With energy security at the top of the global agenda, this book examines the development of a new producer-consumer framework. As the era of cheap energy comes to an end, Asia's demand for energy increases, and concerns over climate change increase, it is clear that the old framework is nolonger sustainable in this new era. This book examines the evolving relations between the key producers (Middle East, Russia, Latin America, and Africa) and traditional consumers such as the US and Europe, and new consumers such as China and India as they adjust to the changing marketplace andpolitical realities.At the centre of the book is the key question of how dynamics in the global energy market affect the nature of international relations. It is argued that while conflict over resources is possible, there are many opportunities for international cooperation over energy resources. Although coal, oil,and gas will define energy usage for the foreseeable future, greater efficiency and alternative sources of energy will play an important role in shaping the new producer-consumer framework.