Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution

Hardcover | September 14, 2007

EditorGáspár Jékely

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Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution discusses the evolutionary origin and diversification of eukaryotic endomembranes and cytoskeleton from a cell biological and comparative genomic perspective. Many of the chapters present original research data from comparative genomic surveys. The presence/absence of gene families with central roles in endomembrane and cytoskeleton dynamics in a variety of eukaryotic taxa and an understanding of eukaryote phylogeny allow us to accurately reconstruct the cellular machineries present in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Such a reconstruction is fundamental if we are to understand eukaryotic diversification since this is the ancestral cell from which all diversity arose. Comparative genomics can likewise tell us which lineages expanded or reduced certain gene families and the associated cellular machineries.

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Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution discusses the evolutionary origin and diversification of eukaryotic endomembranes and cytoskeleton from a cell biological and comparative genomic perspective. Many of the chapters present original research data from comparative genomic surveys. The presence/absence of gene fa...

Format:HardcoverDimensions:161 pages, 10 × 7.01 × 0 inPublished:September 14, 2007Publisher:Springer New YorkLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0387740201

ISBN - 13:9780387740201

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Table of Contents

CONTENTSPREFACE ............................................................................................................ V1. THE EARLY EUKARYOTIC FOSSIL RECORD ....................................... 1Emmanuelle J. JavauxIntroduction ......................................................................................................................... 1The Geological Record ........................................................................................................ 2Dating Biological Innovations .......................................................................................... 10Conclusions ........................................................................................................................ 152. THE DIVERSITY OF EUKARYOTES AND THE ROOTOF THE EUKARYOTIC TREE......................................................... 20Henner Brinkmann and Hervé PhilippeWoese's Paradigm .............................................................................................................. 20Progresses in Tree Reconstruction Methods and in Sequencing:The Promise of Phylogenomics ................................................................................. 21The Root of the Tree of Life .............................................................................................. 25"Primitive" Eukaryotes: A Second Major Paradigm Shift ............................................ 26Current Status of the Eukaryotic Phylogeny .................................................................. 27Molecular Dating ............................................................................................................... 29From Simple Organism to Simple Processes .................................................................. 313. ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTIC ENDOMEMBRANES: A CRITICALEVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MODEL SCENARIOS ............... 38Gáspár JékelyIntroduction ....................................................................................................................... 38Physico-Chemical Constraints of Membrane Topogenesis ............................................ 39Symbiotic Scenarios for the Origin of the Nucleus and Endomembranes ................... 40Origin of Endomembranes by de Novo Vesicle Formation ........................................... 44Autogenous Scenarios ....................................................................................................... 45Interspecific Interactions at the Origin of Eukaryotic Endomembranes ...................49xiv Contents4. ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF COTRANSLATIONALTRANSPORT TO THE ER................................................................. 52Thomas U. SchwartzIntroduction ....................................................................................................................... 52Mediators of Cotranslational Transport ......................................................................... 53The Control of Cotranslational Targeting ....................................................................... 55Evolutionary Considerations ............................................................................................ 575. EVOLUTION OF THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUMAND THE GOLGI COMPLEX.......................................................... 61Alexander A. Mironov, Victor V. Banin, Irina S. Sesorova,Viacheslav V. Dolgikh, Alberto Luini and Galina V. BeznoussenkoIntroduction ....................................................................................................................... 61Common and Peculiar Features of the Golgi Complex in DifferentEukaryotic Cells ........................................................................................................ 64The Minimal Set of Genes Involved in Intracellular Traffic ......................................... 65Models of Evolution of the ER and the Golgi Complex ................................................. 666. AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE ON EUKARYOTICMEMBRANE TRAFFICKING .......................................................... 73Cemal Gurkan, Atanas V. Koulov and William E. BalchIntroduction ....................................................................................................................... 73Coat Protein Complexes: Cellular Machineries Driving VesicleFormation/Fission ...................................................................................................... 74SNARE Proteins: Cellular Machineries Driving Membrane Docking/Fusion ............ 77Rab GTPases: Key Regulators of Membrane Trafficking ............................................. 777. RECONSTRUCTING THE EVOLUTION OF THE ENDOCYTICSYSTEM: INSIGHTS FROM GENOMICS AND MOLECULARCELL BIOLOGY ................................................................................. 84Mark C. Field, Carme Gabernet-Castello and Joel B. DacksDefining Endocytosis ......................................................................................................... 85The General Structure and Morphological Evolution of Endocytic Systems .............. 86Key Factors Involved in Endocytic Systems and Their Evolutionary Distribution .... 88Perspectives ........................................................................................................................ 938. ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF THE ACTIN CYTOSKELETON ...... 97Francisco Rivero and Fatima Cvr kováIntroduction ....................................................................................................................... 97The Actin Cytoskeleton in the Cellular Context ........................................................... 100Actin and Monomer-Binding Proteins .......................................................................... 100Contents xvActin Nucleation Complexes ........................................................................................... 103Other Actin-Binding Proteins ......................................................................................... 104Effectors and Regulators of the Actin Cytoskeleton .................................................... 1059. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SELF-CONSUMPTION:AUTOPHAGY.................................................................................... 111Timothy Hughes and Tor Erik RustenSummary .......................................................................................................................... 111Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 111Degradation of Proteins in Chambered Proteases in Pro- and Eukaryotes ............... 112Different Modes of Autophagy Degrade Long-Lived Proteins and Organellesin Eukaryotes ........................................................................................................... 112The Autophagy-Specific Molecular Machinery Involves Two Ubiquitin-LikeConjugation Pathways ............................................................................................ 113Is Autophagy a Pan-Eukaryotic Process? ..................................................................... 114Discussion ......................................................................................................................... 11610. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE CENTROSOME ...................... 119Michel Bornens and Juliette AzimzadehSummary .......................................................................................................................... 119Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 119The Centrosome-Nucleus Connection ........................................................................... 120Centrosome Has Evolved with Multicellularity ............................................................ 120The Evolution of the Centrin Genes .............................................................................. 121The Centrosome-Nucleus Connection and the Duplication Process ........................... 122Centrosome Has Evolved in Unikonts ........................................................................... 12511. THE EVOLUTION OF EUKARYOTIC CILIA AND FLAGELLAAS MOTILE AND SENSORY ORGANELLES ............................. 130David R. MitchellEvidence for the Presence of a 9+2, Motile, Sensory Organelle in the LastCommon Eukaryotic Ancestor ............................................................................... 130Evolution of Tubulin, Dynein and Kinesin .................................................................... 133The Origins of 9+2 Flagella ............................................................................................ 134Diversification of Flagellar Structure and Functionduring Eukaryotic Radiation ................................................................................. 136INDEX ............................................................................................................... 141