Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

Hardcover | June 10, 2003

byWillard W. Pulkrabek

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This applied thermoscience book explores the basic principles and applications of various types of internal combustion engines, with a major emphasis on reciprocating engines. KEY TOPICS It covers both spark ignition and compression ignition engines—as well as those operating on four-stroke cycles and on two stroke cycles—ranging in size from small model airplane engines to the larger stationary engines. For use as a reference guide in the field of engines, and a basic understanding of the operating of internal combustion engines.

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This applied thermoscience book explores the basic principles and applications of various types of internal combustion engines, with a major emphasis on reciprocating engines. KEY TOPICS It covers both spark ignition and compression ignition engines—as well as those operating on four-stroke cycles and on two stroke cycles—ranging in...

From the Jacket

This second edition text provides updated and comprehensive coverage of the applied thermodynamic operating principles of the internal combustion engine. The scope of this text includes all IC engines from the largest stationary and ship engines down to the smallest engines used on tools and toys, with an emphasis on reciprocating en...

Format:HardcoverDimensions:504 pages, 9.3 × 7.2 × 0.9 inPublished:June 10, 2003Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0131405705

ISBN - 13:9780131405707

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The goal of the second edition of this book is the same as that of the first edition, with updated material in several areas that reflects the ever-advancing technology of internal combustion engines. This book was written to be used as an applied thermoscience textbook in a one-semester, college-level, undergraduate engineering course on internal combustion engines. It provides the material needed for a basic understanding of the operation of internal combustion engines. Students are assumed to have knowledge of fundamental thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics as a prerequisite to get maximum benefit from the text. This book can also be used for self-study or as a reference book in the field of engines. Contents include the fundamentals of most types of internal combustion engines, with a major emphasis on reciprocating engines. Both spark ignition and compression ignition engines are covered, as are those operating on four-stroke cycles and on two-stroke cycles, and ranging in size from small model airplane engines to the largest stationary engines. Rocket engines and jet engines are not included. Because of the large number of engines that are used in automobiles and other vehicles, a major emphasis is placed on these. The book is divided into 11 chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 give an introduction, terminology, definitions, and basic operating characteristics. These are followed in Chapter 3 with detailed analysis of basic engine cycles. Chapter 4 reviews fundamental thermochemistry as it applies to engine operation and engine fuels. Chapters 5 through 9 follow the air-fuel charge as it passes sequentially through an engine, including intake, motion within a cylinder, combustion, exhaust, and emissions. Engine heat transfer, friction, and lubrication are covered in Chapters 10 and 11. Each chapter includes solved example problems and historical notes, followed by a set of unsolved review problems. Also included at the end of each chapter are open-ended problems that require limited design application, in keeping with the modern engineering education trend of emphasizing design through the entire curriculum. These design problems can be used as minor weekly exercises or as major group projects. Fueled by intensive commercial competition and increasingly strict government regulations on emissions and safety, the field of engine technology is constantly changing. It is difficult to stay knowledgeable about all advancements in engine design, materials, controls, and fuel development that we experience at an ever-increasing rate. During the years as the outline for this text evolved, continuous changes were required as new developments occurred. Those advancements that are covered in this book include tie Miller cycle, lean burn engines, hybrid vehicles, 42-volt electrical systems, variable valve timing, fuel cell technology, gasoline direct injection, variable compression ratios, cylinder cutout, thermal storage, etc. Advancements and technological changes will continue to occur, and further updating of this text will be required periodically. Information in the book represents an accumulation of general material collected by the author over a period of years while teaching courses and working in research and development in the field of internal combustion engines in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. During this time, information has been collected from many sources, including conferences, newspapers, personal communication, books, technical periodicals, research, product literature, television, etc. This information became the basis for the outline and notes used in the teaching of a class about internal combustion engines. These class notes, in turn, evolved into the general outline for this textbook. A list of references from the technical literature from which specific information for this book was taken is included at the back of the book. Several references were of special importance in the development of these notes and are suggested for additional reading and more in-depth study. For keeping up with information about the latest research and development in automobile and internal combustion engine technology, publications by SAE International (Society of Automotive Engineers) are highly recommended; reference ll is very good. For general information about most engine subjects, references 40, 58, 93,100,116 are recommended. On certain subjects, some of these references go into too much depth to be manageable in a one-semester course. Some of the information is slightly out of date, but overall, these are very informative references. For historical information about engines and automobiles in general, references 29, 45, 97, 102 are suggested. General data, formulas, and principles of engineering thermodynamics and heat transfer are used at various places throughout the text. Most undergraduate textbooks on these subjects would supply the needed information. References 63, 90 were used by the author. In preparing this second edition, the author has followed the suggestions for improvements made by reviewers, when possible. Following the suggestion made by several reviewers, many more data dealing with real engines are included, using the actual figures from technical literature when possible. In keeping with the trend of the world, the international system of units (SI) are used throughout the book, often supplemented with English units. Most research and development of engines is done using SI units, and this is reflected in the technical literature. The consumer market, however, still commonly uses English units, such as horsepower, miles per gallon, and cubic inch displacement, particularly in the automobile market. A conversion table of SI and English units for common parameters used in engine work is included in the appendix at the back of the book. The reader should remember that many of the mathematical formulas used in this book and other technical literature are only models of what is actually happening. Often these are simplified models of very complex occurrences (e.g., chemical reactions, engine cycles, flow in cylinders, etc.). These models often allow us to relate important variables and solve many technical problems, but should not be used beyond their intended range. We have entered an exciting revolutionary period of internal combustion engine technology, largely brought about by the use of computer controls. For over 100 years, most combustion engines operated on the same basic four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycles. These engines had a fixed displacement, a fixed compression ratio, and fixed valve actuation controlled with a camshaft. The major improvement experienced during this time was higher thermal efficiency, brought about by better fuels and higher compression ratios. Now at the start of the twenty-first century, we suddenly have engines with variable displacement, variable compression ratios, variable valve control, and other technological advancements; and we have computer power to control these variables. The challenge to today's automobile and engine engineers is to develop new engine concepts that utilize and optimize these new technologies. We must understand the basic concepts, but we must not limit ourselves to evolutionary improvements of these concepts. The author would like to express his gratitude to the many people who have influenced him and helped in the writing of this book. First, I thank Dorothy, who was always there, along with John, Tim, Becky, and Chad. I thank the people who reviewed the original book manuscript of the first edition, and those who reviewed the book in preparation of this second edition. The suggestions for additions and improvements that these people made have resulted in a better text. Although I have never met them, I am indebted to authors J. B. Heywood, C. R. Ferguson, E. F. Obert, and R. Stone. The books these men have written about internal combustion engines have certainly influenced the content of this textbook. I thank my father, who many years ago introduced me to the field of automobiles and generated a lifelong interest. I thank Earl of Capital City Auto Electric for carrying on the tradition. WILLARD W PULKRABEK University of Wisconsin-Platteville

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction.

 2. Operating Characteristics.

 3. Engine Cycles.

 4. Thermochemistry and Fuels.

 5. Air and Fuel Induction.

 6. Fluid Motion within Combustion Chamber.

 7. Combustion.

 8. Exhaust Flow.

 9. Emissions and Air Pollution.

10. Heat Transfer in Engines.

11. Friction and Lubrication.



Answers to Selected Review Problems.