Experimental Electronics For Students by K. CloseExperimental Electronics For Students by K. Close

Experimental Electronics For Students

byK. Close

Paperback | October 13, 2011

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Electronics is essentially an experimental subject and enables a wealth of experimental work to be undertaken at relatively low cost. In any modestly equipped electrical engineering or physics laboratory. it is possible to plan interesting experiments to study active and passive com­ ponents, basic circuit functions, modular encapsulations and monolithic integrated circuits. The work may range from the formal investigation of a device new to the student to the design and construction of quite advanced, modern measurement and control systems. There are few books which guide experimental work in electronics. This text aims to rectify this by giving detailed descriptions of a series of experiments all of which have been thoroughly tested by students in physics, electronics, electrical engineering and instrumentation at The Polytechnic of Central London. Moreover, several of these experiments would seem to be appropriate for the current development of interest in courses in electronics in schools because several of them have been undertaken with considerable success by first-year sixth-form students who have come to Central London for special courses. They would also assist an introductory course in electronics for students from other disciplines and have been tried out in this way at The Polytechnic.
Title:Experimental Electronics For StudentsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:9.25 × 6.1 × 0.07 inPublished:October 13, 2011Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9400957696

ISBN - 13:9789400957695

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Table of Contents

1 Introductory General Notes.- 1.1 Soldering components to interconnections when utilizing strip board.- 1.2 Resistor colour code.- 1.3 Symbols used in circuit diagrams.- 1.4 Symbols for quantities.- 1.5 Abbreviations.- 1.6 Notes on some aspects of electrical measuring instruments.- 2 Semiconductor Diodes: Characteristics; Use in D.C. Power Supplies.- 2.1 Semiconductor diodes.- 2.1.1 Characteristics of a p-n junction diode.- 2.1.2 Determination of e/k.- 2.1.3 Questions.- 2.1.4 Further investigations.- 2.2 Zener diodes.- 2.2.1 The reverse characteristic of a Zener diode.- 2.2.2 Question.- 2.3 D.C. power supplies: an introduction.- 2.3.1 Half-wave rectifier.- 2.3.2 Half-wave rectifier with reservoir smoothing capacitor.- 2.3.3 Full-wave rectifier, transformer and bridge circuits.- 2.3.4 Full-wave rectifier with smoothing capacitor.- 2.3.5 Zener diode across a full-wave rectifier circuit.- 2.3.6 Zener diode stabilization.- 2.3.7 Question.- 2.3.8 Further investigations.- 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors: Characteristics and Simple Associated Circuits.- 3.1 Bipolar junction transistors.- 3.2 Characteristics of an n-p-n transistor in common-base (CB) connection.- 3.2.1 Output characteristics and output conductance hob.- 3.2.2 The current gain.- 3.2.3 Power considerations.- 3.2.4 More accurate value of hob.- 3.3 Characteristics of an n-p-n bipolar transistor in common-emitter (CE) connection.- 3.3.1 Output characteristics and the output conductance hoe.- 3.3.2 The current gain hfe.- 3.3.3 Power dissipation.- 3.4 A bipolar transistor tester.- 3.5 Further investigation.- 3.6 Voltage stabilizing circuits: general information; the use of bipolar transistors.- 3.6.1 Emitter follower voltage stabilizer.- 3.7 Constant current sources: introduction.- 3.7.1 A constant current source based on a bipolar junction transistor.- 3.7.2 Further investigations.- 3.8 Amplifiers: use of bipolar transistors.- 3.8.1 A common-emitter (CE) bipolar transistor single-stage amplifier.- 3.9 Sinusoidal waveform generators.- 3.9.1 A phase-shift sinusoidal oscillator based on a bipolar transistor.- 3.9.2 A crystal-controlled sinusoidal oscillator.- 3.9.3 A Wien bridge oscillator.- 3.10 Multivibrators.- 3.10.1 The stable (free-running) multivibrator.- 3.10.2 Effect of varying the applied voltage on the period of a free-running multivibrator.- 3.10.3 A gated free-running multivibrator.- 3.10.4 The monostable multivibrator.- 3.10.5 A monostable multivibrator utilizing bipolar transistors for experimental work.- 3.10.6 The bistable multivibrator.- 3.10.7 A bistable multivibrator based on bipolar transistors.- 3.11 The Schmitt trigger circuit.- 3.12 Sweep generator: utilizing the bootstrap principle.- 3.13 An optically-coupled isolator.- 3.13.1 Ouput characteristics of the phototransistor.- 3.13.2 Current transfer ratio.- 3.13.3 Photodiode operation.- 3.13.4 Switching characteristic.- 3.13.5 Questions.- 3.14 A typical application of an optically-coupled isolator.- 4 Field Effect Transistors: Characteristics and Simple Associated Circuits.- 4.1 Field-effect transistors (FETs or fets).- 4.1.1 The drain characteristics.- 4.1.2 The effect of temperature on the drain current ID.- 4.1.3 Use as a voltage-controlled resistance.- 4.1.4 The transfer characteristic.- 4.1.5 Automatic bias; provision of gate-source bias by means of a source resistor.- 4.1.6 Demonstration of the high input resistance of a fet.- 4.1.7 Further investigation.- 4.2 A simple common-source fet amplifier.- 4.2.1 The voltage gain of a fet amplifier.- 4.3 Sinusoidal waveform generators based on field-effect transistors.- 4.4 Multivibrators utilizing fets.- 4.4.1 A free-running multivibrator based on the use of n-channel fets.- 4.4.2 A hybrid free-running multivibrator.- 4.4.3 A voltage-to-frequency converter based on a free-running multivibrator utilizing field-effect transistors.- 4.4.4 A monostable multivibrator with a pulse width determined by a fet-based constant current source.- 5 Unijunction Transistors; Silicon Controlled Rectifiers: Characteristics and Applications.- 5.1 Unijunction transistors (UJTs or ujts).- 5.1.1 The intrinsic stand-off ratio.- 5.2 Relaxation oscillators.- 5.2.1 A relaxation oscillator based on a unijunction transistor.- 5.3 A staircase generator or frequency divider based on a unijunction transistor.- 5.4 Programmable unijunction transistors (PUTs or puts).- 5.4.1 Selection of the value of the intrinsic stand-off ratio with a put.- 5.5 A relaxation oscillator based on a put.- 5.6 Silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs or scrs).- 5.7 Phase control by means of silicon controlled rectifiers.- 5.7.1 Half-wave phase control with a phase angle between 0 and ?/2.- 5.7.2 Half-wave phase control with a phase angle between 0 and ?.- 5.7.3 Questions.- 5.8 Phase control by means of an scr fired by pulses from a ujt circuit.- 5.8.1 Phase control utilizing two scrs.- 5.8.2 Alternative control of the phase angle.- 5.8.3 Utilizing a ujt firing circuit with simple negative feedback.- 5.8.4 Further investigations.- 5.9 Phase control by means of a put.- 5.10 A bistable circuit based on the use of silicon controlled rectifiers.- 6 More Complex Amplifiers and some Applications.- 6.1 Differential or difference amplifiers.- 6.1.1 To determine the similarity between two fets fabricated on the same silicon substrate.- 6.1.2 The phase relationships in the differential amplifier.- 6.1.3 The paraphase amplifier.- 6.1.4 The differential voltage gain Ad.- 6.1.5 The common-mode voltage gain Ac.- 6.1.6 The common-mode rejection ratio (cmrr).- 6.1.7 Use of a constant current source to replace RS.- 6.1.8 Questions.- 6.2 Operational amplifiers.- 6.2.1 The closed-loop gain of the inverting configuration.- 6.2.2 The closed-loop gain of the non-inverting configuration.- 6.2.3 The operational amplifier as a sign inverter.- 6.2.4 The gain control in the inverting configuration.- 6.2.5 Further investigation.- 6.2.6 The frequency response of the amplifier in the inverting configuration.- 6.2.7 The closed-loop gain in the non-inverting configuration.- 6.2.8 Frequency response in the non-inverting configuration.- 6.2.9 Simultaneous product and sum.- 6.2.10 Comment.- 6.2.11 Integrated circuit operational amplifiers.- 6.2.12 Transfer characteristic of the amplifier in the inverting configuration.- 6.2.13 Frequency response of the amplifier in the inverting configuration.- 6.2.14 Slew rate limiting of the amplifier.- 6.2.15 A logarithmic amplifier.- 6.2.16 Measurement of the input bias currents and the offset voltage of an operational amplifier.- 6.3 Applications of operational amplifiers.- 6.3.1 Use of an operational amplifier to current drive a meter.- 6.3.2 The operational integrator and its use as a ramp generator.- 6.3.3 Questions.- 6.3.4 A squaring circuit.- 6.3.5 A free-running multivibrator based on the use of an operational amplifier.- 6.3.6 Sensitivity of the frequency of the free-running multivibrator based on an operational amplifier to the supply voltage.- 6.3.7 A monostable multivibrator based on an operational amplifier.- 6.3.8 Voltage stabilization based on an operational amplifier.- 6.3.9 Voltage stabilization based on a Darlington pair and an operational amplifier.- 6.3.10 Questions.- 6.3.11 Further investigation.- 6.4 Voltage-to-frequency converters which make use of an operational amplifier.- 6.4.1 A voltage-to-frequency converter based on a unijunction transistor.- 6.4.2 A Voltage-to-frequency converter based on a programmable unijunction transistor.- 6.4.3 A voltage-to-frequency converter based on a free-running multivibrator utilizing field-effect transistors.- 6.5 A high-quality pre-amplifier for audio frequency signals.- 6.5.1 The frequency response of the audio frequency amplifier.- 6.5.2 The dependence of the amplifier voltage gain on the supply voltage.- 6.5.3 The dependence of the amplifier performance on the characteristics of the individual transistor.- 6.5.4 An equalization network.- 6.5.5 Further Investigations.- 6.5.6 The input impedance of the pre-amplifier.- 7 Logic Gates.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 TTL and CMOS compared.- 7.1.2 Basic constraints on TTL circuit design and operation.- 7.1.3 A logic probe.- 7.2 The basic TTL 2-input NAND gate.- 7.2.1 The SN7400N quad 2-input NAND unit.- 7.3 Multivibrator circuits based on NAND gates of the TTL type.- 7.3.1 A bistable circuit based on the use of two 2-input NAND gates.- 7.4 Further pulse generator circuits based on NAND gates.- 7.5 The OR and the exclusive-OR functions.- 7.6 Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic gates.- 7.6.1 A NAND gate.- 7.6.2 The power consumption of a CMOS gate.- 7.6.3 The current flow to a CMOS gate in the ambient and switching modes.- 7.6.4 The power consumption of a TTL gate.- 7.6.5 Rise time, fall time and propagation time for a CMOS gate.- 7.6.6 Further investigations.- 7.7 Multivibrator circuits based on NAND gates of the CMOS type.- 8 Some integrated Circuits.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.1.1 An integrated circuit electronic timer.- 8.1.2 Monostable or 'one-shot' operation of the electronic timer.- 8.1.3 Astable (free-running) operation of the electronic timer.- 8.1.4 Use of the electronic timer (555) to provide a linear voltage ramp.- 8.1.5 Effect of the control voltage on the monostable operation of the electronic timer 555.- 8.1.6 Further investigation.- 8.2 A monolithic integrated circuit voltage stabilizer.- 8.2.1 To determine the voltage stabilization factor Svof the ic voltage regulator.- 8.3 Voltage-to-frequency converters.- 8.3.1 A voltage-to-frequency converter based on two operational amplifiers in an integrated circuit module.- 8.3.2 An alternative voltage-to-frequency converter based on the 747 dual opamp ic.- 8.4 Monolithic integrated circuit waveform generators.- 8.4.1 The power supply connections of the ic waveform generator.- 8.4.2 The use of external timing components with the ic waveform generator.- 8.4.3 Independence of the frequency of the supply voltage of the ic waveform generator.- 8.4.4 Sine-wave distortion of the ic waveform generator.- 8.4.5 The ic waveform generator as a voltage-controlled oscillator.- 8.5 Waveform generators of the multivibrator type based on NAND gates.- 8.5.1 Astable (free-running) multivibrators based on (a) a SN 7400N and (b) a CMOS unit 4011.- 8.5.2 An ic monostable multivibrator.- 8.5.3 A Schmitt trigger circuit based on two 2-input NAND gates.- 8.5.4 Additional investigation.- 8.6 A decade counter and a cold-cathode number display tube.- 8.6.1 Shaping the input pulses.- 8.6.2 Dialling-in decimal numbers to be added.- 8.6.3 The decade counter and its BCD output.- 8.6.4 Counting the pulses from a low-frequency frequency multivibrator.