Engineering Geology

Paperback | January 17, 2013

bySubinoy Gangopadhyay

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The book begins with a discussion on basic geological aspects related to rocks and minerals, geological structures, soil formation and soil classification, underground water, aerial photo study and remote sensing and geophysical and drilling exploration. This is followed by criticalengineering geology topics such as soil and rock mechanics, methods of site investigation for civil engineering projects with detailed coverage for dams, reservoirs, tunnels, powerhouses, bridges, canals, power channels, and flumes, search for construction materials, treatment of geological defects,assessment and mitigation of natural hazards, and evaluation of karstic limestone terrains for reservoir projects.

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The book begins with a discussion on basic geological aspects related to rocks and minerals, geological structures, soil formation and soil classification, underground water, aerial photo study and remote sensing and geophysical and drilling exploration. This is followed by criticalengineering geology topics such as soil and rock mecha...

Subinoy Gangopadhyay served for a period of 34 years in the engineering geology division of Geological Survey of India advising on geotechnical aspects for more than a hundred civil engineering projects in India and abroad. He retired as Senior Director of this premier Government organization. A Ph D from Calcutta University, Dr Subin...
Format:PaperbackDimensions:624 pages, 9.84 × 7.48 × 0.01 inPublished:January 17, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0198086350

ISBN - 13:9780198086352

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Table of Contents

PrefaceAcknowledgement1. Introduction to Engineering Geology1.1 What is engineering geology?1.1.1 Definition and application1.1.2 Geology vs. civil engineering1.2 Importance of engineering geology in civil engineering1.3 Engineering practice with rocks and soils in ancient India1.3.1 Prehistoric time1.3.2 Early historic time1.4 History of development of engineering geology in India1.4.1 Concept of Mansara (Silpa Sastra) in 6th century1.4.2 Activity of GSI from 19th century1.5 Work-activity of engineering geologists1.6 Forum of engineering geologists and engineers1.7 Recent advancement in engineering geology1.8 SummaryReview questions2. Rocks and Minerals with reference to Engineering usage of rocks2.1 Major rock types and their origin2.1.1 Igneous rocks and intrusive bodies2.1.2 Sedimentary rocks2.1.3 Metamorphic rocks2.2 Classification, description and engineering usage of igneous rocks2.2.1 General observation and a simplified classification of igneous rocks2.2.2 Colour and texture of igneous rocks2.2.3 Description and engineering usage of igneous rocks2.3 Classification, description and engineering usage of sedimentary rocks2.3.1 A simplified classification of sedimentary rocks2.3.2 Texture of sedimentary rocks and rounding of particles2.3.3 Description and engineering usage of clastic sedimentary rocks2.3.4 Description and engineering usage of non-clastic sedimentary rocks2.4 Classification, description and engineering usage of metamorphic rocks2.4.1 A simplified classification of metamorphic rocks2.4.2 Fabrics of metamorphic rocks2.4.3 Description and engineering usage of metamorphic rocks2.5 Minerals, their origin and different characteristics2.5.1 The crystal forms of minerals2.5.2 Physical characters of minerals2.5.3 Mohs scale of hardness2.6 Chemical composition and other characters of rock forming minerals2. 6.1 Classification of minerals(i) Silicate class(ii) Carbonate class(iii) Sulphate, phosphate, chromate etc. class(iv) Halide class(v) Oxide and hydroxide class(vi) Sulphide class(vii) Native element class2.7. Rock-forming, ore-forming and gem varieties minerals2.7.1 Dominant rock forming minerals2. 7.2 Common ore forming minerals2.7.3 Notable precious and semiprecious minerals2.8. Identification of minerals under microscope2.9. Geological time-scale and unconformity between rock formations2.8.1 The relative and absolute time-scale2.8.2 Unconformity of rock formations and its delimitation2.10 Field identification of common rocks with simple accessories2.11 SummaryReview questions3. Rock structures and their Engineering significance3.1 Deformation mechanism of rocks3.1.1 Stress and strain result on brittle and ductile rocks3.1.2 Elastic and plastic deformation3.2 Folds and causes of their formation3.2.1 Anatomy of folds3.2.2 Anticline and syncline, their symmetry and other features3.2.3 Principal types of folds and their field characters3.3 Causes and mechanism of faults3.3.1 Basic terms related to a fault3.3.2 Illustrative description of different types of fault3.3.3 Effect of faulting in brittle and ductile rocks3. 3.4 Clues for field identification of faults3.4. Causes of Jointing and genetic types of joints in rocks3.4.1 Orientation, spacing, roughness and other features of joints3.4.2 Types of joints in different rock types and their origin3.4.3 Diagrammatic representation of joints3.5 Primary structures of sedimentary rocks and their significance3.6 Potential problems from rock structures in engineering constructions3.6.1 Problems of fold3.6.2 Harmful effects of fault3.6.3 Weakness of rocks due to joints, fractures and other features3.7 SummaryReview questions4. Weathering of rocks and its impact in engineering constructions4.1Types of weathering4.2 Mechanical weathering4.2.1 Thermal stress4.2.2 Spheroidal weathering4 2.3 Frost action4. 2.4 Pressure release4.2.5 Slaking and haloclasty4.2.6 Tree root action4.3 Chemical weathering4.3.1 Oxidation4.3.2 Carbonation4.3.3 Hydration4.3.4 Hydrolysis4.4 Biological weathering4.5 Effect of weathering due to climatic condition and geologic time4.6 Impact of weathering in engineering constructions4.6.1 Engineering geological significance4.7 SummaryReview questions5. Soil formation, engineering classification and description of Indian soils5.1 Geological processes responsible for formation of soil5.1.1 Formation of soil from weathering and decomposition of rocks5.1.2 Residual and transported soil5.1.3 Erosion, transportation and deposition5.2 Glacial, Fluvioglacial actions5.2.1Features of glacial activity and old remnants5.2.2 Problems of engineering construction in glacial deposits5.2.3 Fluvioglacial and glacial-lacustrine deposits5.3 Wind action and dunes5.3.1 Wind bourn deposit, loess - formation and engineering problems5.4 Formation of terraces, talus and organic deposits5.4.1 Glacial terrace5.4.2 River terrace5.4.3 Marine terrace5.4.4 Talus deposits5.4.5 Organic soils including pits5.5 Soils derived from different depositional regimes(i) Alluvial soil(ii) Glacial soil(iii) Aeolian soil(iv) Colluvial soil(v) Soil from volcanic ash(vi) Organic soil5.6 Soil classification for engineering constructions5.6.1 Coarse grained soil5.6.2 Fine grained soil5.6.3 Organic soils5.7 Identification of different soil types5.7.1 Visual observation to identify soil types5.7.2 Additional information of soil for design purposes5. 8 Clay minerals in soil and their engineering significance5.8.1 The types of clay minerals5.8.2 Sensitive clay, its disturbing characters and rectification5.9 Soils of India, their characteristics and occurrence5.10 SummaryReview questions6. Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics6.1 Soil component and size of soil particles6.1.1 size fractions of soils6.1.2 Structure of soil6.2 Index properties of soil and their laboratory determination6.2.1 Water content6.2.2 Specific gravity6.2.3 Unit weight6.2.4 Density6.2.5 Porosity6.2.6 Void ratio6.2.7 Relation between porosity and void ration6.3 Consistency limits (Atterberg limits) and their determination6.4 Field methods of density determination6.4.1Water displacement method6.4.2 Sand replacement method6.4.3 Core cutter method6.4.4 Rubber-Balloon method6.5 Size and shape of soil particles6.5.1 Mechanical analysis for sieved fractions6.5.2 Wet analysis (sedimentation method6.5.3 Size distribution curves of soil particles6.5.4 Shape (angularity and roundness) of soil particles6.6. Swelling clay and its expansive characters6.6.1 Laboratory test fore swelling co-efficient6.6.2 Measurement of expansive pressure6.7 Soil permeability6.7.1 Flow characteristics and Darcy's law6.7.2 Laboratory determination of soil permeability6.7.3 Determination of field permeability of soil by pumping test6.8 Consolidation of soil6.8.1 Laboratory test of consolidation6.8.2 Calculation of void ratio and coefficient of volume change6.9 Soil compaction6.9.1 Process of compaction6.9.2 Compression machineries and their performance6.9.3 Standard and modified proctor tes6 9.4 Proctor needle and its us6.10 Earth pressure and retaining structures6.10.1 The retaining structures6.10.2 Back-fill: materials used and drainage6.11 Shear stress, shear strength, and failure mechanism6.11.1 Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criterion6.11.2 How to draw Mohr's circle6.11.3 Direct shear test6.11.4 Triaxial compression test6.115 Unconfined compression test6.11.6 Vane shear test6.12 Building site geotechnical investigation6.12.1 Loads of building and foundation exploration6.12.2 Design Bearing capacity for building foundation6.13 Determination of bearing capacity of soil for building site6.13.1Static cone penetration test6.13.2 Plate load tests6. 14 Shallow building foundations6.14.1 Spread footing6.14.2 Mat or raft6.14.3 On-grade mat foundation6.15 Deep foundation of building6.15.1 Pile foundation6.15.2 Pier foundation6.15.3 Caisson6.16 SummaryReview questions7. Hydrology and Geological works of rivers7.1 River hydrology7.1.1 Hydraulic parameters7.2 Erosional processes of a river7.2.1 Main forces causing erosion7.2.2 The factors deciding the rate of erosion7.3 Depositional and transportation characteristics of a river7.3.1 Manner movement of sediment load7.3.2 Sediment load of Indian rivers7.4 Work-activity of a river in different stages7.4.1Young stage river work-activity7.4.2 The middle or mature stage work and meandering flow7.4.3 Old stage work and formation of deltas7.5 Characteristic deposition of deltaic environment7.6 The river drainage patterns and river-capture7.7 Engineering use of river deposits/alluvial soil7.8 SummaryReview Questions8. Geological works of oceans and coastal management8.1 Ocean features and divisions of ocean floor8.2 The agents of ocean activity8.2.1 Waves: characteristic and activity8.2.2 Current: types and behavior8.2.3 Tides: patterns and effect8.3 Landform created by ocean erosion8.4 Some typical oceanic landforms8.5 Coastal landforms of varied patterns and deposits8.6 Erosion of shallow coastal land8.6.1 The basic aspects8.6.2 Harmful effect coastal erosion8.6.3 Erosion of beach and dunes8.6.4 Erosion of rocky coast/cliff area8.7 Littoral drifts8.8 Coastal management8.8.1 Use or groins, concrete and masonry wall, gabion and sand dunes8.8.2 Beach restoration8. 9. A case study - Coastal Erosion at Uppada along Kakinada Coast of Andhra Pradesh (after Pal and Rao, 2009)8.10 SummaryReview Questions9. Underground water in relation to Engineering works9.1 Hydrologic cycle9.2 Mode of occurrence and source of underground water9.2.1 Groundwater and vadose water9.2.2 Juvenile and connate water9.3 Configuration of water table9.3.1 Fluctuation of water table9.3.2 Perched water table9.4 Soil water9.4.1 Structural water9.4.2 Hydroscopic water9.4.3 Capillary water9.5 Confined and unconfined aquifers9.5.1 Aquifer and aquiclude9.5.2 Hydrologic criteria to find aquifers9.5.3 Artesian flow9.5.4 Springs and their origin9.6 Water retaining and transmitting capacity of soil and rock9.6.1 Porosity of soil9.6.2 Permeability in relation to porosity9.7 Groundwater movement9.8 Systematic groundwater investigation9.8.1 Basin-wise study9.8.2 Groundwater in hard rock mass9.8.3 Groundwater maps9.9 Groundwater province of India9.10 Utility, yield, withdrawal and artificial recharge of groundwater9.10.1 Uses in urban and rural areas9.10.2 Yield in different parts of India9.10.3 Cone of depression9.10.4 Environmental degradation9.10.5 Artificial recharge9.10.6 Saltwater intrusion in groundwater9.11 Influence of underground water in engineering constructions9.11.1 Dams and reservoirs9.11.2 Road pavements and soil slopes9.11.3 Groundwater problem in tunnelling9.11.4 Water retaining structures9.12 A Case study of groundwater problem and its solution9.13 SummaryReview questions10. Application of Rock Mechanics in Engineering Geology10.1 Relevance of rock mechanics in evaluating rock and rock mass properties10.2 Determination of common properties of rocks10.2.1 Specific gravity10.2.2 Density10.2.3 Unit weight10.2.4 Porosity10.2.5 Absorption10.3 Measurement of strength of intact rocks10.3.1 Rebound hammer test10.3.2 Point load test10.3.3 Uniaxial compression test10.3.4 Triaxial Compression test10.3.5 Brazilian tests10.3.6 Results of common engineering properties10.4 Elastic properties of rocks10.5 Measurement of stress in underground rocks10.5.1 Flat jack test10.5 2 Borehole over-coring method of stress measurement10.5.3 Borehole extensometer test for rock movement10.6 Estimation of rock mass properties10.6.1 Rock mass classification10.6.2 Classification of Terzaghi10.6.3 Rock Quality designation Index (RQD)10.7 NGI rock mass classification to estimate tunnelling quality index Q10.7.1The parameters used in NGI classification with tables10.7.2 A practical example of using tunnel quality index Q10.8 Geomechanics classification of rock mass10.8.1Parameters used in Rock Mass Ratings with Tables10.8.2 Practical example of use of RMR10.9 Geological Strength Index (GSI) for blocky and heterogeneous rocks10.10 SummaryReview questions11. Site Investigation: Remote Sensing, Geophysical Exploration and Drilling11.1 Different stages of site investigation11.1.1 Initial stage (Planning phase)(i) Preparation of geological map(ii) Dip and strike(iii) Geological map vs. engineering geology map11.1.2 Feasibility stage (Design phase)(i) Special purpose engineering geology map(ii) Subsurface map/Drill hole data presentation11.1.3 Construction stage11.1.4 Post-construction stage11.2 Aerial photo interpretation and satellite remote sensing11.2.1 Aerial photography11.2.2 Application of stereoscope11.2.3 Photographic elements: tone, shape and texture11.2.4 Ground pattern11.2.5 Identification of common rocks11.2.6 Identification of large rock bodies and major rock structures11.2.7 Satellite remote sensing:(i) Techniques of producing imagery(ii) Application of remote sensing11.3 Geophysical exploration11.3.1 Seismic survey11.3.2 Gravity survey11.3.3 Magnetic survey11.3.4 Resistivity survey113.5 Radioactivity logging11.4 Sub-soil exploration and sampling in soil11.4.1 Exploration in sites of engineering structures11.4.2 Sampling from pit and using soil sampler with drill rod11.5 Methods of subsoil investigation11.5.1 Pitting and trenching11.5.2 Penetration resistance11.5.3 Exploration by drill holes(i) Auger holes(ii) Wash boring(iii) Percussion drilling11.6 Exploratory drilling in rock11.6.1 Importance of rock drilling in engineering geology work11.6.2 Rotary drilling11.6.3 Spacing of drill holes11.6.4 Selection of bits for drilling in boulder deposit11.6.5 How to improve core recovery11.6.6 Logging of drill cores and diagrammatic presentation11.7 Water pumping tests: utility and approach11.8 Summary12. Construction Materials12.1 Principal types of construction material12.2 Character and usage of different types of construction material12.2.1 Dimension stones for building stone, facing stone and decoration12.2.2 Crushed stones for road metal, railway ballasts and rip rap12.2.3 Suitability of rocks for engineering construction12.2.4 Aggregates for concrete12.2.5 Soil and clay12.2.6 Pozollans12.2.7 Fly ash (Artificial Pozollans)12.3 Laboratory tests of aggregates with Indian standard specification12.3.1Aggregate crushing test12.3.2 Aggregate impact test12.3.3 Los Angel's abrasion test12.3.4 Deval attrition test12.3.5 Soundness test (Sodium Sulphate test)12.4 Materials for use as railway ballast and road metal12.4.1 Rock types suitable and the desired properties12.4.2 Specification of concrete aggregate by IS for road12.5 Deleterious materials and alkali aggregate reaction12.6 Petrographic study of aggregate12.7 Source of construction materials in India12.8 Exploration for construction materials and selecting quarry sites12.9 SummaryReview questions13. Treatment of rocks and soils by Grouting13.1 Geotechnical considerations in grouting13.1.1 Relation of grouting to rock type, structure and overburden13.1.2 Problem of grouting cavities13.2 Different types of grouting including their patterns13.2.1 Curtain grouting13.2.2 Consolidation grouting13. 2.3 Blanket grouting13. 2.4 Contact growing13.2.5 Special purpose grouting13.3 Grouting equipment and packers13.4 Basic ingredients of grout and admixtures13.4.1 Ingredient of grout13.4.2 Grout mixture13.4.3 Chemical grout and epoxy grout with instance of their use13.5 Grouting approach for various engineering structures13.5.1 Grouting of concrete dam foundation13.5.2 Grouting Earth and Rock fill dam13.5.3 Grout curtain with drainage holes13.5.4 Reservoir rim grouting13.5.5 Grouting tunnel and Underground chamber13.6 Grouting plan and pattern with Indian examples13.6.1 Geological approach in preparing plan for grouting13.6.2 Grouting plan with typical example13.6.3 Statistics of foundation grouting of major Indian dams13.7 Effective pressure and rock mass permeability13.8 Treatment of cavity by grouting13.9 Efficacy of grouting13.10 SummaryReview questions14. Dams and Spillways14.1 Terminology and basic aspects of dam construction14.1.1 Acting forces and design principles of dam safety14.1.2 The utilities of dams14.2 Types of dams and their functions14.2.1 Concrete dams(i) Gravity dam(ii) Arch dam(iii) Buttress dam14.2.2 Masonry dam14.2.3 Rock-fill dam14.2.4 Earth dam14.2.5 Composite dam, tailing dam, barrage and weir14.3 Spillways and gates14.3.1 Normal spillway14.3.2 Pipe spillway14.3.3 Tunnel spillway14.3.4 Glory hole spillway14.3.5 Side channel spillway14.3.6 Outlet work14.3.7 Gates of different types and their functions14.4 Influence of geomorphology and geology in the design of a dam14.5 Adverse effect of fault in dam foundation and its treatment14.5.1 Treatment of fault by plug and its depth calculation14.5.2 Stresses along fault at different dispositions14.6 Causative factors of dam disasters14.6.1Geological causes14.6.2 Other causes14.7 Preliminary investigation and selection of a dam site14.8 Detailed investigation of a dam site for design purposes14.9 Source of building materials for different types of dam14.9.1 Building materials for concrete dams14.9.2 Boulders and rock fragments for masonry dams14.9.3 Fill material for rock fill-dams14.9.4 Sandy and clayey materials for earth dams14.9.5 Rip-rap for protecting dam slopes14.9.6 Impervious core materials for a dam14.9.7 Guidelines for selecting sites for building materials14.10 River diversion and construction work14.10.1 Method of diverting river14.10.2 Foundation preparation14.10 3 Construction approach for dams of different types14.11 Post-construction work14.12 SummaryReview questions15. Reservoirs15.1 Creation and function of a reservoir15.2 Degradation of catchment and reservoir rim areas15.3 Erosion of reservoir area and sedimentation15.3.1 Relation of erosion with rainfall15.3.2 Sedimentation/siltation rate15.3.3 Measurement of siltation15.3.4 Siltation study by remote sensing and aerial-photo study15.4 Reservoir capacity and reservoir life15.5 Salient aspects of reservoir investigation15.5.1 Different possibilities of reservoir leakage15.5.2 Problem from slide and resultant sedimentation15.5.3 Investigation for protection of national assets15.6 Pump Storage scheme with case-study15.6.1 The basic aspects15.6.2 Investigation for Pump storage scheme15.6.3 Case study of Pump storage schemes(A) Kadampari Pump storage, Tamil Nadu(B) Purulia Pump storage, West Bengal15.7 Petrological study of suspended silts in river water15.7.1 Procedure for determining hardness of particles15.7.2 An example of hardness measurement of river silt15.8 Reservoir related earthquakes15.9 Environmental impact on creation of a reservoir15.9.1 The salient aspect of environmental changes15.9.2 Measures to minimise adverse environmental effect15.10 SummaryReview questions16. Tunnels16.1 Components and types of tunnel16.2 Tunnelling through rocks16.2.1 Rock pressure and arching action in a tunnel16.2.2 Effect of bedded rock on tunnel lining16.2.3 Effect of a fault traversing a tunnel16.2.4 Effect of folds on tunnel lining16.2.5 Rock cover and overbreaks in relation to joints16.2.6 Relation of overbreaks with tunnel dimensions16.3 Tunnelling through soft ground16.3.1 Type of material, imposed load and stability16.3.2 The method of soft ground tunnelling16.4 Geological hazards in tunnelling(i) Overbreaks(ii) Spalling(iii) Flowing ground(iii) Squeezing and heaving(iv) Thermal spring(v) Gas flow(vi) Seismicity16.5 Different stages of geotechnical works for tunnel16.5.1 Selection of tunnel alignment16.5.2 Subsurface exploration16.5.3 Construction stage work: 3-D Tunnel Logging16.5.4 Other geological activities of tunnel work16.6 Conventional methods and machineries used in tunnelling16.6.1 Conventional method of tunnelling by TBM16.6.2 Tunnelling by Rock Header machine16.6.3 Shield method of tunnel excavation16.7 Excavation methods of rock tunnelling and support system16.7.1 Methods of full face, top heading, side and multiple drift16.7.2 Seven types of tunnel support including rock bolting16.8 Pressure tunnel and lining16.9 Rock mass quality and support requirement16.9.1 Design aspects16.9.2 Rock load system of Terzaghi for Tunnel support16.9.3 Methods of evaluating tunnel support by Q and RMR system16.10 SummaryReview questions17. Powerhouses17.1 Different types of powerhouse and generation of hydropower17.1.1 Harnessing hydropower from river17.2 Surface powerhouse of hydroelectric project17.2.1 Landform characters of a surface power house17.2.2 Preliminary site investigation including air photo study17.2.3 Detailed site investigation by subsurface investigation17.2.4 Laboratory testing of rocks for strength properties17.2.5 Large scale foundation mapping and study of seismicity17.3 Instances of geotechnical problems of surface powerhouse and remedy(1) Powerhouse of Ramganganga Project of Uttar Pradesh(2) Bassi powerhouse of Himachal Pradesh(3) Balimela powerhouse of Orissa17.4 Underground powerhouse of a hydroelectric project17.4.1General aspects14.7.2 Special considerations17.5 Instances of underground powerhouse problem and measures adopted(1) Powerhouse of Koyana project of Maharashtra(2) Kadamparai powerhouse of Tamil Nadu(3) Powerhouse of Srisailam project of Andhra Pradesh17.6 Thermal powerhouse17.6.1 Basic needs17.5.2 Site investigation by mapping and subsurface drilling17.7 Nuclear powerhouse17.7.1Guidelines of Atomic Energy Commission on site selection17.7.2 Method of engineering geology investigation17.7.3 Problems of site selection in Himalayan area17.7.4 Problem of locating an Atomic power plant in alluvium17.8 SummaryReview questions18. Bridges18.1 The basics of a bridge18.2 Major types of bridges and acting forces18.2.1Girder bridge18.2.2 Arch bridge18.2.3 Cantilever bridge182.4 Suspension bridge18.2.5 Cable stayed bridge18.3 Supports and foundations of bridges18.3.1 Abutments and piers18.3.2 Well foundation for bridges18.3.3 Composition of a well foundation18.3.4 Sinking of well to sub-soil18.3.5 Depth of well foundation18.4 Different aspects of geotechnical investigation of a bridge site18.5 Bridge sites in hilly terrains18.5.1 Upper reaches18.5.2 Middle Reaches18.5.3 Lower reaches18.6 Bridge sites in alluvial plains18.7 Bridge foundation in subsoil in relation to scouring depth18.8 Construction materials for bridge18.9 Salient points related to bridge site investigation18.10 Case study of bridges including a collapsed bridge(1) Aqueduct cum road-bridge in Madhya Pradesh(2) Tikira high level road bridge of Orissa(3) Failure of a NH bridge over Chambal river in Rajasthan(4) Foundation problem of Banas bridge in Rajasthan(5) Distressed railway bridge of Bhagalpur district, Bih18.11 SummaryReview questions19. Highways, Runways, Canals, Power channels and Flumes19.1 Highways19.1.1 Site investigation for highway19.1.2 Placement of pavement materials and drainage19.1.3 Quality of aggregate materials and their function19.2 Runways19.2.1 The plan of a runway19.2.2 The investigation approach19.2.3 Runway pavement19.2.4 Seepage problem in pavement and corrective measures19.3 Canals19.3.1 Basic aspects19.3.2 Site investigation by geological mapping and exploratory works19.3.3 Excavation and filling involved in canal19.3.4 The design aspects of soil slope and water depth of a canal19.4 Power channels19.4.1 Choice of construction and selection of alignment19.4.2 Case study of power channel19.4.3 Siphon to carry water from canals and power channel19.5 Flumes19.5.1 Geological problems and remedial measures19.5.2 Aqueduct for carrying water from canal/flume19.5.3 SummaryReview questions20. Natural hazards20.1 Earthquake20.1.1 Causative factors of earthquake20.1.2 Seismic waves and other earthquake related terminology20.1.3 How to locate an earthquake20.2 Earth's interior and travel of seismic waves20.3 Continental drift and plate tectonics in relation to earthquakes20.3.1 Main possibilities of plate movement and resultant earthquakes20.3.2 Interplate earthquakes and Intraplate earthquakes20.4 Volcano and its activity related to earthquake and other effects20.4.1 Major types of volcano including an active volcano of Hawaii20.5 Magnitude and Intensity of earthquake20.5.1 Magnitude in Richter scale20.5.2 Seismic intensity in Marcalli scale20.6 Seismic zoning and earthquake resistant codes20.6.1 Seismic Zoning map of India20.6.2 Earthquake resistance code for design of structure20.6.3 Tips and earthquake resistant design and construction20.7 Reservoir induced seismicity (RIS)20.7.1 RIS experienced in different parts of the world20.7.2 The conditions for generating RIS20.8 Seismotectonic framework of India20.9 Geological consideration in aseismic design20.10 Clues for earthquake forecasting20.10.1 Various approaches including measure by GPS20.10.2 Earthquake disaster mitigation20.11 Case study of a devastating earthquake20.12 Tsunami20.14 Meaning of tsunami, its characters and destructive action20.14.1 Origin of tsunami20.14.2 Destructive actions of tsunami20.15 The great tsunami of December, 2004 affecting Coastal India20.16 Coastal erosion, protection of coast and safety against tsunami20.17 SummaryReview questions21. Landslide evaluation and mitigation21.1 Hazards of landslides21.2 Landslide types: classification and description21.2.1 Falls21.2.2 Topples21.2.3 Slides21.2.4 Lateral spread21.2.5 Flows21.2.6 Complex21.3 Causes of landslides21.3.1 Geological processes21.3.2 Human actions21.3.4 Natural causes21.4 Investigation of areas affected by landslides and slide-prone area21.5 Landslide hazard zonation mapping on BIS guideline21.6 Landslide hazard mitigation21.6.1 Modification of slope geometry and prevention of land erosion21.6.2 Drainage arrangement in relation to groundwater management21.6.3 Slope reinforcement21.6.4 Retaining structures21.6.5 Other methods of soil stabilization21.7 Instances of major landslides of India with causes and effect21.8 Case study on landslides of India happened in the recent past21.8.1 Landslides in different parts of India that took place in recent past21. 9 Case study of Mizoram landslides (after Mukherje et al, 2009)21.10 SummaryReview questions22. Karstic terrain investigation22.1 Solubility of limestone and formation of karst22.2 Surface and subsurface forms of caverns22.2.1 Surface caverns: sinkholes, swallow holes22.2.2 Subsurface caverns: solution channels/tunnels22.2.3 Stalactites and Stalagmites22.3 Investigation methods for evaluation of karstic condition22.3.1 Speleologic study22.3.2 Geophysical study22.3.3 Exploration by drilling22.4 Chemical and radioactive tracer study of reservoir22.4.1 Investigation method using chemical tracer22.4.2 Radioactive tracer study22.5 Construction of dams and reservoirs in karstic limestone22.6 Instances of karstic limestone problems and remedial measures1. Projects of India (i) Kopili, Meghalaya (ii) Obra, Madhya Pradesh2. Projects in other countries of world22.7 SummaryReview questions23. Guidelines for writing Engineering Geology report23.1 Objective of engineering geology report23.2 Basic aspects23.3 Geological inputs23. 4 Report for different phases of site investigation23.4.1 Planning phase23.4.2 Design phase23.4.3 Construction phase23.5 Report for special investigation23.6 In-field preparation of write-up for a report23.7 Illustrative example of report writing (A planning stage report of Dr. J.B. Auden)23.8 SummaryReview questions24. Physiography, stratigraphy and ores and minerals of India24.1 Physiographic features of India24.1.1 The Peninsular plateau24.1.2 The Extra-Peninsular area24.1.3 Indo-Gangetic plains24.2 The Stratigraphy of India24.2.1 Geological formations of India from Archaean to Recent24.3 The Archaean Complex24.3.1 Gneisses and Granites24.3.2 Precambrian sediments24.4 Palaeozoic Era24.4.1 Cambrian System24.4.2 Silurian and Devonian24.4.3 Carboniferous and Permian24.5 Gondwana formation24.6 The Mesozoic Era24.6.1 Triassic period24.6.2 Jurassic period24.6.3 Cretaceous period24.7 The Tertiary rock formations24.8 The Quaternary period24.9 Economic resources from produces of rock formations24.9.1 Metallic minerals24. 8.2 Non-Metallic minerals24.8.3 Coal and petroleum24.9.4 Building stones24.10 SummaryReview questionsAppendix A Geotechnical problems of dams and their solutionsA.1 Dams founded on igneous rocks(1) Koyna , Maharashtra(2) Ukai, GujaratA. 2 Dams built on sedimentary rocks(1) Rana Pratap Sagar, Rajasthan(2) Srisailam, Andhra PradeshA. 3 Dams founded on metamorphic rocks(1) Idukki, Kerala(2) Umiam, MeghalayaA. 4 Dams founded on heterogeneous rocks(1) Hirakud, Orissa(2) Tenughat, BiharA. 5 Dams of Himalayan terrain(1) Bhakra Nangal, Punjab(2) Ranjit Sagar, PunjabA.6. Instances of dam failure(1) Tigra, Madhya Pradesh(2) Kedarnala, Madhya Pradesh(3) Khadakwasla, MaharastrSummaryAppendix B Geotechnical problems of tunnels and their solutionsB.1 Hard rock tunnelling(1) Umiam Stage-I, Meghalaya(2) Balimela, OrissB.2 Soft rock tunnelling(1) Rana Pratap Sagar, Rajasthan(2) Ramganga, Uttar PradesB.3 Tunnelling in Himalayan terrain(1) Jaldhaka, West Bengal(2) Banihal, J. and KB.4 Soft ground tunnellingB.5 Kolkata Metro Railway TunnelSummaryAppendix C GlossaryReferences