Fabrication Engineering at the Micro- and Nanoscale

Paperback | November 28, 2012

byStephen A. Campbell

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Designed for advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate courses in semiconductor or microelectronic fabrication, Fabrication Engineering at the Micro- and Nanoscale, Fourth Edition, covers the entire basic unit processes used to fabricate integrated circuits and other devices. With many worked examples and detailed illustrations, this engaging introduction provides the tools needed to understand the frontiers of fabrication processes.

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Designed for advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate courses in semiconductor or microelectronic fabrication, Fabrication Engineering at the Micro- and Nanoscale, Fourth Edition, covers the entire basic unit processes used to fabricate integrated circuits and other devices. With many worked examples and detailed illustrations, th...

Stephen A. Campbell is the Bordeau Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Minnesota and a fellow of IEEE.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:688 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.68 inPublished:November 28, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199861226

ISBN - 13:9780199861224

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Table of Contents

PrefacePart I Overview and Materials1. An Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication1.1 Microelectronic Technologies: A Simple Example1.2 Unit Processes and Technologies1.3 A Roadmap for the Course1.4 Summary2. Semiconductor Substrates2.1 Phase Diagrams and Solid Solubility2.2 Crystallography and Crystal Structure2.3 Crystal Defects2.4 Czochralski Growth2.5 Bridgman Growth of GaAs2.6 Float Zone Growth2.7 Wafer Preparation and Specifications2.8 Summary and Future TrendsProblemsReferencesPart II Unit Processes I: Hot Processing and Ion Implantation3. Diffusion3.1 Fick's Diffusion Equation in One Dimension3.2 Atomistic Models of Diffusion3.3 Analytic Solutions of Fick's Law3.4 Diffusion Coefficients for Common Dopants3.5 Analysis of Diffused Profiles3.6 Diffusion in SiO23.7 Simulations of Diffusion Profiles3.8 SummaryProblemsReferences4. Thermal Oxidation4.1 The Deal-Grove Model of Oxidation4.2 The Linear and Parabolic Rate Coefficients4.3 The Initial Oxidation Regime4.4 The Structure of SiO24.5 Oxide Characterization4.6 The Effects of Dopants During Oxidation and Polysilicon Oxidation4.7 Silicon Oxynitrides4.8 Alternative Gate Insulators+4.9 Oxidation Systems4.10 Numeric Oxidations+4.11 SummaryProblemsReferences5. Ion Implantation5.1 Idealized Ion Implantation Systems5.2 Coulomb Scattering5.3 Vertical Projected Range5.4 Channeling and Lateral Projected Range5.5 Implantation Damage5.6 Shallow Junction Formation+5.7 Buried Dielectrics+5.8 Ion Implantation Systems: Problems and Concerns5.9 Numerical Implanted Profiles5.10 SummaryProblemsReferences6. Rapid Thermal Processing6.1 Gray Body Radiation, Heat Exchange, and Optical Absorption6.2 High Intensity Optical Sources and Chamber Design6.3 Temperature Measurement6.4 Thermoplastic Stress6.5 Rapid Thermal Activation of Impurities6.6 Rapid Thermal Processing of Dielectrics6.7 Silicidation and Contact Formation6.8 Alternative Rapid Thermal Processing Systems6.9 SummaryProblemsReferencesPart III Unit Processes 2: Pattern Transfer7. Optical Lithography7.1 Lithography Overview7.2 Diffraction7.3 The Modulation Transfer Function and Optical Exposures7.4 Source Systems and Spatial Coherence7.5 Contact/Proximity Printers7.6 Projection Printers7.7 Advanced Mask Concepts+7.8 Surface Reflections and Standing Waves7.9 Alignment7.10 SummaryProblemsReferences8. Photoresists8.1 Photoresist Types8.2 Organic Materials and Polymers8.3 Typical Reactions of DQN Positive Photoresist8.4 Contrast Curves8.5 The Critical Modulation Transfer Function8.6 Applying and Developing Photoresist8.7 Second-Order Exposure Effects8.8 Advanced Photoresists and Photoresist Processes+8.9 SummaryProblemsReferences9. Nonoptical Lithographic Techniques+9.1 Interactions of High Energy Beams with Matter9.2 Direct-Write Electron Beam Lithography Systems9.3 Direct-Write Electron Beam Lithography: Summary and Outlook9.4 X-ray and EUV Sources9.5 Proximity X-ray Exposure Systems9.6 Membrane Masks for Proximity X-ray9.7 EUV Lithography9.8 Projection Electron Beam Lithography (SCALPEL)9.9 E-beam and X-ray Resists9.10 Radiation Damage in MOS Devices9.11 Soft Lithography and Nanoimprint Lithography9.12 SummaryProblemsReferences10. Vacuum Science and Plasmas10.1 The Kinetic Theory of Gases10.2 Gas Flow and Conductance10.3 Pressure Ranges and Vacuum Pumps10.4 Vacuum Seals and Pressure Measurement10.5 The DC Glow Discharge10.6 RF Discharges10.7 High Density Plasmas10.8 SummaryProblemsReferences11. Etchings11.1 Wet Etching11.2 Chemical Mechanical Polishing11.3 Basic Regimes of Plasma Etching11.4 High Pressure Plasma Etching11.5 Ion Milling11.6 Reactive Ion Etching11.7 Damage in Reactive Ion Etching+11.8 High Density Plasma (HDP) Etching11.9 Liftoff11.10 SummaryProblemsReferencesPart IV Unit Processes 3: Thin Films12. Physical Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering12.1 Phase Diagrams: Sublimation and Evaporation12.2 Deposition Rates12.3 Step Coverage12.4 Evaporator Systems: Crucible Heating Techniques12.5 Multicomponent Films12.6 An Introduction to Sputtering12.7 Physics of Sputtering12.8 Deposition Rate: Sputter Yield12.9 High Density Plasma Sputtering12.10 Morphology and Step Coverage12.11 Sputtering Methods12.12 Sputtering of Specific Materials12.13 Stress in Deposited Layers12.14 SummaryProblemsReferences13. Chemical Vapor Deposition13.1 A Simple CVD System for the Deposition of Silicon13.2 Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action13.3 Gas Flow and Boundary Layers13.4 Evaluation of the Simple CVD System13.5 Atmospheric CVD of Dielectrics13.6 Low Pressure CVD of Dielectrics and Semiconductors in Hot Wall Systems13.7 Plasma-enhanced CVD of Dielectrics13.8 Metal CVD+13.9 Atomic Layer Deposition13.10 Electroplating Copper13.11 SummaryProblemsReferences14. Epitaxial Growth14.1 Wafer Cleaning and Native Oxide Removal14.2 The Thermodynamics of Vapor Phase Growth14.3 Surface Reactions14.4 Dopant Incorporation14.5 Defects in Epitaxial Growth14.6 Selective Growth14.7 Halide Transport GaAs Vapor Phase Epitaxy14.8 Incommensurate and Strained Layer Heteroepitaxy14.9 Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)14.10 Advanced Silicon Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth Techniques14.11 Molecular Beam Epitaxy Technology14.12 BCF Theory+14.13 Gas Source MBE and Chemical Beam Epitaxy+14.14 SummaryProblemsReferencesPart V Process Integration15. Device Isolation, Contacts, and Metallization15.1 Junction and Oxide Isolation15.2 LOCOS Methods15.3 Trench Isolation15.4 Silicon-on-Insulator Isolation Techniques15.5 Semi-insulating Substrates15.6 Schottky Contacts15.7 Implanted Ohmic Contacts15.8 Alloyed Contacts15.9 Multilevel Metallization15.10 Planarization and Advanced Interconnect15.11 SummaryProblemsReferences16. CMOS Technologies16.1 Basic Long-Channel Device Behavior16.2 Early MOS Technologies16.3 The Basic 3-m Technology16.4 Device Scaling16.5 Hot Carrier Effects and Drain Engineering16.6 Latchup16.7 Shallow Source/Drains and Tailored Channel Doping16.8 The Universal Curve and Advanced CMOS16.9 A Nanoscale CMOS Process16.10 Nonplanar CMOS16.11 SummaryProblemsReferences17. Other Transistor Technologies17.1 Basic MESFET Operation17.2 Basic MESFET Technology17.3 Digital Technologies17.4 MMIC Technologies17.5 MODFETs17.6 Review of Bipolar Devices: Ideal and Quasi-ideal Behavior17.7 Performance of BJTs17.8 Early Bipolar Processes17.9 Advanced Bipolar Processes17.10 BiCMOS17.11 Thin Film Transistors17.12 SummaryProblemsReferences18. Optoelectronic and Solar Technologies18.1 Optoelectronic Devices Overview18.2 Direct-Gap Inorganic LEDs18.3 Polymer/Organic Light-Emitting Diodes18.4 Lasers18.5 Photovoltaic Devices Overview18.6 Silicon Based Photovoltaic Device Fabrication18.7 Other Photovoltaic Technologies18.8 SummaryReferences19. MEMS19.1 Fundamentals of Mechanics19.2 Stress in Thin Films19.3 Mechanical-to-Electrical Transduction19.4 Mechanics of Common MEMS Devices19.5 Bulk Micromachining Etching Techniques19.6 Bulk Micromachining Process Flow19.7 Surface Micromachining Basics19.8 Surface Micromachining Process Flow19.9 MEMS Actuators19.10 High Aspect Ratio Microsystems Technology (HARMST)19.11 Microfluidics19.12 SummaryProblemsReferences20. Integrated Circuit Manufacturing20.1 Yield Prediction and Yield Tracking20.2 Particle Control20.3 Statistical Process Control20.4 Full Factorial Experiments and ANOVA20.5 Design of Experiments20.6 Computer-integrated Manufacturing20.7 SummaryProblemsReferencesAppendix I. Acronyms and Common SymbolsAppendix II. Properties of Selected Semiconductor MaterialsAppendix III. Physical ConstantsAppendix IV. Conversion FactorsAppendix V. Some Properties of the Error FunctionAppendix VI. F ValuesIndex