Elements of Power Electronics by Philip T. Krein

Elements of Power Electronics

byPhilip T. Krein

Hardcover | January 7, 2015

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Building on the tradition of its classic first edition, the long-awaited second edition of Elements of Power Electronics provides comprehensive coverage of the subject at a level suitable for undergraduate engineering students, students in advanced degree programs, and novices in the field. Itestablishes a fundamental engineering basis for power electronics analysis, design, and implementation, offering broad and in-depth coverage of basic material. Streamlined throughout to reflect new innovations in technology, the second edition also features updates on renewable and alternativeenergy.

About The Author

Philip T. Krein holds the Grainger Endowed Chair in Electric Machinery and Electromechanics as Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a past president of the IEEE Power Electronics Society, and holds twenty-eight U.S. patents, with additional patents ...

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Title:Elements of Power ElectronicsFormat:HardcoverDimensions:816 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.98 inPublished:January 7, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199388415

ISBN - 13:9780199388417

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Table of Contents

PART I: PRINCIPLES1. POWER ELECTRONICS AND THE ENERGY REVOLUTION1.1 The energy basis of electrical engineering1.2 What is power electronics?1.3 The need for electrical conversion1.4 History1.4.1 Rectifiers and the diode1.4.2 Inverters and power transistors1.4.3 Motor drive applications1.4.4 Power supplies and dc-dc conversion1.4.5 Alternative energy processing1.4.6 The energy future: Power electronics as a revolution1.4.7 Summary and future developments1.5 Goals and methods of electrical conversion1.5.1 The basic objectives1.5.2 The efficiency objective -- the switch1.5.3 The reliability objective -- simplicity and integration1.5.4 Important variables and notation1.6 Energy analysis of switching power converters1.6.1 Conservation of energy over time1.6.2 Energy flows and action in dc-dc converters1.6.3 Energy flows and action in rectifiers1.7 Power electronics applications: a universal energy enabler1.7.1 Solar energy architectures1.7.2 Wind energy architectures1.7.3 Tide and wave architectures1.7.4 Electric transportation architectures1.8 Recap1.9 Problems1.10 References2. SWITCHING CONVERSION AND ANALYSIS2.1 Introduction2.2 Combining conventional circuits and switches2.2.1 Organizing a converter to focus on switches2.2.2 Configuration-based analysis2.2.3 The switch matrix as a design tool2.3 The reality of Kirchhoff's Laws2.3.1 The challenge of switching violations2.3.2 Interconnection of voltage and current sources2.3.3 Short-term and long-term violations2.3.4 Interpretation of average inductor voltage and capacitor current2.3.5 Source conversion2.4 Switching functions and applications2.5 Overview of switching devices2.5.1 Real switches2.5.2 The restricted switch2.5.3 Typical devices and their functions2.6 Methods for diode switch circuits2.7 Control of converters based on switch action2.8 Equivalent source methods2.9 Simulation2.10 Summary and recap2.11 Problems2.12 ReferencesPART II: CONVERTERS AND APPLICATIONS3. DC-DC CONVERTERS3.1 The importance of dc-dc conversion3.2 Why not voltage dividers?3.3 Linear regulators3.3.1 Regulator circuits3.3.2 Regulation measures3.4 Direct dc-dc converters and filters3.4.1 The buck converter3.4.2 The boost converter3.4.3 Power filter design3.4.4 Discontinuous modes and critical inductance3.5 Indirect dc-dc converters3.5.1 The buck-boost converter3.5.2 The boost-buck converter3.5.3 The flyback converter3.5.4 SEPIC, zeta, and other indirect converters3.5.5 Power filters in indirect converters3.5.6 Discontinuous modes in indirect converters3.6 Forward converters and isolation3.6.1 Basic transformer operation3.6.2 General considerations in forward converters3.6.3 Catch-winding forward converter3.6.4 Forward converters with ac links3.6.5 Boost-derived (current-fed) forward converters3.7 Bidirectional converters3.8 Dc-dc converter design issues and examples3.8.1 The high-side switch challenge3.8.2 Limitations of resistive and forward drops3.8.3 Regulation3.8.4 A solar interface converter3.8.5 Electric truck interface converter3.8.6 Telecommunications power supply3.9 Application discussion3.10 Recap3.11 Problems3.12 References4. RECTIFIERS AND SWITCHED CAPACITOR CIRCUITS4.1 Introduction4.2 Rectifier overview4.3 The classical rectifier -- operation and analysis4.4 Phase controlled rectifiers4.4.1 The uncontrolled case.4.4.2 Controlled bridge and midpoint rectifiers4.4.3 The polyphase bridge rectifier4.4.4 Power filtering in rectifiers4.4.5 Discontinuous mode operation4.5 Active rectifiers4.5.1 Boost rectifier4.5.2 Discontinuous mode flyback and related converters as active rectifiers4.5.3 Polyphase active rectifiers4.6 Switched-capacitor converters4.6.1 Charge exchange between capacitors4.6.2 Capacitors and switch matrices4.6.3 Doublers and voltage multipliers4.7 Voltage and current doublers4.8 Converter design examples4.8.1 Wind-power rectifier4.8.2 Power system control and HVDC4.8.3 Solid-state lighting4.8.4 Vehicle active battery charger4.9 Application discussion4.10 Recap4.11 Problems4.12 References5. INVERTERS5.1 Introduction5.2 Inverter considerations5.3 Voltage-sourced inverters and control5.4 Pulse-width modulation5.4.1 Introduction5.4.2 Creating PWM waveforms5.4.3 Drawbacks of PWM5.4.4 Multi-level PWM5.4.5 Inverter input current under PWM5.5 Three-phase inverters and space vector modulation5.6 Current-sourced inverters5.7 Filters and inverters5.8 Inverter design examples5.8.1 Solar power interface5.8.2 Uninterruptible power supply5.8.3 Electric vehicle high-performance drive5.9 Application discussion5.10 Recap5.11 Problems5.12 ReferencesPART III: REAL COMPONENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS6. REAL SOURCES AND LOADS6.1 Introduction6.2 Real loads6.2.1 Quasi-steady loads6.2.2 Transient loads6.2.3 Coping with load variation -- dynamic regulation6.3 Wire inductance6.4 Critical values and examples6.5 Interfaces for real sources6.5.1 Impedance behavior of sources6.5.2 Interfaces for dc sources6.5.3 Interfaces for ac sources6.6 Source characteristics of batteries6.6.1 Lead-acid cells6.6.2 Nickel batteries6.6.3 Lithium-ion batteries6.6.4 Basis for comparison6.7 Source characteristics of fuel cells and solar cells6.7.1 Fuel cells6.7.2 Solar cells6.8 Design examples6.8.1 Wind farm interconnection problems6.8.2 Bypass capacitor benefits6.8.3 Interface for a boost PFC active rectifier6.8.4 Lithium-ion battery charger for a small portable device6.9 Application discussion6.10 Recap6.11 Problems6.12 References7. CAPACITORS AND RESISTORS7.1 Introduction7.2 Capacitors -- types and equivalent circuits7.2.1 Major types7.2.2 Equivalent circuit7.2.3 Impedance behavior7.2.4 Simple dielectric types and materials7.2.5 Electrolytics7.2.6 Double-layer capacitors7.3 Effects of ESR7.4 Effects of ESL7.5 Wire resistance7.5.1 Wire sizing7.5.2 Traces and busbar7.5.3 Temperature and frequency effects7.6 Resistors7.7 Design examples7.7.1 Single-phase inverter energy7.7.2 Paralleling capacitors in a low-voltage dc-dc converter7.7.3 Resistance management in a heat lamp application7.8 Application discussion7.9 Recap7.10 Problems7.11 References8. CONCEPTS OF MAGNETICS FOR POWER ELECTRONICS8.1 Introduction8.2 Maxwell's equations with magnetic approximations8.3 Materials and properties8.4 Magnetic circuits8.4.1 The circuit analogy8.4.2 Inductance8.4.3 Ideal and real transformers8.5 The hysteresis loop and losses8.6 Saturation as a design constraint8.6.1 Saturation limits8.6.2 General design considerations8.7 Design examples8.7.1 Core materials and geometries8.7.2 Additional discussion of transformers8.7.3 Hybrid car boost inductor8.7.4 Building-integrated solar energy converter8.7.5 Isolated converter for small satellite application8.8 Application discussion8.9 Recap8.10 Problems8.11 References9. POWER SEMICONDUCTORS IN CONVERTERS9.1 Introduction9.2 Switching device states9.3 Static models9.4 Switch energy losses and examples9.4.1 General analysis of losses9.4.2 Losses during commutation9.4.3 Examples9.5 Simple heat transfer models for power semiconductors9.6 The PN junction as a power device9.7 PN junction diodes and alternatives9.8 The thyristor family9.9 Field-effect transistors9.10 Insulated-gate bipolar transistors9.11 Integrated gate-commutated thyristors and combination devices9.12 Impact of compound and wide bandgap semiconductors9.13 Snubbers9.13.1 Introduction9.13.2 Lossy turn-off snubbers9.13.3 Lossy turn-on snubbers9.13.4 Combined and lossless snubbers9.14 Design examples9.14.1 Boost converter for disk drive9.14.2 Loss estimation for electric vehicle inverter9.14.3 Extreme performance devices9.15 Application discussion9.16 Recap9.17 Problems9.18 References10. INTERFACING WITH POWER SEMICONDUCTORS10.1 Introduction10.2 Gate drives10.2.1 Overview10.2.2 Voltage-controlled gates10.2.3 Pulsed-current gates10.2.4 Gate turn-off thyristors10.3 Isolation and high-side switching10.4 P-channel applications and shoot-through10.5 Sensors for power electronic switches10.5.1 Resistive sensing10.5.2 Integrating sensing functions with the gate drive10.5.3 Noncontact sensing10.6 Design examples10.6.1 Gate consideration on dc-dc-based battery charger10.6.2 Gate drive impedance requirements10.6.3 Hall sensor accuracy interpretation10.7 Application discussion10.8 Recap10.9 Problems10.10 ReferencesPART IV: CONTROL ASPECTS11. OVERVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CONVERTERS11.1 Introduction11.2 The regulation and control problem11.2.1 Introduction11.2.2 Defining the regulation problem11.2.3 The control problem11.3 Review of feedback control principles11.3.1 Open-loop and closed-loop control11.3.2 Block diagrams11.3.3 System gain and Laplace transforms11.3.4 Transient response and frequency domain11.3.5 Stability11.4 Converter models for feedback11.4.1 Basic converter dynamics11.4.2 Fast switching models11.4.3 Piecewise-linear models11.4.4 Discrete-time models11.5 Voltage-mode and current-mode controls for dc-dc converters11.5.1 Voltage-mode control11.5.2 Current-mode control11.5.3 Sensorless current mode and flux controls11.5.4 Large-signal issues in voltage-mode and current-mode control11.6 Comparator-based controls for rectifier systems11.7 Proportional and proportional-integral control applications11.8 Design examples11.8.1 Voltage mode control and performance11.8.2 Feedforward compensation11.8.3 Electric vehicle control setup11.9 Application discussion11.10 Recap11.11 Problems11.12 References12. CONTROL MODELING AND DESIGN12.1 Introduction12.2Averaging methods and models12.2.1 Formulation of averaged models12.2.2 Averaged circuit models12.3Small-signal analysis and linearization12.3.1 The need for linear models12.3.2 Obtaining linear models12.3.3 Generalizing the process12.4Control and control design based on linearization12.4.1 Transfer functions12.4.2 Control design - Introduction12.4.3 Compensation and filtering12.4.4 Compensated feedback examples12.4.5 Challenges for control design12.5 Design examples12.5.1 Boost converter control example12.5.2 Buck converter design example with current-mode control12.5.3 Buck converter with voltage mode control12.6 Application discussion12.7 Recap12.8 Problems12.9 ReferencesPART V: ADVANCED TOPICS13. AC-AC CONVERSION13.1 Introduction13.2 Ac regulators and integral cycle control13.2.1 SCR and triac-based ac regulators13.2.2 Integral cycle control13.3 Frequency matching conditions13.4 Matrix converters13.4.1 Slow-switching frequency converters: The choice fin - fout13.4.2 Unrestricted frequency converters: The choice fswitch = fin + fout13.4.3 Unifying the direct switching methods: linear phase modulation13.5 The cycloconverter13.6 PWM ac-ac conversion13.7 Dc link converters13.8 Ac link converters13.9 Design examples13.9.1 Heater control with triac ac regulator13.9.2 Matrix converter13.9.3 Link converter13.10 Application discussion13.11 Recap13.12 Problems13.13 References14. RESONANCE IN CONVERTERS14.1 Introduction14.2 Review of resonance14.2.1 Characteristic equations14.2.2 Step function excitation14.2.3 Series resonance14.2.4 Parallel resonance14.3 Soft switching techniques -- introduction14.3.1 Soft-switching principles14.3.2 Inverter configurations14.3.3 Parallel capacitor as a dc-dc soft switching element14.4 Soft switching in dc-dc converters14.4.1 Description of quasi-resonance14.4.2 ZCS transistor action14.4.3 ZVS transistor action14.5 Resonance used for control -- forward converters14.6 Design examples14.6.1 Limitations of antiresonant filters14.6.2 Creating an ac link for a dc-dc converter14.6.3 Resonant boost converter for solar application14.7 Application discussion14.8 Recap14.9 Problems14.10 References15. HYSTERESIS AND GEOMETRIC CONTROL FOR POWER CONVERTERS15.1 Introduction15.2 Hysteresis control15.2.1 Definition and basic behavior15.2.2 Hysteresis control in dc-dc converters15.2.3 Hysteresis power factor correction control15.2.4 Inverters15.2.5 Design approaches15.3 Switching boundary control15.3.1 Behavior near a switching boundary15.3.2 Possible behavior15.3.3 Choosing a switching boundary15.4 Frequency control in geometric methods15.5 Design examples15.5.1 Designing hysteresis controllers15.5.2 Switching boundary control combination for battery charging management15.5.3 Boost converter with switching boundary control15.6 Application discussion15.7 Recap15.8 Problems15.9 ReferencesAPPENDIXA. Trigonometric identitiesB. Unit systemsC. Fourier seriesD. Three-phase circuitsE. Polyphase graph paperINDEX

Editorial Reviews

"This book is the result of years of dedication and hard work by a superb educator. I commend him for his tenacity and attention to detail." --R. Ramakumar, Oklahoma State University