Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions by R. H. WebbEnvironmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions by R. H. Webb

Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid Regions

byR. H. WebbEditorH. G. Wilshire

Paperback | December 21, 2011

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This series is dedicated to serving the growing community of scholars and practitioners concerned with the principles and applications of environ­ mental management. Each volume is a thorough treatment of a specific topic of importance for proper management practices. A fundamental objective of these books is to help the reader discern and implement man's stewardship of our environment and the world's renewable re­ sources. For we must strive to understand the relationship between man and nature, act to bring harmony to it, and nurture an environment that is both stable and productive. These objectives have often eluded us because the pursuit of other individual and societal goals has diverted us from a course of living in balance with the environment. At times, therefore, the environmental manager may have to exert restrictive control, which is usually best applied to man, not nature. Attempts to alter or harness nature have often failed or backfired, as exemplified by the results of imprudent use of herbicides, fertilizers, water, and other agents. Each book in this series will shed light on the fundamental and applied aspects of environmental management. It is hoped that each will help solve a practical and serious environmental problem.
Title:Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles: Impacts and Management in Arid RegionsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:534 pagesPublished:December 21, 2011Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1461254566

ISBN - 13:9781461254560

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- The Wonders and Fragility of Arid Areas.- The Problem Is Recognized.- What Must Be Done?.- References.- I. Physical Effects of Off-Road Vehicle Use.- 2. Soil and Soil Formation in Arid Regions.- Soils of Arid Regions.- Classification.- Distribution.- Soil Formation.- Rate of Soil Formation and Age of Desert Soils.- The Effect of ORVs on Desert Soils.- Conclusions and Management Recommendations.- References.- 3. The Impact of Vehicles on Desert Soil Stabilizers.- Macrofloral Elements.- Microfloral Elements.- Inorganic Elements.- Conclusions.- References.- 4. Compaction of Desert Soils by Off-Road Vehicles.- An Example of ORV Compaction of Soils: Experimental Results for Controlled Motorcycle Traffic.- The Compaction Process.- Stress Distributions Under Vehicle Tires.- The Variation in Compaction with Depth.- Time Dependence of Compaction.- Empirical Models of Compaction in Sandy Soils.- Effect of Moisture Content and Soil Texture on Compaction.- Effects of Soil Compaction on Infiltration Rates.- Experimental Verification of Porosity Changes in Compacted Soil.- Models of Infiltration in Unsaturated Soils.- Models of Unsaturated Moisture Flow in Compacted Soils.- Raindrop Impact Effects.- Summary and Management Considerations.- References.- 5. Accelerated Water Erosion in ORV-Use Areas.- Erosion Measurement and Natural Erosion Rates.- Erosion Rates in ORV-Use Areas.- ORV Effects on Runoff Volume and Frequency.- ORV Effects on the Erosion Process.- Erosion Prediction.- Summary.- Management Recommendations.- References.- 6. Accelerated Wind Erosion and Prediction of Rates.- Theoretical Considerations.- Experimental Results 98 Expected Conditions of Soils Which Are Vulnerable to ORV Disturbance.- Calculation of Wind Erosion Rates.- Expected Yearly Wind Erosion.- Length of Time the Desert Surface is Vulnerable to Wind Erosion.- Conclusions and Management Recommendations.- References.- II. Biological Effects of off-Road Vehicle Use.- 7. Plant Ecology in Deserts: An Overview.- Physical Setting.- Physiological Plant Ecology.- Productivity of Vegetation in Arid and Semiarid Lands.- Vegetation Dynamics in Arid Lands.- Plant Succession in Arid Lands.- Overall Effects and Management of Off-Road Vehicles in Arid and Semiarid Vegetation Types.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 8. The Effect of Vehicle Use on Desert Vegetation.- Methods.- Results.- Conclusions.- Management Recommendations.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 9. Effects of Off-Road Vehicle Noise on Desert Vertebrates.- The Nature of Sounds.- Sound Pressure Levels in the California Desert.- The Effects of Dune Buggy Sounds on Hearing in the Mojave Fringe-Toed Lizard, Uma scoparia.- The Effect of Motorcycle Sounds on the Emergence of Couch's Spadefoot Toad, Scaphiopus couchi.- The Effects of Dune Buggy Sounds on Behavioral Thresholds of Desert Kangaroo Rats, Dipodomys deserti.- Summary and Management Recommendations.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 10. Vehicular Recreation in Arid Land Dunes: Biotic Responses and Management Alternatives.- Dune Plants and Animals.- The Algodones Dunes: A Case Study.- Management of Sand Dunes and the Theory of Island Biogeography.- Acknowledgments.- References.- III. Rehabilitation Potential for Disturbed Arid Regions.- 11. Regeneration of Desert Pavement and Varnish.- Recovery of Desert Pavement Disturbed by Off-Road Vehicle Traffic.- Desert Varnish.- Conclusion.- References.- 12. Control of Rills and Gullies in Off-Road Vehicle Traffic Areas.- Characteristics of Rills and Gullies Resulting from Off-Road Vehicle Traffic.- Control Measures on Hill Slopes.- Control Measures on Valley Bottoms.- Relative Costs and Sediment Benefits.- Conclusion.- References.- Appendix: Symbols.- 13. Recovery of Perennial Vegetation in Military Maneuver Areas.- General Patton's Tank Maneuver Areas: Camps Ibis and Essex.- Methods.- Results.- Recovery Rates.- Estimated Time Span for Recovery.- Conclusions.- Management Recommendations.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 14. Natural Recovery of Soils and Vegetation Following Human Disturbance.- Processes of Soil Recovery from Compaction.- Secondary Plant Succession in Compacted Soils.- Examples of Recovery in Disturbed Desert Areas.- Conclusions and Management Recommendations.- References.- 15. Recovery Rates and Rehabilitation of Powerline Corridors.- Environmental Impact of Transmission Lines.- Natural Recovery Following Transmission Line Construction.- Power Transmission Lines and ORVs.- Coolwater-Kramer 220-kV Transmission Line Revegetation Study.- Conclusions and Management Implications.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 16. History of Revegetation Studies in the California Deserts.- Los Angeles Aqueduct.- Other Aqueduct Seedings.- Solar Thermal Power Systems.- Highway Seedings.- Other Roadside Studies.- Laboratory Studies.- Discussion.- References.- 17. Revegetation and Stabilization Techniques for Disturbed Desert Vegetation.- Temporary Erosion Control.- Choice of Plants for Vegetation.- Seed Availability.- Direct Seeding Techniques.- Transplanting Shrubs.- Management of Seeded Areas.- Conclusions and Recommendations.- References.- IV. Case Histories of Off-Road Vehicle Impacts.- 18. Off-Road Vehicular Destabilization of Hill Slopes: The Major Contributing Factor to Destructive Debris Flows in Ogden, Utah, 1979.- Physical Setting.- Historical Perspective.- Methods of Study.- Results.- Summary.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 19. The Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles in the Coorong Dune and Lake Complex of South Australia.- Geomorphic and Ecological Setting.- Patterns of ORV Use and Their Geomorphic Impacts.- The Impact of ORVs on Plant and Animal Life.- Management Possibilities.- References.- 20. Chrysotile Asbestos in a Vehicular Recreation Area: A Case Study.- Geology.- Vegetation.- History.- Experimental Procedures and Results.- Discussion and Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- V. Management of Off-Road Vehicles.- 21. Management Concepts.- Users and Their Needs.- Conflicts with Other Users.- Effects on the Nation's Resources.- Four Questions.- The Bottom Line!.- References.- 22. Management Practices.- Meeting User Needs.- Inventorying Land Uses and Resources.- Selecting the Sites.- Designation or Zoning.- Design and Construction.- Managing ORV Facilities.- Managing ORV Events.- Monitoring, Closing, and Reclaiming.- Closing Comment.- References.- 23. Regulations and Education.- Regulating ORVs.- Enforcing Regulations.- Raising Revenues.- Educating and Training.- Closing Comment.- References.