Paperback | June 1, 1995

EditorRoger Griffin

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Fascism as a political ideology is a product of the modern age. It is an ideology which has been identified with totalitarianism, state terror, social engineering, fanaticism, orchestrated violence, and blind obedience. Yet once again fascism is in the ascendant, suggesting that it is timefor us to renew our understanding of its ideas, ideals, and inhumanities. What is fascism? Why does it still hold such strong appeal? Why does it create charismatic and dangerous movements? To what may these lead? This Reader offers a wide selection of texts written by fascist thinkers and propagandists both inside and outside Europe, before and after the Second World War. There are extracts on fascism in Italy and Germany, on the abortive pre-1945 fascisms, on reactions to fascism, and on post-war andcontemporary fascism. With contributions from writers as diverse as Benito Mussolini and Primo Levi, Joseph Goebbels and George Orwell, this Reader provides a fascinating insight into the depths and breadths of fascism, prompting the student and general reader alike to give greater consideration tothis expanding political force.

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Fascism as a political ideology is a product of the modern age. It is an ideology which has been identified with totalitarianism, state terror, social engineering, fanaticism, orchestrated violence, and blind obedience. Yet once again fascism is in the ascendant, suggesting that it is timefor us to renew our understanding of its ideas...

The author of several studies of fascism, Roger Griffin is Principal Lecturer in the Department of History at Oxford Brookes University.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:432 pages, 9.21 × 6.14 × 0.91 inPublished:June 1, 1995Publisher:Oxford University Press

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0192892495

ISBN - 13:9780192892492


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Table of Contents

Part I: Fascism in ItalyA. Fascism as an Opposition MovementIntroductioni. Pre-1918 Tributaries of Fascism1. Giovanni Papini: The War as a Source of National Renewal2. Revolutionary Syndicalism: The War as a Proletarian Cause3. Filippo T. Marinetti: The War as the Catharsis of Italian Society4. Benito Mussolini: The War as a Revolutionary Event5. Benito Mussolini: `Trenchocracy'6. Political Futurism: The Futurist Vision of the New Italy7. Alfredo Rocco: From the Old Italy to the New8. Roberto Farinacci: The War as the Midwife of a New Italian Peopleii. Fascism in Opposition (23 March 1918-27 October 1922)9. Benito Mussolini: San Sepulcro Fascism10. Gabriele D'Annunzio and Alceste de Ambris: The Regency of Fiume as the Harbinger of the New Italy11. The Italian Nationalist Association: The Nationalist Blueprint for a New Italy12. The Squadristi as the Revolutionaries of the New Italy13. Mario Piazzesi: Fascism as the Victory of the New Italy14. Benito Mussolini: The Incorporation of the Peasantry into the Italian Nation15. Benito Mussolini: Fascism's Myth: The Nationiii. The Coalition Government (30 October 1922-3 January 1925)16. Filippo T. Marinetti: A Futurist Portrait of the New Prime Minister of Italy17. Sergio Panunzio: The New State Born of Syndicalism and Statism18. Curzio Malaparte: Fascism's European Mission19. Benito Mussolini: The End of the Liberal RegimeB. Fascism in Power January 1925-April 1945Introductioni. The Formative Years of the `Totalitarian' Regime January 1925-February 192920. Giovanni Gentile: Fascism as a Total Conception of Life21. Italian Fasci Abroad: Fascist Mysticism22. Benito Mussolini: Fascism as the Creator of the Third Italian Civilization23. Augusto Turati: The Leader as the Voice of the Reborn Race24. Benito Mussolini: The Strength in Numbers25. Mino Maccari: The Anti-Modernist Aesthetic of Strapaese26. Marco Bontempelli: The Modernist Aesthetic of Novecento27. Giuseppe Bottai: The University as the Incubator of a Fascist Elite28. Benito Mussolini: The Achievements of the Fascist Revolutionii. The Period of Consolidation 1930-193429. Asvero Gravelli: Towards a Fascist Europe30. Giovanni Giurati: The Role of Youth Under Fascism31. Ugo Spirito: Fascist Corporativism as the Key to a New International Order32. Giuseppe Bottai: Mussolini's Century33. Achille Starace: Going to the People34. Benito Mussolini: The Birth of a New Civilizationiii. Imperialist Expansion and Alignment with Nazism 1935-193935. Benito Mussolini: The Vital Need for Empire36. Two Marching Songs of Fascist Soldiers Abroad: (a) From the Abyssinian Campaign; (b) From the Spanish Campaign37. Edmondo Rossoni: The Autarkic Mentality and the New Fascist Order38. Benito Mussolini: Blood-Brothers: Fascism and Nazism39. Gioacchino Volpe: The Introduction of Fascist Racial Policyiv. Fascism at War 1940-194340. Benito Mussolini: People of Italy! Run to your Arms!41. Alfredo Cioffi: Safeguarding Europe's Birthright against the Jewish Conspiracy42. Carlo Costamagna: The New Europe which will Arise from the Axis Victoryv. The Italian Socialist Republic 1943-194543. The Fascist Republican Party: Fascism Reborn44. Benito Mussolini: The Greatest Massacre of All Time: Democracy45. Benito Mussolini: What Might have Been: Axis EuropePart II: Fascism in GermanyA. German Fascism before the Nazi Seizure of PowerIntroductioni. Pre-1914 Precursors of German Fascism46. Richard Wagner: The Redemptive Mission of German Culture47. Paul de Lagarde: The Need to Transcend Liberalism48. Julius Langbehn: The Rebirth of German Genius49. Stefan George: Planting the New Reich50. Theodor Fritsch: The Need for the Nation to be Healedii. Non-Nazi German Fascisms51. Otto Dickel: The Resurgence of the West52. Arthur Moeller Van Den Bruck: The Eternal German Reich53. Edgar Jung: The Organic German Nation54. Ernst Junger: The Great War: Father of a New Age55. Ernst Von Salomon: The Germany of the Freikorps56. Ernst Junger: The Emergence of a New Type of Human Being57. Oswald Spengler: The Prussian Spirit: Salvation of the White Race58. Otta Strasser: The German Knight as the Key to Europe's Recoveryiii. Nazism before 193359. Adolf Hitler: The Mission of the Nazi Movement60. Franz Pfeffer von Salomon: Barren Trees61. Joseph Goebbels: `Christ-Socialism'62. Gottfried Feder: Let there be Light63. Gregor Strasser: Motherhood and Warriorhood as the Key to a National Socialism64. Hans F.K. Gunther: Nordic Thinking and the German Rebirth65. R. Walther Darre: Breeding a New Nobility66. E. Gunther Grundel: The New Human SynthesisB. German Fascism in Power 1933-1935Introductioni. The Establishment of the Third Reich 1933-193567. Alfred Rosenberg: German Rebirth68. Hermann Goering: The Third Reich as Saviour of the West69. Joseph Goebbels: The Total Revolution of National Socialism70. Gottfried Benn: The New Breed of German71. Paula Siber: The New German Woman72. Carl Schmitt: The Legal Basis of the Total State73. Adolf Hitler: The Place of Art in Germany's Political Reawakening74. Werner Daitz: Soldierly Economics75. Robert Ley: The Joy of the National Socialist Economy76. Paul Ritter: The Expansionary Spirit of a Rejuvenated People77. Hammer Press: Nazism's World Crusade against the Jews78. Heinrich Himmler: The Divine Mission of the SS79. Willi F. Konitzer: The Role of Youth in Perpetuating the Third Reich80. Helmuth Langenbucher: The Successful Cleansing of German Culture81. Martin Heidegger: National Socialism as the Custodian of European Being82. Christoph Steding: The Third Reich as the Cure for the European Sicknessiii. The Third Reich at War 1939-194583. Paul Herre: The New European Order84. Hans S.V. Heister: A National Socialist Common Market85. Walter Gross: Improving the Stock86. Joseph Goebbels: The True Meaning of the War87. Robert Ley: The Ultimate Turning-Point: Total War88. Heinrich Himmler: Moral Dilemmas89. Schwarzes Korps: Heimat90. Adolf Hitler: The Rebirth of National SocialismPart III: Abortive Fascisms 1922-1945A. European Fascismsi. Britain91. Oswald Mosley: Christ, Nietzsche, and Caesar92. Oswald Mosley: Towards a Fascist Europe93. Alexander Raven Thomson: A Corporate Britain94. E.D. Randell: Britain Awake!95. Arthur Kenneth Chesterton: A Spiritual Typhus96. William Joyce: Hitler Shows the Wayii. Ireland97. Eoin O'Duffy: the New Corporate Irelandiii. Spain98. Ramiro Ledesma Ramos: The Voice of Spain99. Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera: Total Feeling100. Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera: Bread and Justice101. Antonio Vallejo-Nagera: A New Breed of Spaniardsiv. Portugal102. Rolao Preto: The Wind of Change103. Rolao Preto: Ersatz Fascismv. France104. George Valois: Empty Portfolios105. Jacques Doriot: Saving France106. Marcel Deat: The European Revolution and the New State107. Pierre Drieu la Rochelle: The Rebirth of European Manvi. Belgium108. Leon Degrelle: The Revolution of Souls109. Jose Streel: Fascism's Centuryvii. Norway110. Vidkun Quisling: The Nordic Revival111. Vidkun Quisling: A Greater Norwayviii. Finland112. Lapua: The Battle for the New Finland113. Elias Simojoki: The Revolution of the Finnish Heartix. Estonia114. EVL: A New Estoniax. Latvia115. Gustavs Celmin: A Latvian Latviaxi. Romania116. Ion Mota: The Romanian Legionary's Mission in Spain117. Corneliu Codreanu: The Resurrection of the Racexii. Hungary118. Ferenc Szalasi: HungarismB. Non-European Fascismsi. South Africa119. Ossewabrandwag: The Reawakening of the Boerevolkii. Chile120. Carlos Keller: Chilean Action and National Regeneration121. Jorge Gonzalez: The Soul of the Raceiii. Brazil122. Plinio Salgado: A Fourth Era of Humanity Dawns123. Plinio Salgado: The Soul of the Nation Awakensiv. Japan124. Nakano Seigo: The Need for a Totalitarian Japan125. Nakano Seigo: Write Your Own Mein KampfPart IV: Theories of FascismA. Reactions to Fascism 1920-1945Introductioni. Ambivalent or Positive Reactions to the Spread of Fascism126. Vilfredo Pareto: Black Sheep127. Kenneth Roberts: A Plague of Amateur Mussolinis128. Robert Michels: A Sunny Disposition129. Johan W. Mannhardt: The Italian Volksstaat130. Erwin von Beckerath: The Italian Experiment131. James Strachey Barnes: To Each Country its Own Fascism132. Giuseppe Borgese: The Makers of Europe133. Sir Charles Petrie: A Sense of Humour134. H.G. Wells: A Bad Good Thingii. Interpretation of Fascism by Marxists135. Three Comintern Responses to Fascism: (a) Opening the Door to Fascism; (b) White Terror; (c) Fruit of the Womb136. Palmiro Togliatti: Erroneous Definitions137. R. Palme Dutt: The Purging Fires of Fascism138. E.J. Strachey: The Return of the Dark Agesiii. Democratic Critiques of Fascism139. G.D.H. and M.I. Cole: Tribal Loyalties140. R.A. Brady: Dragon's Teeth141. Karl Polanyi: The Hopeless Talk142. George Orwell: Rabbits Ruled by Stoats143. Peter Drucker: Black Magic144. Max Horkheimer: The Iron Heeliv. Four Wartime Analyses of Fascism145. Wilhelm Reich: Forcing Elephants into Foxholes146. Erich Fromm: The Fear of Freedom147. Harold Laski: Market Forces148. Talcott Parsons: Rationalism DebunkedB. Post-War Judgements on FascismIntroductioni. Some Approaches to Fascism149. Bernt Hagtvet and Stein Larsen: Paradigms of Fascisma. Marxist Approaches150. A Soviet Political Dictionary: The View from Moscow151. Joachim Petzold: The View from East Germany152. Martin Kitchen: The View of a Western Marxistb. Fascism as the Product of Structural Forces153. Seymour M. Lipset: Extremism of the Centre154. Bernt Hagtvet and Stein Rokkan: Defective Nation-Building155. Geoffrey Eley: Redemptive Potentialc. Psycho-Historical Approaches156. The Frankfurt School: Fear and Destructiveness157. Gerald M. Platt: Making Sense158. Klaus Theweleit: Raising the Deadd. Modernization Theories159. Barrington Moore: Blood and Death160. Henry A. Turner Jr.: Utopian Anti-Modernism161. Emilio Gentile: Fascist Modernityii. Some Individual Theories of the Fascist Minimum162. Ernst Nolte: Resisting Transcendence163. A. James Gregor: The Total Charismatic Community164. Juan B. Linz: The Latecomer165. Renzo de Felice: Verbal Revolutionarism166. Gilbert Allardyce: A Mulish Concept167. George L. Mosse: A Third Way168. Stanley Payne: A New Nationalist Authoritarian State169. Zeev Sternhell: A New Civilization170. Roger Eatwell: The New SynthesisPart V: Post-War Fascismsi. Verdicts on the `Fascist Era' from Veteran Fascists171. Julius Evola: Fascism: Myth and Reality172. Ernst Niekisch: The Third Reich: The Triumph of the Demagogues173. Maurice Bardeche: Lenin was Right174. Leon Degrelle: The Ideals of the Fascist Era175. Arthur Kenneth Chesterton: The Lunacy of Fascism and Nazism176. Oswald Mosley: Hubris and Miscalculationii. Discourses of Post-War Fascisma. Universal Nazism177. Colin Jordan: The Revival of National Socialism178. The West European Foundation: A Racist Catechism179. Guy Amaudruz: How to Save Europeb. Holocaust Denial180. Leon Degrelle: The Miracle of the Telephone Box181. Thies Christophersen: A Monumental Lie182. John Day: An Ever-Flowing Riverc. Historical Revisionism183. David Irving: The Bicycle Thief184. David Irving: Laying it on the Line185. Ernst Nolte: From Class War to Race War186. Gerhard Frey: Truth and Fictiond. Eurofascism187. The Malmo Manifesto: The European Revolution188. Julius Evola: The True Europe's Revolt against the Modern World189. Oswald Mosley: Europe a Natione. The New Right190. Alain de Benoist: Regenerating History191. The Metapolitical Rebirth of Europe192. Michael Walker: A Breath of Fresh Airf. The Conservative Revolution193. Armin Mohler: German Nihilism194. Louis Dupeux: The Will to Modernity of the Conservative Revolution195. Robert Steukers: Heroic Realismg. Third Position196. Adolfo Morganti: The European Genius and the Rediscovery of the Sacred197. Derek Holland: The Political Soldier and the National Revolution198. Groupe Union Defense: A Community of Destinyvii. Contemporary Expressions of Fascisma. Ideological Fascism199. Skrewdriver: Songs for Europe200. Hartwig Huber: The Immortal Principle201. Padraig Cullen: The Greening of Nazism202. John Tyndall: Spiritual AIDSb. Militant Fascism203. L'oevre francaise: Blood, Soil, and Faith204. William Pierce: The Cleansing Hurricane205. Pamyat: Patriots of the World Unite!206. Afrikaner-Weerstandsbeweging: God's Own207. Noua Dreapta: The Romanian Ethnocratic Statec. Electoral Fascism208. Frente Nacional: Living Stones of the New Spain209. Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands: The European Home210. British National Party: Saving the Nation211. Movimento Sociale Italiano: For a New Italy212. Russia's Liberal Democratic Party: King Kong Meets his MatchEpilogue213. Primo Levi: The Deadly Trunk of Fascism

Editorial Reviews

`"The text included provide a good historical and theorectical outline of the movement and give some idea of the origin and affliation of propoganda in the media".'Victor Horboken, Lecturere in Cultural/Media Studies, Staffordshire University