The main aim of this book is to develop and implement an innovative tool: exchange-entitlement mapping, or E-mapping for short. This tool enables us to look at the economic and social opportunities to develop human capabilities for different groups of individuals, depending on their group identity such as age, ethnicity or gender. In the context of this book, however, an entitlement approach is used to explain the channels through which macroeconomic shocks affect individual well-being, depending on the individual's identity and related social norms attached to this identity. In other words, by including capabilities into the existing E-mapping theory, this book shows how capabilities are socially shaped according to individual entitlements, and related entitlement failure, to a specific economic and social environment. In effect, the last part of the manuscript illustrates the E-mapping theory with the case study of the maquiladora identity in Mexico by combining an original survey of maquiladora households with an advanced time series analysis of the gender wage gap in the maquiladora industry in the post-NAFTA period.