Eye Tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures

Paperback | April 22, 2015

byKenneth Holmqvist, Marcus Nystrom, Richard Andersson

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We make 3-5 eye movements per second, and these movements are crucial in helping us deal with the vast amounts of information we encounter in our everyday lives. In recent years, thanks to the development of eye tracking technology, there has been a growing interest in monitoring and measuringthese movements, with a view to understanding how we attend to and process the visual information we encounter. Eye tracking as a research tool is now more accessible than ever, and is growing in popularity among researchers from a whole host of different disciplines. Usability analysts, sports scientists, cognitive psychologists, reading researchers, psycholinguists, neurophysiologists, electrical engineers,and others, all have a vested interest in eye tracking for different reasons. The ability to record eye-movements has helped advance our science and led to technological innovations. However, the growth of eye tracking in recent years has also presented a variety of challenges - in particular theissue of how to design an eye-tracking experiment, and how to analyse the data. This book is a much needed comprehensive handbook of eye tracking methodology. It describes how to evaluate and acquire an eye-tracker, how to plan and design an eye tracking study, and how to record and analyse eye-movement data. Practicality lies at the heart of the book, providing in-depthguidance to key questions: how raw data samples are converted into fixations and saccades using event detection algorithms, how the different representations of eye movement data are calculated using AOIs, heat maps and scanpaths, and how all the measures of eye movements relate to these processes. Part I presents the technology and skills needed to perform high-quality research with eye-trackers. Part II examines the predominant methods applied to the data which eye-trackers record. These include the parsing of raw sample data into oculomotor events, and how to calculate other representations of eye movements such as heat maps and transition matrices. Part III gives a comprehensive outline of the measures which can be calculated using the events and representations described in Part II. This is a taxonomy of the measures available to eye-tracking researchers, sorted by type of movement of the eyes and type of analysis. For anyone in the sciences considering conducting research involving eye-tracking, this book is an essential reference work.

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We make 3-5 eye movements per second, and these movements are crucial in helping us deal with the vast amounts of information we encounter in our everyday lives. In recent years, thanks to the development of eye tracking technology, there has been a growing interest in monitoring and measuringthese movements, with a view to understandi...

Kenneth Holmqvist is an Associate Professor in Cognitive Science at Lund University, where he founded the eye-tracking laboratory in 1995, which later grew into the large Humanities Laboratory. He has worked in a large variety of eye-tracking-based research stretching from reading research and scene perception, over to newspaper readi...
Format:PaperbackDimensions:556 pagesPublished:April 22, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0198738595

ISBN - 13:9780198738596

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Table of Contents

1. IntroductionTechnical and Methodological Skills2. Eye-tracking hardware and its properties3. From vague idea to experimental design4. Data recordingDetecting Events and Building Representations5. Estimating oculomotor events from raw data samples6. Areas of interest7. Attention maps - scientific tools or fancy visualisations?8. Scan paths - theoretical principles and practical application9. Auxiliary data III: Events and representationsMeasures10. Movement measures11. Position measures12. Numerosity measures13. Latency and distance measures14. What are eye movement measures and how can they be harnessed?

Editorial Reviews

"This practical book discusses both theoretical concepts and experimental design, showing how data samples can be converted into meaningful representations (i.e. fixations and saccades) using various algorithms. This is a reference that should be in the library of researchers in this field." --Doody's Reviews September 2012