Essential Communication

Paperback | January 16, 2015

byRonald Adler, George Rodman, Athena Du Pre

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Concise, compact, and visually exciting, Essential Communication is a fresh approach to human communication. Written by renowned author team Ron Adler, George Rodman, and Athena du Pre, the text more accurately reflects the way that today's students communicate yet still includes moresubstantive content than other brief books on the market. Filled with skills-oriented concepts and learning objectives, Essential Communication is salient, practical, and engaging.

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Concise, compact, and visually exciting, Essential Communication is a fresh approach to human communication. Written by renowned author team Ron Adler, George Rodman, and Athena du Pre, the text more accurately reflects the way that today's students communicate yet still includes moresubstantive content than other brief books on the ma...

Ronald B. Adler is Professor Emeritus of Communication at Santa Barbara City College. He is author of Interplay, Twelfth Edition (OUP 2013), Looking Out, Looking In, and Communicating at Work: Principles and Practices for Business and the Professions. In addition to his academic pursuits, Ron works with businesses and nonprofit agenci...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:448 pages, 10 × 7.01 × 0.91 inPublished:January 16, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199342369

ISBN - 13:9780199342365

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

1. Communication: What and WhyCommunication Defined- Communication Is Symbolic- Communication Is a Process- Communication Is Irreversible- Communication Is Relational, Not IndividualModels of Communication- A Linear Model- A Transactional ModelContexts of Communication- Intrapersonal Communication- Dyadic/Interpersonal Communication- Small Group Communication- Organizational Communication- Public Communication- Mass CommunicationCommunication Competence- Characteristics of Competent Communication-- There Is No "Ideal" Way to Communicate-- Competence Is Situational-- Competence Is Relational-- Competence Can Be Learned- Characteristics of Competent Communicators-- Competent Communicators Are Flexible-- Competent Communicators Are Emphatic-- Competent Communicators are Cognitively Complex-- Competent Communicators Self-Monitor-- Competent Communicators Are CommittedCommunication Competence with Social Media- Choose the Best Medium- Be Careful What You Post- Be Considerate-- Respect Others' Need for Undivided Attention-- Keep Your Tone Civil-- Respect Privacy Boundaries-- Be Mindful of Bystanders- Balance Mediated and Face-to-Face Time- Be SafeMisconceptions About Communication- Communication Does Not Always Require Complete Understanding- Communication Will Not Solve All Problems- Communication Isn't Always a Good Thing- Meanings Don't Rest in Words- Communication Is Not Simple- More Communication Isn't Always Better2. The Self, Perception, and CommunicationThe Self-Concept Defined- Self-Esteem Influences the Self-Concept- Significant Others Influence the Self-Concept- Culture Influences the Self-Concept- The Self-Concept Influences Communication with Others- The Self-Concept Influences Future Communication and BehaviorPerceiving Others Effectively- Sex and Gender Misconceptions-- No One Is Exclusively Male or Female- The Terms "Sex" and "Gender" Are Not Identical-- Masculine and Feminine Behaviors Are Part of a Continuum- Mistaken Attributions-- We Often Judge Ourselves More Charitably Than We Judge Others-- We Often Pay More Attention to Negative Impressions Than Positive Ones-- We Tend to Assume That Others Are Similar to Us- Empathy and Perception Challenges-- Dimensions of Empathy-- Perception Checking- Identity Management-- We Have Public and Private Selves-- We Have Multiple Identities-- Identity Management Is Collaborative-- Identity Management May Be Conscious or Unconscious-- People Differ in Their Degree of Identity Management-- People Manage Identities to Follow Social Rules and Accomplish Goals-- People Manage Identities Online-- Managing Your Identity Doesn't Make You Dishonest3. Communication and CultureCulture DefinedCocultures and Communication- Ethnicity and Race- Region- Sexual Orientation and Gender IdentityReligion- Physical Ability and Disability- Age and Generation- Socioeconomic StatusCultural Values and Norms That Shape Communication- Individualism and Collectivism- High and Low Context- Uncertainty Avoidance- Power Distance- Talk and Silence- Competition and CooperationDeveloping Intercultural Communication Competence- Spend Time with People from Different Backgrounds- Develop a Tolerance for Ambiguity- Keep an Open-Minded Attitude- Acquire and Use Culture-Specific Information Appropriately- Be Patient and Persistent4. LanguageThe Nature of Language- Language Is Symbolic- Meanings Are in People, Not in Words- Language Is Governed By Rules-- Phonological Rules-- Syntactic Rules-- Semantic Rules-- Pragmatic RulesThe Power of Language- Language Shapes Attitudes-- Naming-- Status-- Sexism and Racism- Language Reflects Attitudes-- Power-- Affiliation-- ResponsibilityTroublesome Language- Misunderstandings-- Equivocal Misunderstandings-- Relative Words-- Slang and Jargon- Disruptive Language-- Confusing Facts and Opinions-- Confusing Facts and Inferences-- Emotive Language- Evasive Language-- Euphemisms-- EquivocationGender and Language- Content- Reasons for Communicating- Conversational Style- Occupation and Gender Roles- Biological Factors- Social Norms- Transcending Gender Boundaries5. ListeningMisconceptions about Listening- Hearing and Listening Are Not the Same Thing- Listening Is Not a Natural Process- All Listeners Do Not Receive the Same MessageChallenges to Effective Listening- Faulty Listening Behaviors- Reasons for Poor Listening-- Message Overload-- Rapid Thought-- Psychological Noise-- Physical Noise-- Hearing Problems-- Faulty Assumptions-- Perceived Advantages of Talking-- Cultural Differences-- Media InfluencesTypes of Listening- Task-Oriented Listening-- Extract Key Ideas-- Ask Questions-- Paraphrase-- Take Notes- Relational Listening-- Allow Enough Time-- Listen for Unexpressed Thoughts and Feelings-- Encourage Further Comments- Analytical Listening-- Listen for Information before Evaluating-- Separate the Message from the Speaker-- Search for Value- Critical Listening-- Examine the Speaker's Evidence and Reasoning-- Evaluate the Speaker's Credibility-- Assess Emotional AppealsListening and Social Support- Social Support Online- Gender and Social Support- When and How to Help6. Nonverbal CommunicationCharacteristics of Nonverbal Communication- Nonverbal Behavior has Communicative Value- Nonverbal Behavior Is Primarily Relational- Nonverbal Behavior Is Ambiguous- Nonverbal Communication Is EssentialFunctions of Nonverbal Behavior- Repeating- Substituting- Complementing- Regulating- Contradicting- DeceivingTypes of Nonverbal Communication- Body Movements-- Posture-- Gestures- Face- Eyes- Voice- Appearance-- Physical Attractiveness-- Clothing- Touch- Space-- Distance-- Territory- Environmen- TimeInfluences on Nonverbal Communication- Culture- GenderNonverbal Communication Competence- Tune Out Words- Use Perception Checking- Pay Attention to Your Own Nonverbal Behavior7. Communicating in Interpersonal RelationshipsThe Nature of Interpersonal Communication- Content and Relational Messages-- Affinity-- Respect-- Immediacy-- Control- MetacommunicationSelf-Disclosure- Models of Self-Disclosure-- Social Penetration Model-- The Johari Window- Questions to Ask Before Self-Disclosing-- Is the Other Person Important to You?-- Is the Risk of Disclosing Reasonable?-- Are the Amount and Type of Disclosure Appropriate?-- Is the Disclosure Relevant to the Situation at Hand?-- Is the Disclosure Reciprocated?-- Will the Effect be Constructive?-- Is the Self-Disclosure Clear and Understandable?Mediated Versus Face-to-Face CommunicationCommunication Climates in Interpersonal Relationships- Confirming and Disconfirming Messages-- Recognition-- Acknowledgement-- Endorsement- Relational Spirals- Defensive and Supportive Behaviors-- Evaluation vs. Description-- Control vs. Problem Orientation-- Strategy vs. Spontaneity-- Neutrality vs. Empathy-- Superiority vs. Equality-- Certainty vs. Provisionalism8. Communicating With Friends and FamilyHow We Choose Friendships- Similarity- Complementarity- Mutual Liking- RewardsTypes of Friendships- Short-Term vs. Long-Term- Low Disclosure vs. High Disclosure- Doing-Oriented vs. Being-Oriented- Low Obligation vs. High Obligation- Same Sex vs. Other Sex- In-Person vs. MediatedSuccessful Communication in Friendships- Be a Good Listener- Give Advice Sparingly- Share Feelings Respectfully- Apologize and Forgive- Be Validating and Appreciative- Stay True Through Hard Times- Be Trustworthy and Loyal- Give and Take EquallyTypes of Family Relationships- Parents and Children-- Communication Patterns-- Parenting Styles- Siblings-- Supportive-- Longing-- Competitive-- Apathetic-- Hostile- Grandparents and GrandchildrenSuccessful Communication in Family Relationships- Share Family Stories- Listen to Each Other- Negotiate Privacy Rules- Coach Conflict Management- Go Heavy on Confirming Messages- Have Fun9. Communicating With Romantic PartnersThe Nature of Intimacy- Male and Female Intimacy Styles- Love Languages-- Affirming Words-- Quality Time-- Acts of Service-- Gifts-- Physical TouchCommunicating in Romantic Relationships- A Developmental Perspective-- Initiating-- Experimenting-- Intensifying-- Integrating-- Bonding-- Differentiating-- Circumscribing-- Stagnating-- Avoiding-- Terminating- A Dialectical Perspective-- Connection vs. Autonomy-- Openness vs. Privacy-- Predictability vs. Novelty- Strategies for Managing Dialectical Tensions-- Denial-- Disorientation-- Selection-- Alternation-- Polarization-- Segmentation-- Moderation-- Reframing-- ReaffirmationDeception in Romantic Relationships- Altruistic Lies- Evasions- Self-Serving LiesManaging Interpersonal Conflict- Styles of Expressing Conflict-- Nonassertion-- Direct Aggression-- Passive Aggression-- Indirect Communication-- Assertion- Abusive Relationships-- Psychologically Abusive Relationships-- Physically Abusive Relationships- Applying Win-Win Problem Solving-- Step 1: Identify Your Problem and Unmet Needs-- Step 2: Make a Date-- Step 3: Describe Your Problem and Needs-- Step 4: Check Your Partner's Understanding-- Step 5: Solicit Your Partner's Needs-- Step 6: Check Your Understanding of Your Partner's Needs-- Step 7: Negotiate a Solution-- Step 8: Follow-Up on the Solution10. Communicating for Career SuccessStrategies for Finding a Job- Cultivating Personal Networks-- View Everyone as a Networking Prospect-- Seek Referrals-- Show Appreciation-- Engage in Online Networking-- Monitor Your Online Identity- Conducting Informational Interviews-- Make Your First Contact in Writing-- Prepare Questions Ahead of Time-- Be Sure to Follow-UpStrategies for Getting Hired- Applying for a Job-- Create a Polished Resume-- Create a Cover Letter-- Follow Application Instructions-- Keep Organized Records for Your Communications- Preparing for the Selection Interview-- Do Your Research-- Prepare for Likely Questions-- Dress for Success-- Take Copies of Your Resume and Portfolio-- Know When and Where to Go-- Reframe Your Anxiety as Enthusiasm- During the Interview-- Mind Your Manners-- Follow the Interviewer's Lead-- Keep Your Answers Succinct and Specific-- Describe Relevant Challenges, Actions, and Results-- Ask Good Questions of Your Own- Post-Interview Follow-Up- Phone and Video Interviews-- Create a Professional Identity-- Consider How You Look and Sound-- Check Every Detail in Advance-- Ensure You Have the Right Time for the Interview-- Look at the Camera, Not the Screen-- Conduct a Dress Rehearsal- Interviewing and the LawStrategies for Communicating on the Job- Communicating with Followers, Leaders, and Peers-- Communicating with Followers-- Communicating with Leaders-- Communicating with Peers- Communicating in a Professional Manner-- Be Sensitive to Cultural and Co-Cultural Differences-- Don't Overshare-- Communicate in a Principled Manner-- Exceed Expectations-- Keep Your Cool-- Be E-Savvy-- Acknowledge Gaffes and Move On- Working with a Difficult Boss-- Adapt to Your Boss-- Seek Advice from Others-- Try to Clarify and Improve the Situation-- Manage Your Expectations-- Keep a Professional Demeanor-- Prepare to Move On- Exiting GraciouslyLeadership, Followership, and Power- Approaches to Leadership- Becoming a Leader- The Importance of Followers- Power in the Workplace-- Legitimate Power-- Expert Power-- Connection Power-- Reward and Coercive Power-- Referent Power11. Communicating in Groups and TeamsThe Nature of Groups and Teams- What a Group Is-- Interaction-- Interdependence-- Time-- Size- Group and Individual Goals- How a Group Becomes a TeamCharacteristics of Groups- Rules and Norms- Patterns of Interaction- Roles-- Seek the Optimal Ratio of Task and Social Roles-- Look for Unfilled Roles-- Avoid Duplicating Roles-- Avoid Role Fixation-- Avoid Dysfunctional RolesProblem Solving in Groups- Advantages of Group Problem Solving-- Resources-- Accuracy-- Commitment-- Diversity- When to Use Groups for Problem Solving- Developmental Stages in Group Problem Solving-- Orientation Stage-- Conflict Stage-- Emergence Stage--Reinforcement StageGroup Problem-Solving Strategies and Formats- Problem-Solving Formats-- Breakout Group-- Problem Census Group--Focus Group-- Panel Discussion-- Symposium-- Forum-- Dialogue- Solving Problems in Virtual Groups- A Structured Problem-Solving Approach-- Identify the Problem-- Analyze the Problem-- Develop Creative Solutions-- Evaluate the Solutions-- Implement the Plan-- Follow-Up on the Solution- Decision-Making Methods-- Consensus-- Majority Control-- Expert Opinion-- Minority Control-- Authority RuleMaking the Most of Group Discussion- Build Cohesiveness- Encourage Equal Participation- Avoid Information Underload and Overload- Avoid Pressure to ConformMake the Most of Diversity12. Preparing SpeechesAnalyzing Your Speaking Situation- The Audience- The OccasionPlanning Your Speech- Choose Your Topic- Define Your Purpose- Write a Purpose Statement- State Your Thesis- Gather InformationStructuring Your Speech- Outlines- Speaking Notes- Organizational Patterns-- Time-- Space-- Topic-- Problem-Solution-- Cause-Effect-- Monroe's Motivated SequenceUsing Introductions, Conclusions, and Transitions- The Introduction-- Capture Attention--Preview the Main Points-- Set the Mood and Tone of Your Speech-- Demonstrate the Importance of Your Topic to Your Audience-- Establish Credibility- The Conclusion- TransitionsUsing Supporting Material- Types of Support-- Definitions-- Examples-- Statistics-- Analogies/Comparison-Contrast-- Anecdotes-- Quotation/Testimony- Styles of Support13. Presenting SpeechesManaging Speech Anxiety- Helpful and Unhelpful Speech Anxiety- Sources of Unhelpful Speech Anxiety-- Previous Negative Experience-- Irrational Thinking- How to Overcome Unhelpful Speech AnxietyChoosing a Type of Delivery- Extemporaneous- Impromptu- Manuscript- MemorizedUsing Visual Aids- Types of Visual Aids-- Objects and Models-- Diagrams-- Word and Number Charts-- Pie Charts-- Bar and Column Charts-- Line Charts- Media for Presenting Visual Aids-- Chalkboards, Whiteboards, and Polymer Marking Surfaces-- Flip Pads and Poster Board-- Handouts-- Projectors-- Other Electronic Media- Rules for Using Visual Aids-- Simplicity-- Size-- Attractiveness-- Appropriateness-- Reliability- Presentation SoftwarePracticing the Speech- Visual Aspects of Delivery-- Appearance-- Movement-- Posture-- Facial Expression-- Eye Contact- Auditory Aspects of Delivery-- Volume-- Rate-- Pitch-- Articulation- Online/Virtual Delivery14. Speaking to Inform, Persuade, and EntertainTypes of Speeches- Informative Speeches-- An Informative Topic Tends to Be Noncontroversial-- The Informative Speaker Does Not Intend to Change Audience Attitudes- Persuasive Speeches-- Persuasion Is Usually Incremental-- Persuasion Can Be Ethical- Speeches to EntertainTechniques of Informative Speaking- Define a Specific Informative Purpose- Make it Easy for the Audience to Listen-- Limit the Amount of Information You Present-- Transition from Familiar to Newer Information-- Transition from Simple to More Complex Information- Use Clear, Simple Language- Emphasize Important Points-- Repetition-- Signposts- Generate Audience Involvement-- Use Audience Participation-- Have a Question-and-Answer PeriodTechniques of Persuasive Speaking- Set a Specific Persuasive Purpose- Structure Your Speech Strategically-- Describe the Problem-- Describe the Solution-- Describe the Desired Audience Response-- Use Monroe's Motivated Sequence- Structure Your Argument Carefully-- Claims and Subclaims-- Evidence-- The Toulmin Model- Avoid Fallacies-- Ad Hominem-- Reductio Ad Absurdum-- Either-Or-- Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc-- Argumentum Ad Verecundiam-- Argumentum Ad Populum- Adapt to Your Specific Audience- Establish Common Ground and CredibilityTechniques of Speaking to Entertain- Follow the Rules of Humor-- Levity-- Originality-- Appropriateness- Use the Most Effective Type of Humor-- Humorous Description-- Exaggeration-- Incongruity-- Word Play-- Satire

Editorial Reviews

"This is a student friendly book, that is affordable and covers all information needed in an Oral Communication course. This text is well researched and written for an entry level communication course. There is great depth to each topic covered." --Kim G. Smith, Bishop State Community College