Energy and The Environment: Scientific and Technological Principles

Hardcover | February 10, 2011

byJames A. Fay, Daniel S. Golomb

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Energy and the Environment Energy addresses a central problem of urban-industrial society: the interconnectedness of energy usage and environmental degradation. Intended for upper level undergraduate and first year graduate students, as well as professionals in the fields of energy andenvironmental sciences and technology, the text develops the scientific and technological background for understanding how the rapidly growing use of energy threatens the degradation of the natural environment at local, regional, and global scales. Fossil, nuclear and renewable energy technologiesare described, and their efficiencies for transforming the source energy to useful mechanical or electrical power are explained. Special emphasis is given to the generation of electric power and the use of transportation vehicles, and their technological improvements that increase energy efficiency and reduce air pollutant emissions. The source of toxic emissions to air, water, and land that arise from energy uses, and theireffects on environmental quality for urban and regional scale regions is analyzed. Special attention is given to global climate change, the contribution made to it by energy uses, and the salient technologies that are being developed to mitigate this effect. This book aims to equip engineering andscience majors and professionals with the basic factual knowledge needed to develop solutions to these environmental problems.

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Energy and the Environment Energy addresses a central problem of urban-industrial society: the interconnectedness of energy usage and environmental degradation. Intended for upper level undergraduate and first year graduate students, as well as professionals in the fields of energy andenvironmental sciences and technology, the text dev...

James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dan S. Golomb is Professor Emeritus of Environmental Sciences at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell.

other books by James A. Fay

Format:HardcoverDimensions:384 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.98 inPublished:February 10, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199765138

ISBN - 13:9780199765133

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Table of Contents

1. Energy and the Environment1.1 Introduction1.1.1 An Overview of this Text1.2 Energy1.2.1 Electric Power1.2.2 Transportation Energy1.2.3 Energy as a Commodity1.3 The Environment1.3.1 Managing Industrial PollutionBibliography2. Global Energy Use and Supp2.1 Introduction2.2 Global Energy Consumption2.3 Global Carbon Emissions2.4 Global Energy Sources2.5 Global Electricity Consumption2.6 End-Use Energy Consumption in the United States2.6.1 Industrial Sector2.6.2 Residential Sector2.6.3 Commercial Sector2.6.4 Transportation Sector2.7 Global Energy Supply2.7.1 Coal Reserves2.7.2 Petroleum Reserves2.7.3 Unconventional Petroleum Resources2.7.4 Natural Gas Reserves2.7.5 Unconventional Gas Resources2.7.6 Summary of Fossil Reserves2.8 ConclusionProblemsBibliography3. Thermodynamic Principles of Energy Conversion3.1 Introduction3.2 The Forms of Energy3.2.1 The Mechanical Energy of Macroscopic Bodies3.2.2 The Energy of Atoms and Molecules3.2.3 Chemical and Nuclear Energy3.2.4 Electric and Magnetic Energy3.2.5 Total Energy3.3 Work and Heat Interactions3.3.1 Work Interaction3.3.2 Heat Interaction .3.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics3.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics3.6 Thermodynamic Properties3.7 Steady Flow3.8 Heat Transfer and Heat Exchange3.9 Ideal Heat Engine Cycles3.9.1 The Carnot Cycle3.9.2 The Rankine Cycle3.9.3 The Otto Cycle3.9.4 The Brayton Cycle3.9.5 Combined Brayton and Rankine Cycles3.10 The Vapor Compression Cycle: Refrigeration and Heat Pumps3.11 Energy Processing: First and Second Law Constraints3.11.1 Fuel Heating V3.11.2 Free Energy Change3.11.3 Separating Gases3.12 Fuel (Thermal) Efficiency3.13 ConclusionProblemsBibliography4. Thermodynamics of Fossil, Biomass, and Synthetic Fuels4.1 Introduction4.2 Fossil Fuels4.3 Combustion of Fossil Fuel4.3.1 Fuel Heating V4.4 Biomass Fuels4.5 Synthetic Fuels4.5.1 Examples of Fossil Fuel Synthesis4.5.1.1 Coal to Gas4.5.2 Examples of Biochemical Synthesis4.6 Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Biomass4.7 Electrochemical Reactions4.7.1 Fuel Cells4.7.2 Practical Fuel Cell Systems4.8 The Hydrogen Economy4.8.1 Hydrogen Fuel for Vehicle Propul4.8.2 Synthetic Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels with Carbon Capture and Storage4.8.3 Hydrogen as Energy Storage for Intermittent Electric Power Pl4.8.4 Hydrogen as a Substitute for Pipeline Natural Gas4.9 ConclusionProblemsBibliography5. Electrical Energy Generation, Transmission, and Storage5.1 Introduction5.2 Electromechanical Power Transformation5.3 Electric Power Transmission5.3.1 AC/DC Conversion5.4 Energy Storage5.4.1 Electrostatic Energy Storage5.4.2 Magnetic Energy Storage5.4.3 Electrochemical Energy Storage5.4.3.1 Lead-Acid Storage Battery5.4.3.2 Lithium-Ion Storage Battery5.4.3.3 Other Storage Batteries5.4.4 Mechanical Energy Storage5.4.4.1 Pumped Hydropower5.4.4.2 Flywheel Energy Storage5.4.5 Properties of Energy Storage Systems5.5 ConclusionProblemsBibliography6. Fossil-Fueled Power Plants6.1 Introduction6.2 Fossil-Fueled Power Plant Components6.2.1 Fuel Storage and Preparation6.2.2 Burner6.2.3 Boiler6.2.4 Steam Turbine6.2.4.1 Impulse Turbine6.2.4.2 Reaction Turbine6.2.5 Gas Turbine6.2.6 Condenser6.2.7 Cooling Tower6.2.7.1 Wet Cooling Tower6.2.7.2 Dry Cooling Tower6.2.8 Generator6.2.9 Combustion Stoichiometry6.2.10 Emission Control6.2.10.1 Control of Products of Incomplete Combustion and Carbon Monoxide6.2.10.2 Control of Particles6.2.10.3 Sulfur Control6.2.10.4 Nitrogen Oxide Control6.2.10.5 Mercury Control6.2.10.6 Toxic Metals6.2.11 Waste Disposal6.3 Advanced Cycles6.3.1 Combined Cycle6.3.2 Coal Gasification Combined Cycle6.3.3 Cogeneration6.3.4 Fuel Cell6.4 ConclusionProblemsBibliography7. Nuclear-Fueled Power Plants7.1 Introduction7.2 Nuclear Energy7.2.1 Nuclear Energy from Fission7.3 Radioactivity7.3.1 Decay Rates and Half-Lives7.3.2 Units and Dosage7.3.2.1 Health Effects of Radiation7.3.2.2 Radiation Protection Standards7.4 Nuclear Reactors7.4.1 Boiling Water Reactor7.4.2 Pressurized Water Reactor7.4.3 Gas Cooled Reactor7.4.4 Breeder Reactor7.5 Nuclear Fuel Cycle7.5.1 Mining and Refining7.5.2 Gasification and Enrichment7.5.3 Spent Fuel Reprocessing7.5.4 Temporary Waste Storage7.5.5 Permanent Waste Storage7.6 Fusion7.6.1 Magnetic Confinement7.6.2 Laser Fusion7.7 Energy Evolvement in Nuclear Fission and Fusion Reactions7.8 ConclusionProblemsBibliography8. Renewable Energy8.1 Introduction8.2 Hydropower8.2.1 Environmental Effects8.3 Biomass Energy8.3.1 Photosynthesis8.3.2 Biofuels8.3.2.1 Bioethanol8.3.2.2 Biodiesel8.3.3 Wood as Biofuel8.3.4 Environmental Effects8.4 Geothermal Energy8.4.1 Environmental Effects8.5 Solar Energy8.5.1 Flat Plate Collector8.5.2 Focusing Collectors8.5.2.1 Solar Thermal Farms8.5.3 Photovoltaic Cells8.5.3.1 Photovoltaic Farms8.5.4 Environmental Effects8.6 Wind Power8.6.1 Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Operation8.6.2 Mechanical and Electrical Components8.6.3 Wind Resources8.6.3.1 Capacity Factor8.6.3.2 Effectiveness8.6.3.3 Wind Variability and Predictability8.6.4 Economical Turbine Designs8.6.5 Wind Farms8.6.6 Integrating Wind Farms into the Electric Power Network8.6.6.1 Averaging An Array of Wind Farms8.6.7 Environmental Effects8.7 Tidal Power8.7.1 Tidal Current Power8.7.2 Environmental Effects8.8 Ocean Wave Power8.8.1 Ocean Wave Energy and Power8.8.2 Ocean Wave Power Systems8.8.3 Wave Power Farms8.8.4 Environmental Impacts8.9 Ocean Thermal Power8.10 Capital Cost of Renewable Electric Power8.11 ConclusionProblemsBibliography9. Automotive Transportation9.1 Introduction9.2 Internal Combustion Engines for Highway Vehicles9.2.1 Combustion in SI and CI engines9.3 Engine Power and Performance9.3.1 Engine Efficiency9.4 Vehicle Power and Performance9.4.1 Connecting the Engine to the Wheels9.5 Vehicle Fuel Efficiency9.5.1 U.S. Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Regulations and Test Cycles9.5.2 Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy9.5.2.1 Improving Vehicle Performance9.5.2.2 Improving Engine Performance9.6 Electric Drive Vehicles9.6.1 Vehicles Powered by Storage Batteries9.6.2 Hybrid Vehicles9.6.3 Fuel Cell Vehicles9.7 Vehicle Emissions9.7.1 U.S. Vehicle Emission Standards9.7.2 Reducing Vehicle Emissions9.7.2.1 Reducing Engine-Out Emissions9.7.2.2 Catalytic Converters for Exhaust Gas Treatment9.7.2.3 Evaporative Emissions9.7.2.4 Reducing CI Engine Emissions9.7.2.5 Fuel Quality and its Regulation9.8 ConclusionProblemsBibliography10. Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuel Use10.1 Introduction10.2 Air Pollution10.2.1 U.S. Emission Standards10.2.2 U.S. Ambient Standards10.2.3 Health and Environmental Effects of Fossil-Fuel-Related Air Pollutants10.2.4 Air Pollution Meteorology10.2.5 Air Quality Modeling10.2.5.1 Modeling of Steady-State Point Source10.2.5.2 Plume Rise10.2.5.3 Steady State Line Source10.2.5.4 Steady State Area Source10.2.6 Photo-oxidants10.2.6.1 Photo-oxidant Modeling10.2.7 Acid Deposition10.2.7.1 Acid Deposition Modeling10.2.8 Regional Haze and Visibility Impairment10.3 Water Pollution10.3.1 Acid Mine Drainage and Coal Washing10.3.3 Water Use and Thermal Pollution from Power Plants10.3.4 Atmospheric Deposition of Toxic Pollutants onto Surface Waters10.3.4.1 Toxic Metals10.3.4.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons10.4 Land Pollution10.5 ConclusionProblemsBibliography11. GlobalWarming and Climate Change11.1 Introduction11.2 What is the Greenhouse Effect?11.2.1 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation11.2.2 Sun-Earth-Space Radiative Equilibrium11.2.3 Modeling Global Warming11.2.4 Global Warming Potential11.2.5 Radiative Forcing11.2.6 Results of Global Warming Modeling11.2.7 Observed Trend of Global Warming11.3 Associated Effects of Global Warming11.3.1 Sea Level Rise11.3.2 Water Vapor and Precipitation Changes11.3.3 Hurricanes and Typhoons11.3.4 Climate Changes11.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions11.4.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Carbon Cycle11.4.2 Methane11.4.3 Nitrous Oxide11.4.4 Chlorofluorocarbons11.4.5 Ozone11.5 ConclusionProblemsBibliography12. Mitigating GlobalWarming12.1 Introduction12.2 Controlling Halocarbon Emissions12.3 Controlling Nitrous Oxide Emissions12.4 Controlling Methane Emissions12.4.1 Controlling Methane Generated by Coal Mining12.4.2 Controlling Methane from Petroleum and Natural Gas Operations12.4.3 Controlling Landfill Methane12.5 Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions12.5.1 Controlling CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fueled Electric Power Plants12.5.1.1 Shift from Coal or Oil to Natural Gas Fuel12.5.1.2 Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plants12.5.1.3 Capturing CO2 from the Flue Gas by Chemical Absorption12.5.1.4 Oxyfuel Combustion with CO2 Capture12.5.1.5 Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Plants with CO2 Capture12.5.1.6 Capturing CO2 after Gasification by Physical Absorption12.5.1.7 Capturing CO2 after Gasification by Membrane Separation12.6 Thermal Efficiency and Cost of Controlling CO2 Emissions from Power Plants12.7 CO2 Sequestration12.7.1 Sequestration in Oil and Gas Reservoirs12.7.2 Sequestration in Coal Seams12.7.3 Sequestration in Deep Sedimentary Basins12.7.4 Sequestration in the Deep Ocean12.7.5 CO2 Removal from the Atmosphere12.7.5.1 Afforestation12.7.5.2 Ocean Fertilization12.7.5.3 Mineral Sequestration12.7.5.4 CO2 Utilization12.8 ConclusionProblemsBibliography13. Concluding Remarks13.1 Energy Resources13.2 Regulating the Environmental Effects of Energy Use13.3 Global Climate Change13.3.1 Coping with Climate Change13.4 Conclusion