Electronic Distance Measurement: An Introduction by Jean M. RüegerElectronic Distance Measurement: An Introduction by Jean M. Rüeger

Electronic Distance Measurement: An Introduction

byJean M. Rüeger

Paperback | September 17, 1996

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As the basic principles of EDM instruments have changed little since the third edition of 1990, there was no need for significant changes. This edition differs from its predecessor in that it contains corrections of a number of errors and misprints, totally revised tables in Appendices D, E and F and a new note in Section 2. 4. 3 on the introduction of the new temperature scale in 1990. The author is indebted to the many readers who reported the many small errors and misprints. T. Black, H. Buchanan, R. Da-Col, R. Kochle, P. H. Lam, 1. Nolton, 1. R. Pollard and A. Quade were particularly helpful. All known errors have been corrected. The assistance pro­ vided by most manufacturers (or their agents) with the updating of the tables with the instrument data was greatly appreciated. Sydney, February 1996 1. M. RUEGER v Preface The book has evolved from the author's continuing teaching of the subject and from two editions of a text of the same title. The first edition was published in 1978 by the School of Surveying, Universi­ ty of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Like its predecessors, this totally revised third edition is designed to make the subject matter more readily available to students proceeding to degrees in Survey­ ing and related fields.
Title:Electronic Distance Measurement: An IntroductionFormat:PaperbackDimensions:295 pagesPublished:September 17, 1996Publisher:Springer Berlin HeidelbergLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3540611592

ISBN - 13:9783540611592

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Table of Contents

1 History.- 2 Physical Laws and Units Related to EDM.- 2.1 Definitions.- 2.2 Frequency Spectrum.- 2.3 Velocity of Light in a Vacuum.- 2.4 Units and Their Definitions.- 2.4.1 Second of Time.- 2.4.2 Metre.- 2.4.3 Kelvin.- 2.4.4 Other Units in EDM.- 3 Principles and Applications of EDM.- 3.1 Pulse Method.- 3.1.1 Principle of the Pulse Method.- 3.1.2 Applications of the Pulse Method.- 3.2 Phase Difference Method.- 3.2.1 Phase Difference Between Transmitted and Received Signal.- 3.2.2 Phase Difference Between Two Received Signals.- 3.3 Doppler Methods.- 3.4 Interferometry.- 3.4.1 Principle of a Michelson Interferometer.- 3.4.2 Principle of Operation of the HP 5526 A Laser Measurement System.- 3.4.3 Väisälä Interference Comparator.- 4 Basic Working Principles of Electronic Distance Meters.- 4.1 Electro-Optical Instruments.- 4.1.1 Principle and Components.- 4.1.2 Methods of Modulation and Demodulation of Light and NIR Waves.- 4.1.3 Methods of Phase Measurement.- 4.2 Microwave Instruments.- 4.2.1 Introduction.- 4.2.2 Working Principle and Components.- 4.2.3 Effects of Reflections in Microwave EDM (Multipath).- 5 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere.- 5.1 Atmospheric Transmittance.- 5.2 Range of EDM Instruments.- 5.3 Phase Refractive Index.- 5.4 Group Refractive Index of Light and NIR Waves for Standard Conditions.- 5.4.1 First Example.- 5.4.2 Second Example.- 5.4.3 Third Example.- 5.4.4 Error Analysis.- 5.5 Group Refractive Index of Light and NIR Waves at Ambient Conditions.- 5.5.1 Error Analysis.- 5.5.2 Omission of Humidity.- 5.6 Refractive Index of Microwaves.- 5.6.1 Error Propagation.- 5.7 Coefficient of Refraction.- 5.8 Measurement of Atmospheric Parameters.- 5.8.1 Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure.- 5.8.2 Measurement of Atmospheric Temperature.- 5.8.3 Measurement of Atmospheric Humidity.- 5.8.4 Computation of Partial Water Vapour Pressure from Psychrometer Measurements.- 5.8.5 Computation of Partial Water Vapour Pressure from Relative Humidity.- 5.9 Determination of the Refractive Index.- 5.9.1 Normal Procedures.- 5.9.2 Limitations of Normal Procedures.- 5.9.3 Special Procedures.- 6 Velocity Corrections to Measured Distances.- 6.1 Reference Refractive Index.- 6.2 First Velocity Correction.- 6.2.1 Derivation of First Velocity Correction for the Infrared Distance Meter Kern DM501.- 6.2.2 Derivation of First Velocity Correction for the Infrared Distance Meter Pentax PM-81.- 6.2.3 Derivation of First Velocity Correction for the Pulse Distance Meter Distomat Wild DI3000.- 6.2.4 Derivation of First Velocity Correction for the Microwave Distance Meter Siemens-Albis SIAL MD60.- 6.2.5 Derivation of First Velocity Correction for the Microwave Distance Meter Tellurometer CA1000.- 6.3 Real-Time Application of First Velocity Correction by EDM Instrument.- 6.4 Second Velocity Correction.- 6.5 Refined Method of Reduction of Measured Distance to Wave Path Chord.- 7 Geometrical Corrections.- 7.1 Reduction to the Spheroid Using Station Heights.- 7.1.1 First Method: Step-by-Step Solution.- 7.1.2 Second Method: Closed Solution.- 7.1.3 Analysis of Errors.- 7.2 Reduction to the Spheroid, Using Measured Zenith Angles.- 7.2.1 Introduction.- 7.2.2 Reduction to the Spheroid: Closed Solution.- 7.2.3 Reduction to the Spheroid: Step-by-Step Solution.- 7.2.4 Analysis of Errors.- 8 Miscellaneous Corrections, Computations and Numerical Examples.- 8.1 Correction of Measured Distance to Zenith Angle Ray Path.- 8.1.1 Correction for Unequal Heights of Theodolite, EDM Instrument, Target and Reflector.- 8.1.2 Correction for Theodolite-Mounted EDM Instruments.- 8.1.3 Correction for Telescope-Mounted EDM Instruments.- 8.2 Eye-to-Object Corrections for Zenith Angles and Distances.- 8.2.1 Eye-to-Object Correction for Zenith Angles.- 8.2.2 Eye-to-Object Correction for Distances.- 8.2.3 Numerical Example.- 8.3 Height Difference from Measured Zenith Angle(s) and Slope Distance.- 8.3.1 Single Zenith Angle Measurement.- 8.3.2 Reciprocal Zenith Angle Measurements.- 8.4 Determination of the Coefficient of Refraction from Reciprocal Zenith Angle Measurements.- 8.4.1 Derivation of the Equation for the Coefficient of Refraction.- 8.4.2 Error Analysis.- 8.5 Reduction to Centre of Distances.- 8.5.1 Angles and Distances Measured at Satellite Station.- 8.5.2 Angles Measured at Centre Station, Distances at Satellite Station.- 8.6 Numerical Examples.- 8.6.1 Reduction of a Long Distance.- 8.6.2 Reduction of a Short Distance.- 9 Electro-Optical Distance Meters.- 9.1 Classification of Electro-Optical Distance Meters.- 9.1.1 Classification According to Range.- 9.1.2 Classification According to Accuracy.- 9.1.3 Classification According to the Degree of Integration with Theodolites.- 9.1.4 Special Features of Modern Short Range Distance Meters.- 9.2 Design of Some Electro-Optical Distance Meters.- 9.2.1 Kern DM500.- 9.2.2 Topcon ET-1.- 9.2.3 Distomat Wild DI3000.- 9.2.4 Kern Mekometer ME5000.- 10 Reflectors.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Glass Prism Reflectors.- 10.2.1 Accuracy of Reflectors.- 10.2.2 Shape and Size of Reflectors.- 10.2.3 Phase and Group Refractive Index in Glass.- 10.2.4 Reflector Constant.- 10.2.5 Effects of Errors of Reflector Alignment.- 10.2.6 Temperature Effects.- 10.2.7 Care of Reflectors.- 11 Batteries and Other Power Sources.- 11.1 Review of Power Sources.- 11.2 Batteries Used in EDM.- 11.2.1 Primary Batteries.- 11.2.2 Secondary Batteries.- 11.3 Sealed Nickel-Cadmium Batteries.- 11.3.1 Construction and Principle.- 11.3.2 Discharge Characteristics.- 11.3.3 Charge Characteristics.- 11.3.4 Capacity and Life of Battery.- 12 Errors of Electro-Optical Distance Meters.- 12.1 Additive Constant.- 12.2 Short Periodic Errors.- 12.2.1 Electrical or Optical Crosstalk Errors.- 12.2.2 Analogue Phase Measurement Errors.- 12.2.3 Multipath Errors.- 12.2.4 Experimental Results.- 12.2.5 Reduction of Short Periodic Errors.- 12.3 Scale Errors.- 12.3.1 Oscillator Errors.- 12.3.2 Diode Errors.- 12.4 Non-Linear Distance-Dependent Errors.- 12.5 Summary and Mathematical Model of Errors.- 13 Calibration of Electro-Optical Distance Meters.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.1.1 Reasons for Calibration.- 13.1.2 Concept of Calibration.- 13.2 Calibration on EDM Baselines.- 13.2.1 Geometric Design of EDM Baselines.- 13.2.2 Physical Design.- 13.2.3 Measurements on EDM Baselines.- 13.2.4 Analysis of Baseline Measurements.- 13.2.5 Determination of Baseline Lengths.- 13.3 Calibration on Cyclic Error Testlines.- 13.3.1 Design of and Measurements on Cyclic Error Testlines.- 13.3.2 Semi-Graphic Determination of Short Periodic Errors.- 13.3.3 Analytical Determination of Short Periodic Errors.- 13.4 Calibration of Modulation Frequency.- 13.4.1 Frequency Measuring Techniques.- 13.4.2 Calibration of Ageing and Warm-Up Effects.- 13.4.3 Frequency Versus Temperature Characteristic.- 13.5 Accuracy Specifications of EDM Instruments.- Appendices.- A. First Velocity Correction for Precise Electro-Optical Distance Measurement.- B. Tables of Saturation Water Vapour Pressures.- C. Parameters of the ICAO Standard Atmosphere.- D. Data of a Selection of Electro-Optical Distance Meters as Required for the Derivation of the First Velocity Correction and for Calibration Purposes.- E. Technical Data of a Selection of Short Range Distance Meters.- F. Technical Data of a Selection of Pulse Distance Meters.- G. Technical Data of a Selection of Long Range Distance Meters.- H. Critical Dimensions of a Selection of Reflectors.- References.