Experiencing Philosophy by Anthony F. FalikowskiExperiencing Philosophy by Anthony F. Falikowski

Experiencing Philosophy

byAnthony F. Falikowski

Paperback | May 13, 2003

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This useful and richly informative book will inspire and motivate readers to appreciate the importance and relevance of philosophy in their everyday lives. A user-friendly format provides detailed content coverage and critical reasoning skills development. Its “applied focus” pays attention to the personal and practical relevance of philosophy by focusing on its experiential, therapeutic, and social applications—complemented by a built-in study guide and substantial excerpts from classical original sourceworks. Six chapters cover: what philosophy is, philosophies of life, logic and philosophical method, epistemology and metaphysics, ethics, and political philosophy. For individuals new to, and interested in, the study of philosphy.

Anthony Falikowski is Professor of Philosophy at Sheridan College, Oakville, Ontario, Canada.
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Title:Experiencing PhilosophyFormat:PaperbackPublished:May 13, 2003Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:013012267X

ISBN - 13:9780130122674

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From the Author

NOTE TO THE INSTRUCTOR Experiencing Philosophy is a textbook written and designed to be used in introductory philosophy courses. It could also be adopted in humanities and liberal arts courses, in general education courses, or in critical thinking courses. It can be used in institutions having a first year "foundations" component in their academic program or in vocational schools where there’s a wish to broaden the student’s intellectual horizons. The book begins with the assumption that philosophy is not simply something you know or do but something you experience! There is a human side to philosophy that, unfortunately, is too often neglected in traditional approaches to philosophical teaching. I believe philosophy needn’t be seen as something that is completely theoretical and dry or something that is totally impractical and outdated; rather, the study of philosophy has the potential to transform lives. Acceptance of a metaphysical belief in God or a philosophical commitment to materialistic atheism, for example, will take individuals down very different roads in life. In this book, I will explore philosophy with frequent references to its personal and practical relevance, making efforts to present the subject in its rich diversity to an audience that demands accessibility. Convoluted, impenetrable language will therefore be regarded as an academic vice, not as a virtue of philosophic expression. Experiencing Philosophy is an "applied" text of sorts. Though the personal and applied nature of the book does not adequately present itself in the table of contents, the practical "experiential relevance" shows up in the "Know Thyself" diagnostics, in the "Take It Personally" chapter introductions, in the "Meditative Moment" journal writing opportunities, as well as in the features entitled "Philosophers in Action" and "Discussion Questions for Critique and Analysis." These last two elements in the book provide occasions for students to actually "do" philosophy and thereby experience it in practice for themselves. Note, however, that by making this book practical and personally relevant, I do not wish to compromise on academic respectability. I have written it to be theoretically sound and philosophically sophisticated. You should find it technically accurate and appropriately detailed. As part of my content coverage, I have also included the actual writings of philosophers discussed in a repeating feature throughout the book entitled, "Original Sourceworks." Any one excerpt will be relatively short so as not to discourage beginning students, but, cumulatively, the original writings will constitute a significant exposure to some of the major works with which all introductory philosophy students should be familiar. For the most part, though, significant topics and important philosophers’ writings will be paraphrased, summarized, and explained for those students who would find an entire course based on the classical works inappropriate. In writing this book, I recognize that there are levels of difficulty; I also recognize that not everyone who studies philosophy plans to major in it. The truth is a majority don’t. Furthermore, I appreciate the fact that beginning students should not be expected to master material often assigned in philosophy graduate courses—something I was once expected to do! To capture the point metaphorically, let us say that before one can run a marathon, one must first learn to walk. In recognition of learner needs, this text will contain a substantial pedagogical apparatus designed to encourage and motivate students as well as to maximize their chances of success. I don’t want your students’ first philosophy course to be their last. Little is accomplished if the syllabus is covered, but because of "technical difficulties," regarding meaning and comprehension, nobody cares to learn or remember what was taught. Systematically covering the contents of philosophy, but failing to motivate and inspire students to pursue it further, is like saying, "the operation was a success, but the patient died!" In this book, we’ll be focusing on the "philosophical patient" as much as on following the strict operational procedures demanded by the doctors of philosophy! My aim is to make philosophy "studentfriendly"—to give it S.O.U.L.—a Student Orientation for Understanding and Learning. My goal here is to make this text interesting and exciting for students. I hope to challenge and inspire them. Anyone using this book can expect to do the same. In Chapter 1, we begin with a discussion of the nature, purpose, and scope of philosophy, examining a number of myths and misconceptions about philosophy, and exploring its personal and therapeutic value. In this section, we make efforts to motivate students in their studies by pointing out that philosophy can help to clarify values and assist them in making important life decisions. We observe that, through an examination of perennial wisdom, people can find greater direction and achieve an enhanced sense of personal well being. In this regard, it’s claimed that philosophy may in fact turn out to be the most important and practical subject the student will ever study—truly a startling claim for many. As part of the introduction to philosophy, we also cover the major subdisciplines and discuss the various approaches to philosophy that have been taken in the past. Chapter 2 is tided "Philosophies of Life." In order to immediately engage students with the practical "existential relevance" of philosophy, they are invited to reconsider their own personal philosophies in light of some others that have been developed throughout the ages. We learn in this section how differing philosophical ideas and worldviews are captured by hedonism, stoicism, existentialism, and Buddhism—four starkly contrasting visions of reality. We also see how life takes on different value priorities, depending on which philosophical worldview is adopted. In this chapter, students are encouraged to reflect on their own goals and perceptions of the world. An awareness is generated of how people’s unconscious philosophical assumptions can have real life consequences. In Chapter 3, we find a coverage of logic and its place in philosophical thinking. So many introductory textbooks often make the point that philosophy is more of a method of thinking than a body of knowledge and then, surprisingly, neglect to deal with the method or forget to give students a chance to practice it. In this book, students are indeed encouraged to "do" philosophy, especially when completing reasoning exercises and evaluative critiques. Focusing on the human side of philosophy I also underscore the necessity of making certain attitude adjustments if people are to "do," or engage in, philosophy properly. I discuss the benefits of philosophical argument and explain how arguing is different from opinionating. In this chapter, we look at inductive and deductive logic, learning the differences between validity, soundness, and truth. We also go on to examine a number of informal logical fallacies that make use of emotional and psychological appeals. Students are given opportunities here to practice their logical reasoning skills necessary for further philosophical analysis and debate. Once students understand what philosophy is all about, once they can begin to think as philosophers using valid logic and sound reasoning, and having engaged in a preliminary examination of their own personal philosophies, we move ahead fullsteam in Chapter 4 to explore epistemology and metaphysics, including a section on God. A coverage of Plato, Descartes, the British empiricists, and Immanuel Kant reveals how claims regarding the nature of knowledge (epistemology) are often based on beliefs and assumptions about reality and the physical universe (metaphysics). Discussing rational proofs for the existence of God will help students on a personal level, especially if they are grappling with religious questions at this time in their lives. In Chapter 5, we proceed to the study of ethics and moral philosophy. Perspectives to be covered include: Character Ethics, Utilitarian Ethics, Deontological Ethics, Feminine Ethics, Existentialist Ethics and Ethical Egoism. This coverage will expose students to ancient and modern thinkers, to male and female theorists, and to rational and nonrational approaches. A segue feature in this chapter will also introduce students to the relationship between religion and ethics. Upon successful completion of this chapter, students will be able to make better informed and rationally justifiable moral decisions—certainly an important practical life skill. Chapter 6, the final one, takes us into the territory of political philosophy. Plato’s utopian society is discussed as are the social contract theorists—Hobbes and Locke—thinkers whose collective works reflect the philosophical foundations of Western liberal democracy. In addition, a perspective critical of capitalist liberal democracy, namely Marxism, is also covered. Mans works very effectively as an intellectual alarm clock waking us from our dogmatic capitalist slumbers. A coverage of Chapter 6 should enable students to better appreciate alternative political systems. It should also help to inject a dose of calm rational objectivity when discussing political issues and ideologies. Successful efforts in this regard will have the effect of liberating students from political bias or ethnocentric dogmatism and thereby enable them to function better as citizens of the world. In selecting the content to be dealt with in this introductory textbook, I was very cognizant that not all important subjects and thinkers could be covered. Not only does the writing of a book impose its own time and space limitations, but twelve to sixteenweek college semesters determine how much material can be meaningfully covered by anyone using any book. Courses designed to be massive "informationdumps" and little else have proven to be pedagogically suspect. It seemed to me, then, that the objective in textbook writing should not be to present absolutely everything but to select topics and to develop skills that will prepare students for reallife philosophical reflection and for further studies in the field of philosophy. It is my firm belief that Experiencing Philosophy does this and that it does it in a way that is studentcentered, both interesting and useful for neophyte philosophers. I wish you well in your teaching endeavors and hope that this book enriches your professional experience in the classroom or lecture hall. It constitutes a labor of love to be offered to all those who truly enjoy sharing philosophy with others! FEATURES TAKE IT PERSONALLY To illustrate how philosophy can be useful and relevant to the individual, each chapter of Experiencing Philosophy begins by placing the material to be covered in a personal context. Students are shown how philosophical questions and concerns are often built into their daily life experiences. Grounding philosophical inquiry in the context of real life serves to motivate students and thereby helps instructors to teach more effectively. KNOW THYSELF DIAGNOSTICS This book takes seriously, as did Socrates, the Delphic Oracle’s dictum to "Know thyself." To this end, students are provided selfdiagnostics in each of the chapters to explore further their own philosophical values, ideals, and beliefs pertaining to truth, reality, ethics, the existence of God, the nature of knowledge, metaphysics, and the best system of political organization. By means of these diagnostics, students are given a chance to identify their underlying personal philosophies of life and to compare them with other worldviews that have been articulated over the centuries. Students are also able to assess their current logical thinking abilities so that they can establish how much work they will need to do in order to think rationally like philosophers. PHILOSOPHICAL PROFILES The studentcenteredness of Experiencing Philosophy is evidenced again by putting names and faces with the ideas covered in the book. Pictures of influential and historically important philosophers are presented along with biographical information. Abstract ideas contained within the book are tied to real people with interesting reallife personal histories. This helps to bring the textbook material alive. PHILOSOPHERS IN ACTION Philosophy is often described as more of a method of thinking than as a body of knowledge. From this perspective, philosophy is something you "do," not something you know. With this in mind, students are given many opportunities to practice doing philosophy. Students using this text are frequently asked to think critically and analytically in response to questions posed in the Philosophers in Action feature. These questions require them to conduct thought experiments, analyze concepts, as well as to discuss and debate controversial points. MEDITATIVE MOMENTS Students are encouraged to keep a journal to record their thoughts in response to questions raised in the Meditative Moment features found in each of the chapters. By answering these questions, students learn to appreciate not only the intrinsic value of intellectual inquiry, but also the instrumental worth of philosophy when it comes to dealing with their own existential predicaments—especially where matters of character, happiness, conflict, meaning, and peace of mind are concerned. The kinds of selfreflections encouraged by the Meditative Moment features serve to promote selfknowledge and, in part, a personal wellness function contributing to individual psychohygiene. QUOTATIONS Inspirational and thoughtprovoking quotations are sprinkled throughout the text as a way of generating interest. They may be taken to heart by some readers or remembered for purposes of finding personal meaning and direction in life. At other times, the quotations may be useful to capture the essence of points that are made in a much more detailed way in the main text. These "philosophical zingers," as one might call them, will certainly give us all pause for thought. SHOWCASE BOXES Various figures are presented in Showcase Boxes throughout the text as a way of illustrating and underscoring important points. These boxes can also add relevance sometimes by relating philosophical theory to realworld experiences and current events. Tables, figures, and charts are especially helpful to visual learners. PHILOSOPHICAL SEGUES At several places in the text, digressions called Philosophical Segues are introduced. One deals with Fate, Free Will, and Determinism, another with Proofs for the Existence of God, and a third with Religion and Ethics. These segues address topics relevant to the chapters in which they are found, but in an abbreviated fashion. Given the length restrictions imposed by any introductory text, not all thinkers and topics can be fully covered. The segue features enable one to touch on important subjects, without devoting entire chapters to them. Contributing to the teachability of the text, the segues may themselves provide convenient detours for instructors wishing to digress from the main text from time to time in order to pursue topics of personal interest at greater length. BUILTIN STUDENT STUDY GUIDE Experiencing Philosophy is designed to maximize the chances for student success. Before students can properly analyze, discuss, and debate subtle and esoteric philosophical points, they must first master the basic vocabulary and be able to grasp the fundamental concepts. The builtin study guide is designed to help them do this. By enabling students to gain knowledge and an understanding of the fundamental ideas contained within any one chapter, they are then better prepared to "do" philosophy when it comes to conceptual analysis, theoretical application, or critical normative evaluation. To learn more about how to use the study guide, read my "Message to Students." Listed below are the elements comprising this valuable learning tool. Chapter Overview Learning Outcomes Focus Questions Boldfaced Key Terms List of Key Terms ChapterEnd Progress Check Philosophy in Cyberspace Endnotes INCLUSIVENESS AND RESPECT FOR DIVERSITY Though this book focuses on the Western rational tradition in philosophy, clearly other perspectives exist. Philosophy finds a home in Eastern, Middle Eastern, African, Latin American, and Native North American cultures as well, and in a way that doesn’t always give priority to rationality and discursive thought. Comparative distinctions are made at the outset of this text between the reasoned approach of the Western rational tradition and the more nonrational, ritualistic, meditative, and symbolically laden approaches we find in other ethnocultural worldviews. So that students are not mistakenly led to believe that all of philosophical inquiry has been conducted exclusively by "dead white males," philosophical profiles of modern and contemporary female philosophers like Ayn Rand, Martha Nussbaum, and Julia Annas are also included. So too are descriptive outlines and profiles of thinkers like Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha). Students thereby learn that not all philosophers are necessarily Caucasian and of European descent. By featuring people of different backgrounds, genders, and ethnocultural origins, Experiencing Philosophy makes honest and sincere efforts to be inclusive and to respect diversity in a way that does not misrepresent the rich tradition of western philosophy. ORIGINAL SOURCEWORKS ACCOMPANIED BY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR CRITIQUE AND ANALYSIS Experiencing Philosophy seeks to balance accessibility and relevance with academic rigor. While introducing some beginning students to philosophy entirely by means of original source readings might be regarded as inappropriate for a variety of reasons, doing so without any exposure at all to the primary works of the philosophers could be seen as equally misguided. To say that one has completed an introductory course in philosophy but has not read any philosophy in the original seems wrong somehow. In efforts to strike an appropriate balance for beginning students, the bulk of this text will be comprised of theoretically sound descriptive outlines of philosophers and their theories. In addition, however, numerous original sourceworks—usually shorter excerpts from them—will be included as well, to give users of the book exposure to the "real thing." Discussion Questions for Critique and Analysis accompany each reading. These questions afford students the opportunity to "do" more philosophy and to practice their logical/critical/ analytical thinking skills. ANCILLARIES INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL WITH TESTITEM FILE Experiencing Philosophy comes with an instructor’s manual to facilitate teaching and evaluation. The manual includes overheadmasters far each of the chapters. These masters provide a convenient backdrop for formal lectures and serve as a useful talkingpoint guide. In the manual, you will also find more activities and exercises designed to promote critical and analytical thinking skills on the part of students. You will also discover test questions in a variety of formats that you can include in your evaluation scheme. COMPUTERIZED TEST ITEM FILE A computerized version of the testitem file is also available for both Macintosh and PC systems. Test questions can easily be composed and selected allowing for multiple versions of the same test to be made. COMPANION WEBSITE Prentice Hall’s exclusive Companion Website (TM) offers unique tools and support that make it easy for students and instructors to integrate this online study guide with the text. The site is a comprehensive resource that is organized according to the chapters within the text and features a variety of learning and teaching modules: FOR STUDENTS: Study Guide Modules contain multiple choice and true/false quizzes, and other features designed to help students with selfstudy. Reference Modules contain Web Destinations and Net Search options that provide the opportunity to quickly reach information on the Web that relates to the content in the text. Communication Modules include tools such as Life Chat and Message Board to facilitate online collaboration and communication. Personalization Modules include our enhanced Help feature that contains a text page for browsers and plugins. FOR INSTRUCTORS: The Syllabus Manager (TM) tool provides an easytofollow process for creating, posting, and revising a syllabus online that is accessible from any point within the companion website. The Companion Website makes integrating the internet into your course exciting and easy. Join us online and enter a new world of teaching and learning. MESSAGE TO STUDENTS Experiencing Philosophy is a textbook written with you, the student, in mind. It contains a builtin Study Guide designed to promote success by helping you to gain knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts covered in the book. This guide incorporates the SQ3R system of learning. SQ3R is an acronym for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. Included below are the steps you should follow when using the system. STEP ONE: SURVEY Each chapter of the book begins with an Overview and list of Learning Outcomes. Survey these things to find out what is included in the chapter and what you will be expected to know and do upon successful completion of it. Think of outcomes as objectives or aims to be achieved. Your study of the chapter is not really done until you show mastery of all the outcomes listed up front in any particular chapter. STEP TWO: QUESTION Every chapter of Experiencing Philosophy contains Focus Questions. As you might guess, they are intended to focus your attention while you read. Knowing what to look for helps you to be selective and to separate what needs to be known from what is nice to know or what is relatively insignificant. STEP THREE: READ Once you know what to look for and what you are supposed to accomplish by your study of the chapter, you can then begin reading. Note that reading philosophy is not like reading the newspaper or a popular paperback novel. Philosophy contains a lot of technical vocabulary and terms with which you may not be familiar. It is advised that you read each section slowly, repeatedly, and with a philosophical dictionary nearby. You may find it helpful to highlight important sections of the text with a marker or pen. Do not be discouraged if a first reading leaves you bewildered sometimes. Philosophy requires you to pay attention to difficult matters and think in a way that is not always encouraged by popular culture or mainstream society. While reading, take notice of the boldfaced terms. They indicate that an especially important concept or idea is being addressed. Followup of many points is made possible by the inclusion of Endnotes, in which expanded clarifications may be given and original sources identified. STEP FOUR: RECITE AND REVIEW After completing your reading, begin the review and recitation process. Look over the list of Key Terms and make sure you can define each one. You may wish to go back to the sections of the chapter you highlighted and make notes from them by paraphrasing what was written in a language that you can remember and understand. Chapter headings and subtitles can serve as organizational guides for notetaking. As part of the recitation and review process, you should also refer to the Summary of Key Points. Captured in each of the chapter summaries is the essential content to be grasped. Once you have studied your notes in light of the summaries provided, you can then go back to review the list of learning outcomes at the beginning of the chapter. Do you know what you should know, and can you do what you should be able to do? Completion of the Progress Check at the end of each chapter can help to verify your conclusions. Check your answers to the Progress Checks using the Appendix at the end of the book. If you are still unclear, then you can do outside research referring to the Source References given for each chapter. You can also surf the Web. Helpful sites pertaining to each chapter are listed at the end of each chapter in Philosophy in Cyberspace. In the event your outside readings and web site explorations do not answer your questions and concerns, raise them with other students, with the instructor of your course, or with your tutorial leader. Note that mastery of more advanced philosophical reasoning will require you to practice logical/analytical thinking skills covered in Chapter 3 and addressed in several of the pedagogical features included in the book, e.g., Philosophers in Action, Meditative Moments, and Discussion Questions for Critique and Analysis. This last feature accompanies each of the original philosophical sourceworks presented in the text. In conclusion, allow me to suggest that success in the study of philosophy is going to require a lot of hard work and active involvement on your part. Quick or cursory reading and mere passive listening during lectures is not likely to be enough to ensure that you achieve at optimum levels. The SQ,3R learning method integrated into this text requires you to interact with the material that is presented. It prepares the way for higherorder philosophical inquiry and critical/analytical discussion by facilitating a mastery of basic knowledge and understanding. While this method of learning cannot guarantee success, it can pave the way for the first step toward it. Good Luck!

Read from the Book

NOTE TO THE INSTRUCTOR Experiencing Philosophy is a textbook written and designed to be used in introductory philosophy courses. It could also be adopted in humanities and liberal arts courses, in general education courses, or in critical thinking courses. It can be used in institutions having a first year "foundations" component in their academic program or in vocational schools where there's a wish to broaden the student's intellectual horizons. The book begins with the assumption that philosophy is not simply something you know or do but something you experience! There is a human side to philosophy that, unfortunately, is too often neglected in traditional approaches to philosophical teaching. I believe philosophy needn't be seen as something that is completely theoretical and dry or something that is totally impractical and outdated; rather, the study of philosophy has the potential to transform lives. Acceptance of a metaphysical belief in God or a philosophical commitment to materialistic atheism, for example, will take individuals down very different roads in life. In this book, I will explore philosophy with frequent references to its personal and practical relevance, making efforts to present the subject in its rich diversity to an audience that demands accessibility. Convoluted, impenetrable language will therefore be regarded as an academic vice, not as a virtue of philosophic expression. Experiencing Philosophy is an "applied" text of sorts. Though the personal and applied nature of the book does not adequately present itself in the table of contents, the practical "experiential relevance" shows up in the "Know Thyself" diagnostics, in the "Take It Personally" chapter introductions, in the "Meditative Moment" journal writing opportunities, as well as in the features entitled "Philosophers in Action" and "Discussion Questions for Critique and Analysis." These last two elements in the book provide occasions for students to actually "do" philosophy and thereby experience it in practice for themselves. Note, however, that by making this book practical and personally relevant, I do not wish to compromise on academic respectability. I have written it to be theoretically sound and philosophically sophisticated. You should find it technically accurate and appropriately detailed. As part of my content coverage, I have also included the actual writings of philosophers discussed in a repeating feature throughout the book entitled, "Original Sourceworks." Any one excerpt will be relatively short so as not to discourage beginning students, but, cumulatively, the original writings will constitute a significant exposure to some of the major works with which all introductory philosophy students should be familiar. For the most part, though, significant topics and important philosophers' writings will be paraphrased, summarized, and explained for those students who would find an entire course based on the classical works inappropriate. In writing this book, I recognize that there are levels of difficulty; I also recognize that not everyone who studies philosophy plans to major in it. The truth is a majority don't. Furthermore, I appreciate the fact that beginning students should not be expected to master material often assigned in philosophy graduate courses—something I was once expected to do! To capture the point metaphorically, let us say that before one can run a marathon, one must first learn to walk. In recognition of learner needs, this text will contain a substantial pedagogical apparatus designed to encourage and motivate students as well as to maximize their chances of success. I don't want your students' first philosophy course to be their last. Little is accomplished if the syllabus is covered, but because of "technical difficulties," regarding meaning and comprehension, nobody cares to learn or remember what was taught. Systematically covering the contents of philosophy, but failing to motivate and inspire students to pursue it further, is like saying, "the operation was a success, but the patient died!" In this book, we'll be focusing on the "philosophical patient" as much as on following the strict operational procedures demanded by the doctors of philosophy! My aim is to make philosophy "student-friendly"—to give it S.O.U.L.—a Student Orientation for Understanding and Learning. My goal here is to make this text interesting and exciting for students. I hope to challenge and inspire them. Anyone using this book can expect to do the same. In Chapter 1, we begin with a discussion of the nature, purpose, and scope of philosophy, examining a number of myths and misconceptions about philosophy, and exploring its personal and therapeutic value. In this section, we make efforts to motivate students in their studies by pointing out that philosophy can help to clarify values and assist them in making important life decisions. We observe that, through an examination of perennial wisdom, people can find greater direction and achieve an enhanced sense of personal well being. In this regard, it's claimed that philosophy may in fact turn out to be the most important and practical subject the student will ever study—truly a startling claim for many. As part of the introduction to philosophy, we also cover the major sub-disciplines and discuss the various approaches to philosophy that have been taken in the past. Chapter 2 is tided "Philosophies of Life." In order to immediately engage students with the practical "existential relevance" of philosophy, they are invited to reconsider their own personal philosophies in light of some others that have been developed throughout the ages. We learn in this section how differing philosophical ideas and worldviews are captured by hedonism, stoicism, existentialism, and Buddhism—four starkly contrasting visions of reality. We also see how life takes on different value priorities, depending on which philosophical worldview is adopted. In this chapter, students are encouraged to reflect on their own goals and perceptions of the world. An awareness is generated of how people's unconscious philosophical assumptions can have real life consequences. In Chapter 3, we find a coverage of logic and its place in philosophical thinking. So many introductory textbooks often make the point that philosophy is more of a method of thinking than a body of knowledge and then, surprisingly, neglect to deal with the method or forget to give students a chance to practice it. In this book, students are indeed encouraged to "do" philosophy, especially when completing reasoning exercises and evaluative critiques. Focusing on the human side of philosophy I also underscore the necessity of making certain attitude adjustments if people are to "do," or engage in, philosophy properly. I discuss the benefits of philosophical argument and explain how arguing is different from opinionating. In this chapter, we look at inductive and deductive logic, learning the differences between validity, soundness, and truth. We also go on to examine a number of informal logical fallacies that make use of emotional and psychological appeals. Students are given opportunities here to practice their logical reasoning skills necessary for further philosophical analysis and debate. Once students understand what philosophy is all about, once they can begin to think as philosophers using valid logic and sound reasoning, and having engaged in a preliminary examination of their own personal philosophies, we move ahead full-steam in Chapter 4 to explore epistemology and metaphysics, including a section on God. A coverage of Plato, Descartes, the British empiricists, and Immanuel Kant reveals how claims regarding the nature of knowledge (epistemology) are often based on beliefs and assumptions about reality and the physical universe (metaphysics). Discussing rational proofs for the existence of God will help students on a personal level, especially if they are grappling with religious questions at this time in their lives. In Chapter 5, we proceed to the study of ethics and moral philosophy. Perspectives to be covered include: Character Ethics, Utilitarian Ethics, Deontological Ethics, Feminine Ethics, Existentialist Ethics and Ethical Egoism. This coverage will expose students to ancient and modern thinkers, to male and female theorists, and to rational and nonrational approaches. A segue feature in this chapter will also introduce students to the relationship between religion and ethics. Upon successful completion of this chapter, students will be able to make better informed and rationally justifiable moral decisions—certainly an important practical life skill. Chapter 6, the final one, takes us into the territory of political philosophy. Plato's utopian society is discussed as are the social contract theorists—Hobbes and Locke—thinkers whose collective works reflect the philosophical foundations of Western liberal democracy. In addition, a perspective critical of capitalist liberal democracy, namely Marxism, is also covered. Mans works very effectively as an intellectual alarm clock waking us from our dogmatic capitalist slumbers. A coverage of Chapter 6 should enable students to better appreciate alternative political systems. It should also help to inject a dose of calm rational objectivity when discussing political issues and ideologies. Successful efforts in this regard will have the effect of liberating students from political bias or ethnocentric dogmatism and thereby enable them to function better as citizens of the world. In selecting the content to be dealt with in this introductory textbook, I was very cognizant that not all important subjects and thinkers could be covered. Not only does the writing of a book impose its own time and space limitations, but twelve- to sixteen-week college semesters determine how much material can be meaningfully covered by anyone using any book. Courses designed to be massive "information-dumps" and little else have proven to be pedagogically suspect. It seemed to me, then, that the objective in textbook writing should not be to present absolutely everything but to select topics and to develop skills that will prepare students for real-life philosophical reflection and for further studies in the field of philosophy. It is my firm belief that Experiencing Philosophy does this and that it does it in a way that is student-centered, both interesting and useful for neophyte philosophers. I wish you well in your teaching endeavors and hope that this book enriches your professional experience in the classroom or lecture hall. It constitutes a labor of love to be offered to all those who truly enjoy sharing philosophy with others! FEATURES TAKE IT PERSONALLY To illustrate how philosophy can be useful and relevant to the individual, each chapter of Experiencing Philosophy begins by placing the material to be covered in a personal context. Students are shown how philosophical questions and concerns are often built into their daily life experiences. Grounding philosophical inquiry in the context of real life serves to motivate students and thereby helps instructors to teach more effectively. KNOW THYSELF DIAGNOSTICS This book takes seriously, as did Socrates, the Delphic Oracle's dictum to "Know thyself." To this end, students are provided self-diagnostics in each of the chapters to explore further their own philosophical values, ideals, and beliefs pertaining to truth, reality, ethics, the existence of God, the nature of knowledge, metaphysics, and the best system of political organization. By means of these diagnostics, students are given a chance to identify their underlying personal philosophies of life and to compare them with other worldviews that have been articulated over the centuries. Students are also able to assess their current logical thinking abilities so that they can establish how much work they will need to do in order to think rationally like philosophers. PHILOSOPHICAL PROFILES The student-centeredness of Experiencing Philosophy is evidenced again by putting names and faces with the ideas covered in the book. Pictures of influential and historically important philosophers are presented along with biographical information. Abstract ideas contained within the book are tied to real people with interesting real-life personal histories. This helps to bring the textbook material alive. PHILOSOPHERS IN ACTION Philosophy is often described as more of a method of thinking than as a body of knowledge. From this perspective, philosophy is something you "do," not something you know. With this in mind, students are given many opportunities to practice doing philosophy. Students using this text are frequently asked to think critically and analytically in response to questions posed in the Philosophers in Action feature. These questions require them to conduct thought experiments, analyze concepts, as well as to discuss and debate controversial points. MEDITATIVE MOMENTS Students are encouraged to keep a journal to record their thoughts in response to questions raised in the Meditative Moment features found in each of the chapters. By answering these questions, students learn to appreciate not only the intrinsic value of intellectual inquiry, but also the instrumental worth of philosophy when it comes to dealing with their own existential predicaments—especially where matters of character, happiness, conflict, meaning, and peace of mind are concerned. The kinds of self-reflections encouraged by the Meditative Moment features serve to promote self-knowledge and, in part, a personal wellness function contributing to individual psycho-hygiene. QUOTATIONS Inspirational and thought-provoking quotations are sprinkled throughout the text as a way of generating interest. They may be taken to heart by some readers or remembered for purposes of finding personal meaning and direction in life. At other times, the quotations may be useful to capture the essence of points that are made in a much more detailed way in the main text. These "philosophical zingers," as one might call them, will certainly give us all pause for thought. SHOWCASE BOXES Various figures are presented in Showcase Boxes throughout the text as a way of illustrating and underscoring important points. These boxes can also add relevance sometimes by relating philosophical theory to real-world experiences and current events. Tables, figures, and charts are especially helpful to visual learners. PHILOSOPHICAL SEGUES At several places in the text, digressions called Philosophical Segues are introduced. One deals with Fate, Free Will, and Determinism, another with Proofs for the Existence of God, and a third with Religion and Ethics. These segues address topics relevant to the chapters in which they are found, but in an abbreviated fashion. Given the length restrictions imposed by any introductory text, not all thinkers and topics can be fully covered. The segue features enable one to touch on important subjects, without devoting entire chapters to them. Contributing to the teachability of the text, the segues may themselves provide convenient detours for instructors wishing to digress from the main text from time to time in order to pursue topics of personal interest at greater length. BUILT-IN STUDENT STUDY GUIDE Experiencing Philosophy is designed to maximize the chances for student success. Before students can properly analyze, discuss, and debate subtle and esoteric philosophical points, they must first master the basic vocabulary and be able to grasp the fundamental concepts. The built-in study guide is designed to help them do this. By enabling students to gain knowledge and an understanding of the fundamental ideas contained within any one chapter, they are then better prepared to "do" philosophy when it comes to conceptual analysis, theoretical application, or critical normative evaluation. To learn more about how to use the study guide, read my "Message to Students." Listed below are the elements comprising this valuable learning tool. Chapter Overview Learning Outcomes Focus Questions Boldfaced Key Terms List of Key Terms Chapter-End Progress Check Philosophy in Cyberspace Endnotes INCLUSIVENESS AND RESPECT FOR DIVERSITY Though this book focuses on the Western rational tradition in philosophy, clearly other perspectives exist. Philosophy finds a home in Eastern, Middle Eastern, African, Latin American, and Native North American cultures as well, and in a way that doesn't always give priority to rationality and discursive thought. Comparative distinctions are made at the outset of this text between the reasoned approach of the Western rational tradition and the more non-rational, ritualistic, meditative, and symbolically laden approaches we find in other ethno-cultural worldviews. So that students are not mistakenly led to believe that all of philosophical inquiry has been conducted exclusively by "dead white males," philosophical profiles of modern and contemporary female philosophers like Ayn Rand, Martha Nussbaum, and Julia Annas are also included. So too are descriptive outlines and profiles of thinkers like Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha). Students thereby learn that not all philosophers are necessarily Caucasian and of European descent. By featuring people of different backgrounds, genders, and ethno-cultural origins, Experiencing Philosophy makes honest and sincere efforts to be inclusive and to respect diversity in a way that does not misrepresent the rich tradition of western philosophy. ORIGINAL SOURCEWORKS ACCOMPANIED BY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR CRITIQUE AND ANALYSIS Experiencing Philosophy seeks to balance accessibility and relevance with academic rigor. While introducing some beginning students to philosophy entirely by means of original source readings might be regarded as inappropriate for a variety of reasons, doing so without any exposure at all to the primary works of the philosophers could be seen as equally misguided. To say that one has completed an introductory course in philosophy but has not read any philosophy in the original seems wrong somehow. In efforts to strike an appropriate balance for beginning students, the bulk of this text will be comprised of theoretically sound descriptive outlines of philosophers and their theories. In addition, however, numerous original sourceworks—usually shorter excerpts from them—will be included as well, to give users of the book exposure to the "real thing." Discussion Questions for Critique and Analysis accompany each reading. These questions afford students the opportunity to "do" more philosophy and to practice their logical/critical/ analytical thinking skills. ANCILLARIES INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL WITH TEST-ITEM FILE Experiencing Philosophy comes with an instructor's manual to facilitate teaching and evaluation. The manual includes overhead-masters far each of the chapters. These masters provide a convenient backdrop for formal lectures and serve as a useful talking-point guide. In the manual, you will also find more activities and exercises designed to promote critical and analytical thinking skills on the part of students. You will also discover test questions in a variety of formats that you can include in your evaluation scheme. COMPUTERIZED TEST ITEM FILE A computerized version of the test-item file is also available for both Macintosh and PC systems. Test questions can easily be composed and selected allowing for multiple versions of the same test to be made. COMPANION WEBSITE Prentice Hall's exclusive Companion Website (TM) offers unique tools and support that make it easy for students and instructors to integrate this online study guide with the text. The site is a comprehensive resource that is organized according to the chapters within the text and features a variety of learning and teaching modules: FOR STUDENTS: Study Guide Modules contain multiple choice and true/false quizzes, and other features designed to help students with self-study. Reference Modules contain Web Destinations and Net Search options that provide the opportunity to quickly reach information on the Web that relates to the content in the text. Communication Modules include tools such as Life Chat and Message Board to facilitate online collaboration and communication. Personalization Modules include our enhanced Help feature that contains a text page for browsers and plug-ins. FOR INSTRUCTORS: The Syllabus Manager (TM) tool provides an easy-to-follow process for creating, posting, and revising a syllabus online that is accessible from any point within the companion website. The Companion Website makes integrating the internet into your course exciting and easy. Join us online and enter a new world of teaching and learning. MESSAGE TO STUDENTS Experiencing Philosophy is a textbook written with you, the student, in mind. It contains a built-in Study Guide designed to promote success by helping you to gain knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts covered in the book. This guide incorporates the SQ3R system of learning. SQ3R is an acronym for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. Included below are the steps you should follow when using the system. STEP ONE: SURVEY Each chapter of the book begins with an Overview and list of Learning Outcomes. Survey these things to find out what is included in the chapter and what you will be expected to know and do upon successful completion of it. Think of outcomes as objectives or aims to be achieved. Your study of the chapter is not really done until you show mastery of all the outcomes listed up front in any particular chapter. STEP TWO: QUESTION Every chapter of Experiencing Philosophy contains Focus Questions. As you might guess, they are intended to focus your attention while you read. Knowing what to look for helps you to be selective and to separate what needs to be known from what is nice to know or what is relatively insignificant. STEP THREE: READ Once you know what to look for and what you are supposed to accomplish by your study of the chapter, you can then begin reading. Note that reading philosophy is not like reading the newspaper or a popular paperback novel. Philosophy contains a lot of technical vocabulary and terms with which you may not be familiar. It is advised that you read each section slowly, repeatedly, and with a philosophical dictionary nearby. You may find it helpful to highlight important sections of the text with a marker or pen. Do not be discouraged if a first reading leaves you bewildered sometimes. Philosophy requires you to pay attention to difficult matters and think in a way that is not always encouraged by popular culture or mainstream society. While reading, take notice of the boldfaced terms. They indicate that an especially important concept or idea is being addressed. Follow-up of many points is made possible by the inclusion of Endnotes, in which expanded clarifications may be given and original sources identified. STEP FOUR: RECITE AND REVIEW After completing your reading, begin the review and recitation process. Look over the list of Key Terms and make sure you can define each one. You may wish to go back to the sections of the chapter you highlighted and make notes from them by paraphrasing what was written in a language that you can remember and understand. Chapter headings and subtitles can serve as organizational guides for note-taking. As part of the recitation and review process, you should also refer to the Summary of Key Points. Captured in each of the chapter summaries is the essential content to be grasped. Once you have studied your notes in light of the summaries provided, you can then go back to review the list of learning outcomes at the beginning of the chapter. Do you know what you should know, and can you do what you should be able to do? Completion of the Progress Check at the end of each chapter can help to verify your conclusions. Check your answers to the Progress Checks using the Appendix at the end of the book. If you are still unclear, then you can do outside research referring to the Source References given for each chapter. You can also surf the Web. Helpful sites pertaining to each chapter are listed at the end of each chapter in Philosophy in Cyberspace. In the event your outside readings and web site explorations do not answer your questions and concerns, raise them with other students, with the instructor of your course, or with your tutorial leader. Note that mastery of more advanced philosophical reasoning will require you to practice logical/analytical thinking skills covered in Chapter 3 and addressed in several of the pedagogical features included in the book, e.g., Philosophers in Action, Meditative Moments, and Discussion Questions for Critique and Analysis. This last feature accompanies each of the original philosophical sourceworks presented in the text. In conclusion, allow me to suggest that success in the study of philosophy is going to require a lot of hard work and active involvement on your part. Quick or cursory reading and mere passive listening during lectures is not likely to be enough to ensure that you achieve at optimum levels. The SQ,3R learning method integrated into this text requires you to interact with the material that is presented. It prepares the way for higher-order philosophical inquiry and critical/analytical discussion by facilitating a mastery of basic knowledge and understanding. While this method of learning cannot guarantee success, it can pave the way for the first step toward it. Good Luck!

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter begins with “Take It Personally” and concludes with a Study Guide, Key Terms, Progress Check, Summary of Major Points, Source References, Philosophy in Cyberspace and End Notes.)

1. What Is Philosophy? What's in It for Me?

Know Thyself Diagnostic: My Preconceptions about Philosophy. Philosophy and Philosophers: Caricatures, Myths, and Realities. The Philosopher's Profile. Wisdom: The Object of Love. The Practical Value of Philosophy. Therapeutic Applications of Philosophy: Back to the Future. Philosophy's Relevance in an Age of Information and Emerging Technologies. Fields of Philosophy. Approaches to Philosophy. Historical Periods of Philosophy. Original Sourcework: Bertrand Russell, The Problems of Philosophy.



2. Philosophies of Life.

Know Thyself Diagnostic: The Philosophy of Life Preference Indicator. Stoicism: A Prescription for Peace of Mind. Original Sourcework: Marcus Aurelius, The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius. Existentialism: Born Free, Let Me Be Me. Original Sourcework: Jean-Paul Sartre, The Humanism of Existentialism. Philosophical Segue: Fate, Free Will and Determinism. Hedonism: Pleasure Is the Measure. Original Sourcework: Epicurus, Letter to Menoceus. Buddhism: A Way of Life. Original Sourcework: John Keller, Basic Characteristics of (Asian) Buddhist Culture.



3. Philosophical Argument…That Sounds Logical!

Original Sourcework: Plato, Euthyphro featuring The Socratic Method. Know Thyself Diagnostic: How Rational Am I? Opinions versus Arguments. Factual Claims versus Value Judgments. Deductive Arguments. Inductive Arguments. Informal Logical Fallacies.



4. Epistemology, Metaphysics, and God.

Know Thyself Diagnostic: My Philosophical Presuppositions about Knowledge and Reality. Preliminary Questions and Definitions. Plato's Metaphysical Epistomology. Original Sourcework: Plato, The Republic: Simile of the Sun. Original Sourcework: Plato, The Republic: Allegory of the Cave. Rationalism: René Descartes. Original Sourcework: Descartes, The First Meditation on Things that can be Doubted. Original Sourcework: Descartes, Second Meditation of the Nature of the Human Mind, and that it is more easily known than the Body. Original Sourcework: Descartes, The Wax Example. British Empiricism: Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Original Sourcework: David Hume, Skeptical Doubts concerning the Operation of the Understanding. Original Sourcework: Patricia Hill Collins, An Afrocentric/Feminist Standpoint Challenges the Tradition of Positivism. Immanuel Kant's Synthesis of Rationalism and Empiricism. Original Sourcework: Kant, “Introduction” in the Critique of Pure Reason. Original Sourcework: Benjamin Whorf, The Language of the Hopi Provides a Metaphysics without Space and Time. Philosophical Segue: Proofs for the Existence of God.



5. Ethics and Moral Decision-Making.

Know Thyself Diagnostic: The Ethical Perspective Indicator. Character Ethics: Plato. Original Sourcework: Plato, Virtue and Justice in the Individual and in the State. Utilitarian Ethics: Jeremy Bentham. Original Sourcework: Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Deontological Ethics: Immanuel Kant. Original Sourcework: Kant, “Preface” to the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals. Feminine Ethics: Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings. Original Sourcework: Noddings, “Introduction” to Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Existentialist Ethics: Friedrich Willhelm Nietzsche. Original Sourcework: Nietzsche, The Gay Science. Ethical Egoism: Ayn Rand. Original Sourcework: Rand, “The Objectivist Ethics” in The Virtue of Selfishness. Philosophical Segue: Religion and Ethics.



6. Political Philosophy.

Know Thyself Diagnostic: My Political Outlook. Political Philosophy versus Politics and Political Science. Plato's Republic. Original Sourcework: Plato, The Nature of Women. Social Contract Theorists: Hobbes and Locke. Thomas Hobbes. Original Sourcework: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. John Locke. Original Sourcework: John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government.



Appendix: Answers to Progress Checks.

Editorial Reviews

"...The book is extremely well written; it is clear and philosophically sound without being pedantic... it is accessible and engaging without sacrificing academic rigor." — Timothy Davis, Community College of Baltimore County, Essex "Falikowski's text strikes a nice balance in stimulating the reader's interest and engaging in explanation of theory ....The author has a gift to make the material relevant and interesting." — David Bowen, University of North Florida "Experiencing Philosophy is the best introductory philosophy book I have seen in years! I really like the approachable writing style, the emphasis on students developing their own personal philosophies, and the inclusion of multicultural perspectives. The book covers a wide range of issues, nicely weaves in contemporary cultural events in its discussion, and includes judicious source readings. The study guides for each chapter are also excellent and will be helpful for both the student and instructor." — Andrew J. Dell'Olio, Hope College