This is the first history of dictionaries of English for foreign learners from their origins in Japan and East Asa in the 1920s, to the computerized compilations of the present. Monolingual dictionaries for foreign speakers were a revolutionary development at their outset, and now represent acoming-together of intellectual, technological, and commercial forces almost unequalled in book publishing. As the author shows, the early history of EFL dictionaries was research-driven, arising directly from research in linguistic theory and language pedagogy; now it is user-driven, determined bywhat users require or are thought to require. The pioneering dictionaries were the work of individuals. Current dictionaries are the products of huge databases manipulated by sophisticated processing, as publishers strive to share an immense and ever growing global market.The book has both a thematic and a chronological structure. Three chapters describe the historical sequence over a period of some sixty years. These alternate with chapters dealing with phraseology, computers and corpus linguistics, and research into dictionary users and uses -- three subjectscentral to the development of ELT dictionaries over the last thirty years. Anthony Cowie examines the way in which availability of massive computing power has transformed the recording and analysis of current speech, and shows how the growth of research into the users and uses of dictionaries hasled to developments both in ELT lexicography and method.This readable and non-technical account is directed at professionals in applied linguistics and English language teaching, and at lexicographers, but it will fascinate everyone concerned with the analysis of English and faced with the challenge of recording the subtleties of its grammar andmeaning.