This timely new edition of Evolution of Nervous Systems is a unique major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested in evolution and in nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge of how nervous systems evolved throughout the animal kingdom. The second edition will remain rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. Evolution of Nervous Systems, second edition, also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as well as mechanisms of change, which involved gene expression and altered the courses of embryonic development. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics as well as those providing an overview of current thinking and approaches making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Thematically structured volumes include shorter as well as more extensive articles that allow researchers to explore topics in greater depth, providing an easily-searchable, one-stop resource for foundational coverage of the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom. Brand new content written specifically for the new edition by domain experts, ensures readers have access to the latest research and trends. Areas of disagreement as well as consensus views are included to provide a holistic picture of the subjects under discussion, making this making this the go-to resource for reputable, citable content.