Exploring Criminal Justice in Canada by Rick RuddellExploring Criminal Justice in Canada by Rick Ruddell

Exploring Criminal Justice in Canada

byRick Ruddell

Paperback | October 25, 2016

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Engaging and accessible, this text introduces students to the realities of criminal justice in today's world. Drawing on case studies, media issues, and controversies, Exploring Criminal Justice in Canada critically examines the organization and function of the criminal justice system and theindividuals, social values, and legal systems that shape these institutions.
Dr. Rick Ruddell is the Law Foundation of Saskatchewan Chair in Police Studies and a professor in the Department of Justice Studies at the University of Regina. Prior to this appointment he served as Director of Operational Research with the Correctional Service of Canada, and held faculty positions at Eastern Kentucky University and t...
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Title:Exploring Criminal Justice in CanadaFormat:PaperbackDimensions:384 pages, 10 × 8 × 0.46 inPublished:October 25, 2016Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:019901423X

ISBN - 13:9780199014231

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Table of Contents

Note: Chapters include:- Learning outline- Case Study- Introduction- Summary- Review questions- Discussion questions- Websites1. Crime and JusticeCrime and LawCriminal Law and Civil LawThe Criminal Code of Canada- Federal, Provincial, and Municipal Legislation- Classifying CrimeThe Structure of the Criminal Justice System- Police- Courts- CorrectionsCommon Elements in the Criminal Justice System- Discretion- FilteringGoals of the Criminal Justice Systems- Preventing Crime- Protecting the Public- Supporting the Victims of Crime, Their Families, and Witnesses- Holding Offenders Responsible- Helping Offenders Return to the CommunityCrime Control and Due Process Models- Crime Control Model- Due Process ModelCase Cited2. Nature and Extent of Crime in CanadaFive Types of Crime- Crimes against the Person- Property Crimes- Crimes of the Powerful- Organized Crime and Gangs- Antisocial BehaviourMeasuring Crime- Crime Rates from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey- Canada's Crime Severity Index- Victimization Surveys- Limitations of Victimization Data- Limitations of Police-Reported Crime Statistics- Self-Reported CrimeRegulating Traffic: Should Bad Driving Be a Crime?Understanding Crime DistributionCases Cited3. Controlling CrimeCrime Control Philosophies- "Tough on Crime" Practices: Retribution, Deterrence, and Incapacitation- Reforming Offenders: Restitution, Rehabilitation, and Restorative Justice- Conflict PerspectivePublic Opinion, the Media, and PunishmentCriminal Justice and Indigenous People of CanadaCase Cited4. Criminal LawEvolution of Canadian Criminal LawCanada's Charter of Rights and FreedomsElements of a Crime- The Criminal Act (Actus Reus)- The Guilty Mind (Mens Rea)Defences- Justification Defences- Excuse DefencesCriminal Justice Wedding Cake ModelCases Cited5. Police Organization and StructureFour Eras of Canadian Policing- Pre-Modern Era (Prior to 1820)- Political Era (1820 to 1940)- Professional Era (1940 to 1980)- Community Policing Era (1980 to the Present)Police Structure in Canada- Police Consolidation- Policing: An Expensive Proposition- Police Strength- Rural PolicingRole of the Police in Canada- Crime Prevention- Law Enforcement- Assistance to Victims of Crime- Public Order Maintenance- Emergency ResponseCase Cited6. Police Activities, Operations, and ChallengesPolice AllocationPolice Chain of Command and Police Officer RanksOperational Activities- Patrol- Traffic- Criminal Investigation- Drug Suppression- Organized Crime and Gangs- Specialized Operations- Crime Prevention- Youth Services- Community PolicingPolicing Styles: Legalistic, Watchman, and ServicePolice Recruit TrainingCurrent Challenges in Policing: The Context for Policing- Police Use of Force- Police Oversight and Accountability- Police IndependenceContemporary Challenges in Police Operations- Measuring Police Performance- Increasing Complexity- Civilianization- Representative Workforce- The Expansion of Private Policing- Police Officer Subulture7. Criminal Courts and Court PersonnelCourt Organization- The Four Levels of Criminal Court- Other Canadian CourtsSteps in a Criminal Investigation and TrialAssembly-Line JusticeCourtroom Work Group- Judges- Crown Prosecutors- Defence Counsel- Support PersonnelThe Changing Role of Victims in Canadian CourtsSpecialized CourtsSummaryCases Cited8. SentencingSentencing Options- Probation- Conditional Sentences- Custodial Sentences- Other OptionsInterprovincial Sentencing DifferencesThe Principles of Sentencing- Proportionality- Aggravating and Mitigating Factors- TotalityGetting Tough on Offenders- Mandatory Minimum Sentences- Truth in Sentencing- Increasing the Severity of Life and Indeterminate SentencingIndividualized Justice: Pre-Sentence ReportsCases Cited9. Institutional CorrectionsA Short History of Institutional CorrectionsEarly Jails and Detention Facilities in CanadaProvincial and Territorial CorrectionsCharacteristics of Provincial Correctional Centre InmatesThe Establishment of Canadian PenitentiariesPrisoner CharacteristicsInstitutional Safety and Security through Facility DesignDirect SupervisionCorrectional Programming- Assessing Offender Risks and Needs- Delivering Evidence-Based Correctional TreatmentEnsuring Safe and Secure Facilities- Federal Prisons- Provincial and Territorial CorrectionsCorrectional Officers10. Community Corrections: Probation and ParoleA Short History of Community Corrections in Canada- Probation- Federal ParoleAn Overview of Canadian Probation- Probation: Moving Toward Specialization- Focusing on High-Risk Probationers- What Works in Reducing Probation Recidivism?- Officer Skills Matter in Reducing RecidivismAn Overview of Federal Parole- Community Supervision of Parolees- Parole SuccessGoals of ParoleBarriers to Community Re-entryCase Cited11. Looking Forward: Criminal Justice in the Twenty-First CenturyCanadian Justice System: Where Are We Today?- Positive Changes- Developing a More Effective Justice SystemExternal Forces Shaping Canadian Criminal Justice in the Twenty-First Century- Political Changes- Economic Factors- Social Changes- Technology- Environmental Factors- Legal ChangesCases CitedGlossaryReferencesIndex

Editorial Reviews

"A great overview of the criminal justice system that is easily accessible to students. It provides up-to-date information and examples. . . [and] the chapters are very clear and straightforward." --Lisa Monchalin, Kwantlen Polytechnic University