Exploratory Data Analysis

Paperback | January 1, 1977

byJohn W. Tukey

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The approach in this introductory book is that of informal study of the data. Methods range from plotting picture-drawing techniques to rather elaborate numerical summaries. Several of the methods are the original creations of the author, and all can be carried out either with pencil or aided by hand-held calculator.

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The approach in this introductory book is that of informal study of the data. Methods range from plotting picture-drawing techniques to rather elaborate numerical summaries. Several of the methods are the original creations of the author, and all can be carried out either with pencil or aided by hand-held calculator.

Format:PaperbackDimensions:688 pages, 9.2 × 6.5 × 1.7 inPublished:January 1, 1977Publisher:Pearson Education

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0201076160

ISBN - 13:9780201076165

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The purpose of this text is to serve as a practical manual to help general education and special education teachers (PreO-l2) recognize the behavior problems common to some children and youth in their classrooms. If unaddressed, these problems might lead to the development of academic underachievement and emotional and/or behavioral disorders (E/BD). Academic and behavioral problems often lead to placement in special education classes. This text is designed to help teachers become familiar with and manage problems effectively at early stages. The goal is for teachers to learn to use proactive and positive methods to reduce problem behavior, increase academic achievement, and improve social behavior. This book presents the characteristics and observable symptoms of a variety of E/BD that may be observed in school-age children and youth. Teachers must be aware of the disorders in order to reduce problem behavior and increase socially appropriate behavior and academic achievement at school. Many teachers view emotional and behavioral disorders as willful disruptive behavior. With that frame of reference, many simply punish these students. Punishment is not productive. Students who are only punished never learn appropriate replacement behaviors or alternatives to their problem behavior. Organization of the Text The categories of problem behavior presented are not necessarily limited to legal special education divisions. Topics of current interest, such as gangs, school violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, depression, and Tourette syndrome, are included among more traditional categories such as conduct disorder, autism, prenatal substance abuse, and Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The characteristics of each disorder are presented in detail. Observable behaviors and assessment methods are provided for each category. Suggested classroom management methods are all proactive and positive. All of the strategies are designed to help children and youth learn appropriate replacement skills for problem behavior to help them learn to be more successful in school and life. At the end of each chapter, excluding the final chapter, is a section titled "Implications for Working with Youth and Adolescents" that provides suggested proactive and positive methods for effectively managing each behavior problem category. The text is organized into six parts. Part 1, "Foundational Issues," covers the background and a brief historical overview of school-age students with emotional and behavioral disorders. IDEA 1997, common characteristics and overlapping problems, and causes of E/BD are presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 introduces the process of assessment. This overview of assessment methods is presented in a general format because an entire assessment class is a required component of every university special education teacher training program. Readers are directed to specific texts and university courses for in-depth assessment information. The second part of Chapter 2 describes models of intervention, with emphasis on the behavioral model. The behavioral model has been the most successful research-based method for reducing problem behavior and teaching individuals appropriate replacement behaviors. Chapter 3 covers an array of educational options for students with E/BD. The least restrictive environment mandate of IDEA 1997 is discussed, along with various alternatives to public school placements. Part 2, "Social, Cultural, and Environmental Issues," covers a variety of topics related to school-age students. Chapter 4 presents information on prenatal drug and alcohol exposure. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), as well as other prenatal drug exposure, are described. Chapter 5 presents information about substance abuse and related problems in youth and adolescents. Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 discuss topics that are relatively new on the education scene—school violence and gangs—that often produce tragic results if educators, students, and parents are not adequately educated and prepared to deal with the problems that can accompany these two areas. Chapter 6 presents information about and methods of breventing school violence. Chapter 7 provides information on gang identifiers, including prevention and management strategies. Part 3, "Categories of Internalized Disorders," covers a variety of problem areas. Chapter 8 begins this section with information on an array of anxiety disorders along with management methods for teachers and parents. Chapter 9 describes symptoms and characteristics of youth and adolescents with depression. Signals of potential suicidal behaviors are also presented. Bipolar and seasonal affective disorder, along with numerous treatment options, are discussed. Chapter 10 discusses eating disorders, an area not typically covered under behavioral disorders. However, eating disorders can cause behavioral and emotional problems in youth and adolescents. Definitions, characteristic behaviors, and treatment options for anorexia and bulimia are presented. Part 4 is titled "Categories of Externalized Disorders." Chapter 1 1, "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD)," discusses the typical characteristics associated with students who have attention deficits. Chapter 12 provides information on Tourette syndrome (TS). TS is not technically a behavioral or emotional disorder according to IDEA 1997. It is considered a neurological disorder of unknown cause. However, the tics associated with TS often have such a negative social stigma that individuals with TS often develop social and emotional problems. The background and a brief historical overview of TS are presented, along with characteristics, a detailed checklist for teachers and parents, treatment options, and intervention strategies. Chapter 13 provides information on conduct disorders and bully behavior. Conduct disorders may be the most common pattern of behavior in youth and adolescents with EB/D. Bully behavior has become all too common, with very tragic results in schools across the country. Characteristics and intervention methods are also provided in this chapter. Part 5, "Categories of Pervasive Developmental Disorders," includes Chapter 14, "Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia." Autism and related disorders are not categorized as true emotional and behavioral disorders under IDEA 1997. However, because of the nature of the typical problems, youth and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders are often educated in E/BD classrooms. This chapter also provides information about Asperger syndrome, a condition that is closely related to autism. Characteristics, treatment options, and intervention strategies are provided. Part 6, "The Future of Special Education," has one main objective. Chapter 15 emphasizes the incredible importance of using a proactive and positive approach when working with youth and adolescents with E/BD. The main objective is to reduce problem behavior and teach students appropriate and positive replacement behaviors and alternatives to their old problem behavior. Social skills are presented as life skills. These are skills that, along with satisfactory academic skills, will help students graduate from high school and go on to become productive, well-adjusted adults.

Table of Contents

  1. Scratching Down Numbers (stem-and-leaf).

  2. Schematic Summaries (pictures and numbers).

  3. Easy Re-Expression (including well-chosen expression).

  4. Plots of Relationship.

  5. Straightening Out Plots (using three points).

  6. Smoothing Sequences.

  7. Parallel and Wandering Schematic Plots.

  8. Delineations of Batches and Points.

  9. Using Two-Way Analyses.

10. Making Two-Way Analyses.

11. Advanced Fits.

12. Three-Way Fits.

13. Looking in Two or More Batches of Points.

14. Counted Fractions.

15. Better Smoothing.

16. Counts in Bin after Bin.

17. Product Ratio Plots.

18. Shapes of Distribution.

19. Mathematical Distributions.

20. Postscript.