Guidelines for conducting health economic evaluations have become increasingly standardized, however they don't address the unique concerns of the paediatric population. The challenges of measuring costs and consequences in children, from neonate to late adolescence, are numerous and complex.With the growing acceptance of economic evidence to guide decisions in health systems facing economic constraints, it is imperative that these challenges be considered so that this population is not left out of evidence-based decisions. The time has come for a textbook to address economic evaluationin child health.This book is divided into three sections: Methods, Applications, and Using evidence for decision-making, with chapters contributed by international experts. The Methods section presents detailed discussions of measuring lifetime costs and consequences, capturing productivity losses, obtainingunbiased self- and proxy reports, incorporating externalities, choosing valid outcome measures, assessing utility, and designing studies using value of information. The Applications section reviews economic evidence in common childhood conditions and areas of investigation, including newbornscreening, harm prevention, mental health services, brain injury, asthma, and immunization. The final section explores the use of economic evidence in decision-making, and includes a description of the WHO-CHOICE approach, the role of clinical research, how to value health gains by children, and theemerging field of health technology assessment. In addition to an emphasis on methods, a deliberate effort was made to include issues relevant to developing countries, where the burden of childhood disease is greatest, and for whom high quality economic evidence is critical.