This landmark classic marks the beginning of a new approach to Indian philosophy. While older approaches were born from the assumption that critical thinking was unknown to the East and all philosophical endeavor was assumed to be a manifestation of religious doctrine or a form of mysticism,Matilal brilliantly succeeds in dispelling these assumptions and so opens up the rich traditions of Indian philosophical analysis to the modern reader. Is reality actually knowable and therefore expressible in language? Matilal locates his analysis in this central debate and brings in Indian philosophical texts as pivotal, canonical statements of epistemological and methodological relevance. This edition incorporates additions and changes made byMatilal in his personal copy. Edited and with a preface by Jonardon Ganeri, the volume is a lucid introduction to the varied legacy of Indian philosophical analysis.