Elementary Household Chemistry; An Introductory Textbook For Students Of Home Economics

Paperback | May 6, 2012

byJohn Ferguson Snell

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1914 Excerpt: ...rapidly separates into two clear layers, the lower one being water, the upper one oil. There are, however, certain substances which when dissolved in water render it capable of holding the minute droplets of oil in more permanent suspension. Such a permanent or persistent suspension of oil in water is termed an emulsion. Soap is one of the best emulsifying agents. Washing soda and caustic soda have a similar effect--due to the formation of a certain amount of soap by their action upon the fatty acids always present in small quantities in natural oils. The detergent effect of soap is due to its emulsifying properties. Those constituents of the dirt on soiled or spotted clothing which are not soluble in water are, as a rule, of a fatty nature. The addition of soap or soda to the water renders it capable of emulsifying the fats into fine droplets, which are then carried out of the fabric. The removal of the fat loosens any other dirt (earthy matter, etc.) which was held in position by the fat. A number of plant and animal substances are known which have decided emulsifying power, and some of these have found use in household practice. Examples are ox gall (i.e. bile), soapbark, and soapwort. The Cleaning of Fabrics Stains on clothing commonly consist of a solid or sirupy substance holding miscellaneous particles of dirt. Numerous devices are used practically for the removal of such stains, but all of these are directed towards the removal of the dirt-retaining agent. If this is of the nature of a sugar, starch, or gum, hot water will remove the stain. Stains based on fats are, however, more troublesome. A fat may be removed: (1) By melting and absorption, (2) by solution, and (3) by emulsification. Blotting paper, Fuller's earth, French chalk, and pipe clay ar...

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1914 Excerpt: ...rapidly separates into two clear layers, the lower one being water, the upper one oil. There are, however, certain substances wh...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:90 pages, 9.69 × 7.44 × 0.19 inPublished:May 6, 2012Publisher:General Books LLCLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0217205666

ISBN - 13:9780217205665

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