprehensive handbook on the general ecology of highlands. This book aims at providing such a text for the use of the general scientist, engineer, biologist and university students. It summarizes and critically reviews current developments and focusses atten­ tion on urgent problems of highland ecology needing future studies. This book has grown out of our explorations and experiences in the highlands of Asia and South America. The results of explorations of the high altitude plants and insects on the Himalaya, Alai-Pamirs, Central Tien Shan and Caucasus by one of us (MSM), discussed in earlier publications, are reviewed here in the light of recent advances. Many years' experience of teaching and research in the University of Sucre (3400 m) and studies at Potosi (4000 m), La Paz and Chacaltaya (5000 m) in Bolivia by the second author (LEG) cover problems in physical chemistry, meteorology, engineer­ ing and other physical aspects of highland environments.
Title:Ecology of HighlandsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:250 pages, 23.5 × 15.5 × 0.02 inPublished:January 11, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9400991762

ISBN - 13:9789400991767

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Table of Contents

I. Introduction..- What is highland?.- The high altitude environment.- Principal highlands.- References.- II. The physical environment of the highlands..- Atmospheric pressure.- Air temperature.- Standard atmospheres.- Composition of the atmosphere.- Precipitable water.- Regimes of temperature and pressure.- Other properties.- Upper air.- References.- III. The radiation environment..- Solar energy outside the atmosphere.- Effect of the atmosphere.- Sunlight that reaches highlands directly.- Atmospheric attenuation of sunlight on a clear day.- The effect of haze.- Total direct radiation.- Indirect radiation.- Total radiation.- Limitations of calculations.- Conclusion.- References.- IV. Correcting boiling points..- Clausius-Clapeyron equation.- Germann charts.- Othmers modification.- Myers' charts.- Duhrings rule.- Other methods.- Automatic methods.- References.- V. Compensating for chemical effects of the lower atmospheric pressure..- Simple model.- Practical correction of boiling time.- Arrhenius activation energy.- Heat of vaporization.- Discussion of the correction factor.- Amenable reactions.- Solutions under reflux.- Open boiling solutions.- The egg and other special cases.- Other ways to compensate for altitude.- References.- VI. Barometry..- The problem.- Standards of the WMO.- Mercury barometers.- Aneroid barometers.- Constructing a mercury barometer.- The contrabarometer.- Electronic devices.- The Hypsometer.- A 'chemical' method.- References.- VII. Psychrometry..- Alternatives to the Psychrometer.- References.- VIII. For the engineer..- Azeotropes.- Combustion.- More complex flames.- Engines.- Gravity.- References.- IX. The highlands in the space age..- Remote sensing of the environment.- Instruments for remote sensing.- Platforms for remote sensing.- Multispectral photography and radiometry.- Integrating several spectral bands.- Landsat false colour infrared image.- Photographs from space.- The landsat satellites.- Polar orbiting meteorological satellites.- Geosynchronous meteorological satellites.- Automatic picture transmission (APT).- Obtaining imagery from the EROS Data Center.- Independent ways of identifying Gemini, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz, Skylab and Landsat Imagery.- Some comments.- References.- X. The vegetation of highlands..- Characters of highland plants.- Some typical highland plants.- i. Dicotyledons.- ii. Monocotyledons.- African mountains.- The Andes.- References.- XL The animal life of highlands..- Peculiarities of hypsobiont animals.- i. Temperature oriented animals.- ii. Pressure oriented animals.- iii. Some minor peculiarities.- Some typical hypsobiont animals.- i. Minor invertebrates.- ii. Arthropoda.- A. Crustacea.- B. Arachnida.- C. The myriapod complex.- D. Insects.- iii. Vertebrates.- Lowland animals at high altitude.- i. Aeolian derelicts.- ii. Summit-seeking species.- iii. Ecological significance.- References.- XII. Man in highland ecosystem: physiology of native highlanders..- The natives of highlands.- General physique.- Respiratory and cardiovascular systems.- Other peculiarities.- Conclusions.- References.- XIII. Man in highland ecosystem: effects of exposure to high altitude..- Hypoxia.- i. Hypoxia in lower animals.- ii. Hypoxia in man.- Respiratory changes.- Cardiovascular changes.- Changes in the blood.- Neurohormonal changes.- Metabolism, growth and reproduction.- Action of ionizing radiations.- Psychic effects.- References.- XIV. Man in highland ecosystem: human acclimatization to highland conditions..- Basic features.- Factors influencing acclimatization.- i. Individual factors.- ii. Previous experience of high altitude.- iii. The rate of ascent of high altitude.- iv. Altitude limits.- v. Duration of stay at high altitude.- vi. Activity at high altitude during acclimatization.- vii. Mountain constant.- Epilogue.- References.- XV. For the future..- The physical environment.- The electromagnetic radiation environment.- Corpuscular radiation.- Chemical effects.- For the engineer.- Biology.- Man in highlands.- References.